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Pacific School Of Engineering

SUBJECT:- Internal Combustion Engine


TOPIC:- Governing System Of I.C. Engine

PREPARED BY:-
1.Devdhara Mihir N. 151123119008
2.Patel Manan R. 151123119028
3.Surati Tejas G. 151123119037

GUIDED BY:-
Mr. Bhavesh Patel
Assistant Professor Department In Mechanical Engineering
Need of governing
When an engine is running at idle without governing it would
increase speed continuously until it broke something such as
its fly-wheels flying apart.

If load on an I.C. engine is decreased without changing the


quantity of fuel, the engine will run at a higher speed.

Similarly, if load on the engine is increased without changing


the quantity of fuel the engine will run at a lower speed.
Methods of governing
1. Hit and miss governing

2. Qualitative governing

3. Quantitative governing
Hit and miss governing
The older of the two types is the Hit and Miss gas engine. It
is also less regulated than the throttle type. There are two
different states the engine can be in, "Hit" or "Miss".
First we will look at the "Hit" state.
This is really the same as the throttled engine except each
time the engine intakes the gas it takes a full charge.
There is no butterfly in a hit and miss mixer. So the engine
wants to go faster and faster. We will discuss how to "slow"
the engine down or regulate it in the "Miss" section coming
up.
Here are the Four cycles (4 strokes) of the "Hit" state.

This is the intake cycle where the piston is moving to the
right or away from the head.

As it does, it creates a vacuum in the cylinder and that pulls


the air and fuel into the cylinder.

The intake valve is not shown here, and is just on a spring to


keep it in the closed position.

As the vacuum increases it pulls the intake valve open and


the air/fuel mix enters.
As the governor runs too fast it pushes the governor rod into the
exhaust push rod and traps it.

This allows the exhaust valve to stay open all the time.

No vacuum is made by the piston so no fuel can enter into the


cylinder. Also the contact going to the "buzz" coil will not close,
so the spark plug never fires.

The engine just "free wheels" or coasts.

Finally is slows too much and the governor removes it's rod and
the entire engine returns to the "Hit" state.
Qualitative Governing

In this system of governing, a control valve is fitted in the


fuel
delivery pipe, which controls the quantity of fuel to be mixed
in the charge.

The movement of control valve is regulated by the


centrifugal governor through rack and pinion arrangement.
It may be noted that in this system, the amount of air used in
each cycle remains the same. But with the change in the
quantity of fuel the quality of charge.

(i.e. air-fuel ratio of mixture) changes.

Whenever the engine starts running at higher speed (due to


decreased load), the quantity of fuel is reduced till the
engine speed reaches its normal value.

Similarly, whenever the engine starts running at lower speed


(due to increased load), the quantity of fuel is increased. In
automobile engines, the rack and pinion arrangement is
connected with the accelerator.
Quantitative governing

In this system of governing, the quality of charge


(i.e.
air-fuel ratio of the mixture) is kept constant.
But quantity of mixture supplied to the engine cylinder is
varied by means of a throttle valve which is regulated by the
centrifugal governor through rack and pinion arrangement.
Whenever the engine starts running a thigher speed (cue to
decreased load), the quantity of charge is reduced till the
engines peed reaches its normal value.
Similarly, whenever the engine starts running at lower speed
(due to increased load), the quantity of charge is increased.
This method is used for governing large engines.
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