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INTRODUCTION TO LTE TRAINING

Agenda

Technology review
PART 1

Introduction to Next Generation Networks


3GPP LTE/SAE and beyond
LTE Fundamentals
Basic technologies (OFDM, MIMO, FFT/DFT)
PART 2

LTE physical layer overview


LTE air interface
Protocols and procedures
PART 3

LTE layer 2
LTE layer 3
Testing aspects
P4
TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
Introduction to
Next Generation Networks

Introduction to NGN
Fixed-mobile convergence and NGN
Evolution of fixed and mobile networks towards NGN
How to progress globally?

A global solution is needed to achieve convergence at all levels

ITU-T defined the concept of a Next Generation Network:

A Next Generation Network (NGN) is a packet-based network


able to provide services including Telecommunication Services and
able to make use of multiple broadband, QoS-enabled transport
technologies and in which service-related functions are independent
from underlying transport-related technologies. It offers unrestricted
access by users to different service providers. It supports generalized
mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of
services to users.
Essence of Next Generation Networks

Primary goal: enable full convergence at all levels

One network transports all information and services (voice, data, and all sorts of
media such as video) by encapsulating these into packets

Seamless Mobility Support, across all access networks.

Similar look and feel for the user, regardless of underlying access technology.

High throughput, low latency support for a wide range of applications and
services

Always-on terminal capability


Required architectural changes

In the core network: consolidation of several (dedicated or overlay) transport


networks, each historically built for a different service, into one core transport
network.
Migration of voice from a circuit switched architecture to VoIP,
Migration of legacy services such as X.25, Frame Relay, ATM
either commercial migration of the customer to a new service like IP VPN,
or technical emigration by emulation of the "legacy service" on the NGN).
In the wired access network: migration from the "dual" legacy voice next to xDSL
setup in the local exchanges to a converged setup in which the DSLAMs integrate
voice ports or VoIP, allowing to remove the voice switching infrastructure from the
exchange.
In cable access network: migration of constant bit rate voice to CableLabs
PacketCable standards that provide VoIP and SIP services. Both services ride over
DOCSIS as the cable data layer standard.
In the wireless access network: support for different wireless access technologies
and the ability of wireless terminals to seamlessly switch between different RATs and
possibly between wireless and wired networks.
Roadmap towards NGN
NGN concept now refers to developing Network Convergence including Mobile and fixed
technologies over an IP common platform.
Past Current Near Future Future
Mobile
2008-2012 2012-2015
2G &
3.5G & LTE
FMC
Mail-web
Multi-media IMS
TV
NGN
TV & Service integrated
DVBx
satellite network
Data IPTV Triple &
ISP ADSL & quad
best FTTx & play
guarante All-IP network
effort
e

PSTN/ISD FMC:FixedMobileConvergence
Fixed N CBC:CommunicationBroadcastConvergence
PSTN/ISD simulation PSTN/ISD
N N
emulation
CBC

Rel. 8 Rel. 9 Rel. 10


(LTE & SAE) (LTE & SAE) (LTE Advanced)
Radio Access Technology Roadmap

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

3GPP

Long Term Evolution


LTE
LTE LTE
LTE Advanced
Advanced
DL:
DL: 100
100 Mbps+
Mbps+ DL:
DL: 11 Gbps
Gbps
UL:
UL: 50
50 Mbps+
Mbps+ UL:
UL: 0.5
0.5 Gbps
Gbps

UMTS/HSPA Radio Access Network Evolution


HSDPA
HSDPA HSDPA/HSUPA
HSDPA/HSUPA HSPA
HSPA Evolution
Evolution HSPA
HSPA Evolution
Evolution
DL:
DL: 14
14 Mbps
Mbps DL:
DL: 14
14 Mbps
Mbps DL:
DL: 42
42 Mbps
Mbps DL:
DL: 84
84 Mbps
Mbps
UL:
UL: 384 kbps
384 kbps UL:
UL: 5.7 Mbps
5.7 Mbps UL:
UL: 22
22 Mbps
Mbps UL:
UL: 44
44 Mbps
Mbps

EDGE Radio Access Network Evolution


EDGE
EDGE EDGE
EDGE Evolved
Evolved
DL:
DL: 474
474 kbps
kbps DL:
DL: 1.9
1.9 Mbps
Mbps
UL:
UL: 474
474 kbps
kbps UL:
UL: 947
947 kbps
kbps

3GPP2 CDMA2000/EV-DO Network Evolution


EV-DO
EV-DO Rev.
Rev. 00 EV-DO
EV-DO Rev.
Rev. A
A EV-DO
EV-DO Rev.
Rev. B
B UMB
UMB 2x2
2x2 MIMO
MIMO UMB
UMB 4x4
4x4 MIMO
MIMO
DL:
DL: 2.4
2.4 Mbps
Mbps DL:
DL: 3.1
3.1 Mbps
Mbps DL:
DL: 14.7
14.7 Mbps
Mbps DL:
DL: 140
140 Mbps
Mbps DL:
DL: 280
280 Mbps
Mbps
UL:
UL: 153
153 kbps
kbps UL:
UL: 1.8
1.8 Mbps
Mbps UL:
UL: 4.9
4.9 Mbps
Mbps UL:
UL: 34
34 Mbps
Mbps UL:
UL: 68
68 Mbps
Mbps

IEEE Mobile WiMAX Network Evolution


Mobile
Mobile WiMAX
WiMAX Wave1
Wave1 Mobile
Mobile WiMAX
WiMAX Wave2
Wave2
Fixed WiMAX
DL:
DL: 23
23 Mbps
Mbps DL:
DL: 46
46 Mbps
Mbps IEEE
IEEE 802.16m
802.16m
802.16d
UL:
UL: 44 Mbps
Mbps UL:
UL: 44 Mbps
Mbps
3GPP LTE/SAE and beyond:
evolution towards NGN

What is LTE / SAE?


LTE requirements
E-UTRAN architecture
Beyond LTE: LTE Advanced
What is 3GPP LTE / SAE?

Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a description of the work of RAN WG,


with the objective to create a new evolved RAN (E-UTRAN). It
strives to create a technology which is to compliment and eventually
replace UTRAN and compete with other emerging broadband
wireless solutions such as WiMAX.

System Architecture Evolution (SAE) is a work item for SA2 WG


(also impacting other WGs). Its objective is "to develop a framework
for an evolution or migration of the 3GPP system to a higher-data-
rate, lower-latency, packet-optimized system that supports, multiple
RATs. The work focuses on creating an Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
including interfaces to selected external network entities.

Work on LTE/SAE started in 2004.


LTE and SAE in the NGN

3GPP SAE architecture has been designed as a part of NGN


solution.
Support IMS common service platform
Flat IP architecture
Support of multiple air interfaces onto common service and
transport layers.

3GPP LTE is a new air interface designed and optimised to


support SAE, and to integrate easily into NGN systems.
LTE Requirements

Peak data rates: 100 Mbps DL and 50 Mbps UL in a 20 MHz spectrum allocation.
300 Mbps DL and 75 Mbps UL with 4x4 DL MIMO requirement for UE Class 5, not
supported in Release 8
Control-plane latency: 100 ms from camped to active state
Control-plane capacity: at least 200 active users per cell (for up to 5 MHz
allocations)
User-plane latency: less than 5 ms
User throughput and spectrum efficiency: (bit/sec/Hz) 3-4 x HSDPA, 2-3 x HSUPA
Mobility: optimized for 0-15 km/h, support for up to 500 km./h
Coverage: optimized for up to 5 km cells, support for cells up to 100 km
Further Enhanced Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (eMBMS)
Spectrum flexibility: different allocations ranging from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz
Co-existence and Inter-working with other 3GPP Radio Access Technology (RAT)
and selected non-3GPP RATs (e.g. IEEE 802.16, 802.11)
Architecture and migration: single, simple E-UTRAN architecture, packet based,
support for E2E QoS; minimal single points of failure.
Radio Resource Management: enhanced E2E QoS, load sharing/balancing, inter-
RAT policy management
Complexity : minimum number of options, no redundant features
Overall Architecture: LTE / SAE Split

Mobility Management Entity (MME)/


Serving Gateway (S-GW)

Part of Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


(Scope of SAE)

S1 S1

S1 S1
X2

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)


(Scope of LTE)
X2 X2

Evolved Node B (eNodeB)


LTE Radio Access Network Logical Elements
Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
Mobility Management
Entity (MME) P-GW
Serving Gateway (S-GW)
The Packet Data Network
Gateway (P-GW)
MME/S-GW MME/S-GW MME/S-GW MME/S-GW

S2b S2b

S1 S1 S1 S1

S1 S1 S1 S1
X2 X2

eNB eNB eNB eNB

E-UTRAN
eNodeB (eNB) X2 X2 X2 X2

eNB eNB
LTE Radio Access Network Physical Elements
E-UTRAN Architecture
Evolved NodeB (eNB) now has most of the Node B and RNC functionality in
a single entity.
MME & SGW have most of the SGSN functionality
P-GW has most of the SGSN functionality

eNB
User Plane Protocol
Inter Cell RRM
Control Plane Protocol
RB Control

Connection Mobility Cntrl.


Interface
Air MME
Radio Admission Cntrl.
NAS Security
eNB Measurement
Config. and Provision Idle State Mobility
UE Handling
Dynamic Resource
NAS Allocation (Scheduler) EPS Bearer Control
RRC RRC

PDCP PDCP S-GW P-GW


RLC RLC Mobility UE IP address
Anchoring allocation
MAC MAC
S1 Packet Filtering
PHY PHY

E-UTRAN Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


3GPP UMTS/LTE Technology Summary
HSPA
Technology W-CDMA HSPA Evolution LTE
(HSDPA/HSUPA)

DL Rate (max) 2 Mbps 14 Mbps 84 Mbps** 100 Mbps+

UL Rate (max) 384 kbps 5.7 Mbps 44 Mbps** 50 Mbps+

1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15,


Channel BW 5MHz 5MHz 5MHz**
20MHz

QPSK / 16QAM /
QPSK / 16QAM /
64QAM
DL Modulation QPSK QPSK/16QAM 64QAM
With or without
MIMO (up to 4x4)
MIMO (up to 2x2)

QPSK / 16QAM /
/2 Hybrid BPSK /2 Hybrid BPSK
UL Modulation /2 Hybrid BPSK 64QAM
QPSK QPSK / 16QAM
MIMO

OFDMA DL
Access Method CDMA CDMA CDMA
SC-FDMA UL

3GPP Release Rel 99/ 4 Rel 5 / 6 Rel 7 / 8 Rel 8


** Provisional Study Items are being considered for Dual Carrier HSPA which would provide stated bit rates
above
HSPA Evolution is also referred to as HSPA+ or eHSPA
Beyond LTE: LTE Advanced (LTE-A)

The next step beyond LTE is LTE-Advanced

Next technology wave: true 4G, conforms with ITUs


IMT-Advanced requirements
Will be part of IMT-Advanced standard family
Requirements defined by ITU-R Working Party 5D
Successor of the IMT-2000 family

Competition for IEEE 802.16m (WiMax 2.0)


LTE FUNDAMENTALS
LTE Fundamentals
Diversity schemes
MIMO
Precoding, cyclic delay diversity
Diversity schemes

A diversity scheme refers to a method for improving the reliability of


a message signal by utilizing two or more communication channels
with different characteristics, using MIMO (see next slide)
The following classes of diversity schemes can be identified:
Time diversity: Multiple versions of the same signal are transmitted at
different time instants.
Frequency diversity: The signal is transferred using several frequency
channels or spread over a wide spectrum that is affected by frequency-
selective fading.
Space diversity: The signal is transferred over several different
propagation paths.
Polarisation diversity: Multiple versions of a signal are transmitted and
received via antennas with different polarization (phase shift)
Multiuser diversity: Multiuser diversity is obtained by opportunistic user
scheduling
Cooperative diversity: Achieves antenna diversity gain by utilizing the
cooperation of distributed antennas belonging to each node.
MIMO principles

Multiple input and multiple-output (MIMO) refers to the use of multiple


antennas both at the transmitter and receiver in order to use more than
one communication channel simultaneously.

Multiple data streams are transmitted at the same time, using the same
frequency. They are spatially separated and may use different coding.
Improves the performance of radio communication systems.
Provides additional diversity against fading on the radio channel

Several Spatial Streams

R bps
Serial
Serial Parallel
Parallel
Data 2 R bps
to
to to
to
Parallel
Parallel R bps Serial
Serial
MIMO categories

MIMO can be sub-divided into three main categories

Transmit Diversity (TD)


Improves signal robustness, resistance to multi-path interference
and may benefit from multi-path propagation

Spatial multiplexing (SM)


Increases data rate.

Beamforming shaping the beam for a particular user


Precoding is a particular case of simple beamforming
MIMO: Transmit Diversity

Space-Time
Space-Time MIMO
MIMO Space-Time
Space-Time
Coding
Coding Channel
Channel Decoding
Decoding

The additional MIMO capacity can be used to introduce additional


redundancy source information.
Each data symbol is sent to the 2 or more transmit antennas (interleaved
over time & encoded)
Makes the link more robust since fading is different over the 2 propagation
paths, but does not increase data rate

This can be performed using STC (space-time) coding, where the


redundancy is distributed over
Space (i.e. the multiple transmitters/receives)
Time (i.e. several symbols)
Space-Time Block Coding

Conceived by Alamouti. Better known and most used of the two types of
space-time codes.

Data rate remains the same, but BER is lower.

The same symbol is transmitted on all antennas, but they are


transformed and retransmitted. A combiner receives all combined
symbols and determines the transmitted symbol.

Rx 1 Noise

Rx 1 Noise
Tx 1 Channel
+ Estimator
Tx 1
Channel
+ Estimator Maximum
Maximum
Combiner Likelihood
Likelihood
Detector Detector

Tx 2 Combiner Tx 2 Rx 2
Channel
+ Estimator

Noise
MIMO: spatial multiplexing

S/P Pre- MIMO Equalization P/S


distortion Channel

Enables transmission of independent sub-channels through space.


Different data streams are sent over the same radio resource
Rx recognises the different data streams by their pilot sequence
Data throughput can be increases almost linearly with min(number Tx,
number Rx).
Can use pre-distortion and equalisation
The predistortion circuit inversely models the output amplifier's gain and
phase characteristics and, when combined with the amplifier, produces an
overall system that is more linear and reduces the amplifier's distortion.
Equalisation is an inverse process to predistortion and restores signal
characteristics.
MU-MIMO and SU-MIMO

SU (Single User)-MIMO
To increase user data rate,
simultaneous transmission of
S2 Sn
different data streams to 1 user S1
Efficient when the user
experiences good channel
conditions

MU (Multiple User)-MIMO
To increase sector capacity
Select users experiencing good
channel conditions
Efficient when a large number UE2
of users have an active data UE1 UEn
transmission simultaneously
MIMO types
Multi-Element Transmitter Multi-Element Receiver

h11

MIMO Sub-ch Mapping


h12
MIMO Encoder

MIMO Decoder
IFFT h21

FFT
h22

IFFT

Y = Hs + n

SISO- single input/single output (1 Tx antenna, 1 Rx antenna)


SIMO- single input/multiple output (1 Tx antenna, multiple Rx antenna)
MISO- multiple input/single output (multiple Tx antenna, 1 Rx antenna)
MIMO- multiple input/multiple output (multiple Tx antenna, multiple Rx
antenna)
We refer to multiple considering the RF channel, not the hardware in the
system.
MIMO Usage Scenarios

Used MIMO mode shall be selected depending on whether we want to


maximise::

Peak data rate use MIMO (spatial multiplexing)


Robustness use MIMO (transmit diversity)
Capacity use beamforming and MIMO
Coverage use beamforming

No MIMO/Beamforming
MIMO
Throughput

Beamforming + MIMO
Beamforming

Coverage
MIMO limitations

Physical antenna spacing is one of the limitation of MIMO.

Both Rx and Tx antennas need to be physically separate to be effective.


Antenna spacing depends on wavelength

Should not be less than d=0.5 (d=7.5cm for f=2GHz). Gain from MIMO starts
to decrease if antennas are more closely spaced (see figure below)
Serious MIMO channel capacity degradation for d<0.2 (d=3cm for f=2GHz)

This may be limited benefit for a handset and most suited to PC/laptop
implementation.
MIMO channel capacity

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 d/


Thanks