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PRINCIPLE OF PREVENTION

TO INFECTIOUS DISEASE

dr. Ni Nengah Dwi Fatmawati, Sp.MK., Ph.D


Department of Clinical Microbiology
Faculty of Medicine Unud/ Sanglah Hospital
2013
INFECTION

Infection is invasion by and multiplication of pathogenic


microorganisms in a bodily part or tissue, which may
produce subsequent tissue injury and progress to overt
disease through a variety of cellular or toxic mechanisms.
Manual of Infection Control Procedures
If any of those conditions are not met, the chain is
broken and the infectious disease does not spread.
What can cause an infectious
disease?

Bacteria
Virus

Fungus
Parasite
Sources of infection
Reservoirs of infectious
disease
Reservoir of pathogen
affects extent and
distribution of disease

Recognizing reservoir
can help protect
population from disease

Reservoirs can be

Human

Non-human or animal

Environmental
A portal of exit is the site from
where micro-organisms leave the
host to enter another host and
cause disease/infection
What is a mode of transmission?

The movement or
the transmission
of pathogens from
a reservoir to a
susceptible host
The way that a
microorganism is
spread from an
infected person to
a susceptible
person
What is a mode of transmission?
A portal of entry is the site through which
micro-organisms enter the susceptible host
and cause disease/infection
What does
to be susceptible Mean?

Susceptible = able to be
infected when exposed
Someone who is at the risk
of infection
A person is usually
susceptible to an organism
if he/she has never been in
contact with it before
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How to break
the chain of infection?
breaking the chain of infection
= infection prevention
What is infection control?

Measures taken to reduce the chance that an infection will


get from an infected person to a susceptible person
How does infection control work within a
Prevention
of Diseases
a). Eradicating the source of infection through appropriate antimicrobial therapy

b) Preventing the method of spread through hand washing, hygiene, disposal of

waste, decontamination of equipment etc

c) Protecting the individual at risk by immunization

d) Preventing microbes from entering the body by wearing protective clothing (PPE),

using an aseptic technique when handling invasive devices, covering wounds and

insertion sites with sterile dressings etc.


Strategies for control of infectious
diseases
General features Water purification
Sewage disposal
Improved nutrition
Improved housing

Zoonosis and anthropod- Control of vector


transmited infections Control of reservoir animal
Spesific disease treatment or Chemotherapy
prevention Vaccines
Miscellaneous measures Changes is personal habit
Control of intravenous drug
abuse
Screening of transfused blood
and organ
Food Cold storage
Pasteurization (milk)
Adequate cooking
How to do environmental
decontamination ?

Wiping down work surface:


At regular intervals
When a possible contamination of the surface has occurred

Helps to break the chain of transmission by reducing vehicle


borne transmission
How good work practices
protect from infection?

Good work practices:


Wash hands often
Refrain from touching eyes, nose, mouth
Avoid touching environmental surfaces
Practice good respiratory etiquette and encourage
others to do so

Helps to break the chain of transmission


5 Moments of Hand Hygiene
What is respiratory
etiquette?
Cover the nose/mouth when
coughing or sneezing;
Use tissues to contain
respiratory secretions
and dispose of them in
the nearest waste
receptacle after use
Hand hygiene after having
contact with respiratory
secretions and contaminated
objects/materials.
What is PPE?
Personal protective equipment = specialized clothing or
equipment worn for protection against infectious materials

Gloves
Gowns/aprons
Masks
Respirators
Boots
Infection control precautions

All requires hand hygiene

Standard

Transmission based precautions:

Contact

Droplet

Airborne
Summary

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Summary
Gloves
Limit exposure of hands to contaminated materials.
If you are told to wear gloves
Change your gloves
if they become torn or heavily soiled
between patients
Avoid touching yourself
Discard them in an appropriate medical waste receptacle
Wash your hands before donning and after removing gloves
Gown
Limits exposure of skin and
clothes to contamination

To put on a gown:
Choose the appropriate size
Make sure opening is at the
back
Secure at the neck and waist
If the gown is too small to
cover your torso, use two.
Tie the first gown in front and
the second in the back
Surgical mask

Provides some protection against inhalation of


respiratory droplets
Effective at stopping expulsion of respiratory
droplets
Symptomatic people may be masked
Respirator use

Like a mask but protects against breathing in


microorganisms that can become airborne. An N95 is
a type of respirator
How to remove and
dispose of PPE

Touch areas are least likely to


have had contact with an
infectious microorganism
Inside of gloves
Inside and back of gown
(including ties)
Ties, elastic of mask or
respirator
How to remove and dispose
of PPE (continued)
Remove before leaving the work area. Do not wear it in eating or rest areas
Deposit it in a medical waste receptacle
Wash your hands
COMPARISON OF CHEMOTHERAPY
AND VACCINATION

Description Chemotherapy Vaccination


Specificity Usually high Very high

Toxicity Potentially high Usually low

Duration of effect Short Usually long

Duration of Long Usually short


treatment