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GUIDELINES FOR PLANNING AND DESIGN

FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS

B.KANDAVEL
M.E-STRUCTURAL
IRTT
What is an earthquake?
An earthquake is the vibration of Earth
produced by the rapid release of accumulated
energy in elastically strained rocks.
Energy released radiates in all directions
from its source, the focus.
Energy propagates in the form of seismic
waves.
Sensitive instruments around the world
record the event.
What causes an earthquake?
Movement of Tectonic Plates
Earth is divided into sections called
Tectonic plates that float on the fluid-like
interior of the Earth.
Earthquakes are usually caused by sudden
movement of earth plates
Rupture of rocks along a fault
Faults are localized areas of weakness in
the surface of the Earth, sometimes the
plate boundary itself
BUILDING CONFIGURATION
Shape Horizontal Layout
PLAN OF
BUILDING
(Asymmetry should be
avoided)

Asymmetric
buildings undergo
torsion and the
extreme corners of
asymmetric
buildings are
subjected to very
large earthquake
forces
BUILDING CONFIGURATION
Shape Horizontal Layout

Failure Mode
BUILDING CONFIGURATION
Shape Vertical Configuration
BUILDING CONFIGURATION
Shape Adjacent Buildings
BUILDING CONFIGURATION

Shape Adjacent Buildings


BUILDINGS HUGGING TO-GETHER
STRUCTURAL SIGNIFICANCE
Soft-Storey Effect:
STRUCTURAL SIGNIFICANCE
Soft-Storey Effect:
STRUCTURAL SIGNIFICANCE
Soft-Storey Effect:
STRUCTURAL SIGNIFICANCE
Strong Column Weak Beam
A WEAK COLUMN - STRONG BEAM
SYSTEM
WEAK COLUMN - STRONG BEAM
SYSTEM
A WEAK COLUMN - STRONG ROOF
SYSTEM
Most RC buildings
with open ground
storeys that collapsed
showed a very
common practice of
poor detailing; 6mm
diameter lateral ties
in the columns with
90o hooks and
longitudinal spacing
as large as 30cm.
This did not provide
the required
GENERAL SHAPE OF BUILDING

Very slender Inverted pendulum type buildings are


buildings should be unstable
avoided
GENERAL SHAPE OF BUILDING

Sudden change in lateral stiffness should be avoided


Projections and large overhangs

Avoid long projected Large projections


balcony should be avoided
Floating columns
Large
overhangs,
projections
and floating
columns
attract large
earthquake
force and
therefore likely
to damage/
collapse due to
instability
Separation of dissimilar buildings
To avoid collision,
adjacent dissimilar
buildings should be
separated by a
minimum gap
Min.
gap
Type of construction per
Storey
(mm)
Load Bearing
15
Building
RCC Frame Building 20
Steel Frame Building 30
Minimum
depth of
foundation

Plinth band is not


required for
foundation on rock
and hard soil
Attachments and Overhangs
All the attachments,
fittings, equipments and
artifacts should be properly
fixed to the ceiling/wall so
that they withstand severe
vibrations

Reinfor-
cement in
parapet
Parapet wall should be
wall
properly secured
Heavy mass at the
top should be
avoided

Large water tanks


should be avoided.
Small water tanks,
if provided should
be properly
connected with the
framing system
EXCESSIVE TOP CANTILEVERS
HEAVY MASS ON TOP:
WATER TANK COLLAPSE WHIPPING EFFECT
LOCATION OF A HEAVY MASS ON TOP:
WRONGLY DETAILED
Collapse of one-half
of the 14-storey RC
frame residential
apartment building in
Ahmedabad;
the collapsed portion
had a swimming pool
on the roof, unlike the
other half that is
standing
Numerous cases of dislodging of the weakly
connected overhead storage water tanks were
observed in the entire earthquake affected
area. Picture shows dislodging of water tank
appendages from atop unfinished and finished
RC frame buildings in Bhuj

Dislodging of water tank appendages from atop unfinished


and finished RC frame buildings in Bhuj
Avoid long walls

Depending upon
functional
requirements, either
buttresses or cross
walls can be used to
reduce the
unsupported length
Rubble
masonry
To avoid
splitting of
rubble masonry
walls, through
stones should be
provided in
sufficient
number
Minimum distance between
openings and corners
Openings in masonry
walls weaken the walls
The openings should be
small as far as possible
and should be provided
away from the corners
and each other
To compensate the loss
of strength due to
openings, 6 mm bar
encased in concrete or
1:3 cement sand mortar
should atleast be
provided around the
openings
One of the RC frame multistorey buildings at Ahmedabad that withstood the
earthquake shaking with only minor cracking in the masonry infill walls

WITH A WISH TO DESIGN AND BUILD SAFE HIGH RISED BUILDINGS


CONCLUSION
Based On the above Planning
Configurations Building design should be
done and also resist from the earthquake
forces.
Thank You.