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EMERGENCY

PEDIATRIC

Dr. Idham Jaya Ganda, SpA


PICU Subdiv. Child Health Dept.
Faculty of Medical, University of Hasanuddin
Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar
DENGUE SHOCK
SYNDROME
ETIOLOGY
Dengue Virus

PATHOGENESIS
Unclear
The Secondary Heterologous
Infection Hypothesis
CLINICAL
MANIFESTASION
Fever: acute, high, continuously,
2-7 days
Bleeding manifestation

Liver enlargement

Shock
LABORATORIUM
Thrombocytopenia ( 100.000/mm3 or
less)
Hem concentration ( Hct 20% or more)
CLASSIFICATION
WHO CLASSIFICATION OF DHF (1975)
Grade I
Fever, Tourniquet test (+)
Grade II
Grade I + spontaneous bleeding
Grade III
Grade II + Circulatory failure
Grade IV
Profound shock
Grade III & IV DSS
TREATMENT DBD derajat III & IV

1. Oksigenasi (berikan O2 2-4 l/menit)


2. Penggantian volume plasma (cairan kristaloid isotonis)
Ringer laktat/NaCl 0,9 % / Asering
20 ml/kgBB secepatnya (bolus dalam 30 menit)
Evaluasi 30 menit, apakah syok teratasi ?
Pantau tanda vital tiap 10 menit
Catat balans cairan selama pemberian intravena
Syok teratasi
Kesadaran menurun Syok tidak teratasi
Kesadaran membaik
Nadi teraba kuat Nadi lembut / tidak teraba
Tekanan nadi > 20 mmHg Tekanan nadi < 20 mmHg
Tidak sesak nafas sianosis Distres pernafasan / sianosis
Ekstremitas hangat Kulit dingin dan lembab
Diuresis cukup 1 ml/kgBB/jam Ekstremitas dingin
Periksa kadar gula darah
Cairan dan tetesan disesuaikan Lanjutkan cairan
10 ml/kgBB/jam 20 ml/kgBB/jam
Tambahkan koloid/plasma
Evaluasi ketat
Tanda vital Dekstran/FPP
Tanda perdarahan 10-20 (max 30) ml/kgBB/jam
Diuresis Koreksi asidosis
Hb, Ht, trombosit Evaluasi 1 jam
Stabil dalam 24 jam/Ht < 40
Tetesan 5 ml/kgBB/jam Syok belum teratasi
Syok teratasi
Tetesan 3 ml/kgBB/jam Ht turun Ht tetap tinggi/ naik
Tranfusi darah
Segar 10 ml/kgBB Koloid 20 ml/kgBB
Infus stop tidak melebihi 48 jam diulang sesuai kebutuhan
setelah syok teratasi
MONITORING
Vital signs
Hct
SEPTIC SHOCK
DEFINITION
Septic syndrome
Hypotension
Responsive to
treatment
ETIOLOGY
Neonates: E. coli, Staphylococcus
aureus, Streptococcus group B.
Child: Streptococcus pneumonia, H.
influenzae group B, Salmonella, S.
aureus, Streptococcus group A.
Patofisiologi terjadinya syok septik
Infeksi Bakteri

Endorfin Produk Bakteri Aktivasi Komplemen


mis. endotoksin

Makrofag
Aktivasi PMN.
Faktor Jaringan Sitokin Pelepasan PAF, produk
Arakidonat dan
Substansi toksik lain
Aktivasi Aktivasi
koagulasi kalikreinkinin
fibrinolisis
Vasodilatasi,
Kebocoran kapiler,
Kerusakan endotel Syok Septik
kerusakan endotel
kapiler

Kegagalan Organ Berganda


CLINICAL
MANIFESTATION
Chilling
Tachycardia
Hyperventilation/tachypnea
Hypotension
Apatetic
Agitation
Bleeding manifestation (petechiae, purpura,
etc)
Neonates with immune disorder: unspecific
(lethargy, vomiting, abdominal pain,
hypotermia/hypertermia)
DIAGNOSIS
Clinical manifestation
Risk factor
Focus of infection
Laboratory examination (blood
smear/culture)
TREATMENT
Infection control : ampicillin & aminoglycoside
Blood culture & sensitivity
test
Recovering tissue perfusion : fluid resuscitation,
acid base correction, cardiovascular medicines.
Respiratory function support : oxygen/ ventilator
Renal support : diuretic medicines (furosemide)
Corticosteroid
DIARRHEA
WITH
DEHIDRATION
DEFINITION
Watery stool
Frequency 3X/ 24
hours.
DEHYDRATION TYPES
Isotonic
Na concentration 130-150meq/L or
280 mosm/L
Hypertonic:
Na concentration > 150meq/L or
413 mosm/L
Hypotonic:
Na concentration <130meq/L or
200mosm/L
DEHYDRATION GRADE

Cumulative losses (pwl, cwl, nwl)


Mild : 5%
Moderate : 5-10%
Severe : >10%
Clinical manifestation ( scoring
system)
Angka Penilaian
Pemeriksaan 1 2 3

Gambaran Klinik
Keadaan umum Baik Lesu/haus Gelisah/renjatan
Mata Normal Cekung Sangat cekung
Mulut Normal Kering Sangat kering
Pernapasan 20-30 per menit 30-40 per menit 40-60 per menit
Turgor Baik Kurang Jelek
Nadi Kuat / kurang 120-140 Lebih 140
120 per menit per menit per menit

Derajat dehidrasi skor 6 skor 7-12 skor 13 / lebih


diare tanpa diare dehidrasi diare dehidrasi
dehidrasi ringan/sedang berat
TREATMENT

Fluid therapy (Ringer Lactat or


Ringer Asetat)
Antibiotic therapy
Acidosis therapy
Cara Pemberian
Umur Permulaan Lanjutan

Diare 4 jam pertama 20 jam berikut


Infantil 60 ml/kg 190 ml/kg
- PWL 125 ml
- NWL 100 ml
- CWL 25 ml

250 ml
Kolera 1 jam pertama 7 jam berikut
PWL 100 ml/kg 30 ml/kg 70 ml/kg

PWL 100 ml/kg 1 jam pertama 5 jam berikut


Bayi kurang 30 ml/kg 70 ml/kg
12 bulan jam pertama 2 jam berikut
Anak sama atau lebih 12 30 ml/kg 70 ml/kg
bulan
ASTHMATIC
STATE
DEFINITIO
N
A severe asthma exacerbation
which is not responsive to drugs
that are usually given for asthma
exacerbation.
ETIOLOGY
Multifactor
Allergen
Restlessness
Emotion
Infection
Inherited
PATHOGENESIS
Hyper responsiveness &
inflammation process of bronchus
Hyper secretion
Edema
Bronchoconstriction
sification of Severity of Acute Asthma Exacerba
Mild Moderate Severe Respiratory
Parameters Arrest
Imminent
Breathlessness While While talking While at rest
walking

Talks Sentences Phrases Words

Position Can lie Prefers sitting Sits upright


down

Alertness May be Usually Always Confused/


agitated agitated agitated drowsy
Cyanotic - - + +++
Wheeze Moderate, Loud, Extremely loud, Absence of
often only throughout can be heard wheeze
end expiratory without
expiratory inspiratory stethoscope
Breathlessness Minimal Moderate Severe

Use of accessory Usually not Commonly Always


muscles

Retractions Shallow, Moderate, + Deep, + -


intercostals suprasternal flare of alae
nasi

Respiratory rate Increased Increased Increased Decreased

Guide to rates of breathing in awake children:


Age: Normal rate:
< 2 month < 60 / minute
2-12 months < 50 / minute
1-5 years < 40 / minute
6-8 years < 30 / minute
Pulse Normal Tachycardia Tachycardia Bradycardia

Guide to normal pulse rates in children:


Age: Normal rate:
2-12 months < 160 / minute
1-2 years < 120 / minute
3-8 years < 110 / minute
Pulsus None (+) (+) None
Paradoksus < 10 mmHg 10-20 mmHg > 20 mmHg

PEFR or FEV1 (% pedicted ( % best < 40%


-before b.dilator value) value) < 60 %
-after b.dilator > 60% 40-60% respons < 2
> 80% 60-80% jam
SaO2 > 95% 91-95% 90%

PaO2 Normal > 60 mmHg < 60 mmHg

PaCO2 < 45 mmHg < 45 mmHg > 45 mmHg


CLINICAL
MANIFESTATION
Cough
Wheezing
Tachypnea
Dyspnea
Prolonged
expiration
Retraction
Cyanosis
Tachycardia
TREATMENT
Klinik / IGD
Nilai derajat serangan (1)

Tatalaksana awal
nebulisasi -agonis 1-3x, selang 20 menit (2)
nebulisasi ketiga + antikolinergik
jika serangan berat, nebulisasi 1x (+antikoinergik)

Serangan ringan Serangan sedang Serangan berat


(nebulisasi 1x, respons baik, gejala hilang) (nebulisasi 2-3x, respons parsial) (nebulisasi 3x, respons buruk)
observasi 1-2 jam berikan oksigen (3) sejak awal berikan O2
jika efek bertahan, nilai kembali derajat saat / di luar nebulisasi
boleh pulang serangan, jika sesuai pasang jalur parenteral
jika gejala timbul lagi dgn serangan sedang, nilai ulang klinisnya, jika
perlakukan sebagai observasi di Ruang Rawat sesuai dgn serangan
serangan sedang Sehari berat, rawat di Ruang
pasang jalur parenteral Rawat Inap
Foto Rontgen toraks

Boleh pulang
bekali obat -agonis
Ruang Rawat Sehari Ruang Rawat Inap
hirupan / oral)
oksigen teruskan oksigen teruskan
Jika sudah ada obat
berikan steroid oral atasi dehidrasi & asidosis jika ada
pengendali, teruskan
nebulisasi tiap 2 jam steroid IV tiap 6-8 jam
jika infeksi virus sbg
bila dalam 8-12 jam nebulisasi tiap 1-2 jam
pencetus, dpt diberi
perbaikan klinis stabil aminofilin IV awal, lanjutkan rumatan
steroid oral
boleh pulang jika membaik dlm 4-6x nebulisasi,
dalam 24-48 jam kontrol
jika dalam 12 jam klinis interval jadi 4-6 jam
ke Klinik R. jalan utk
tetap belum membaik, jika dlm 24 jam perbaikan klinis stabil,
reevaluasi
alih rawat ke Ruang boleh pulang
Catatan : Rawat Inap jika dgn steroid & aminofilin
1. Jika menurut penilaian serangannya berat, nebulasi cukup 1x parenteral tidak membaik, bahkan
langsung dgn -agonis + antikolinergik timbul Ancaman henti napas, alih
2. Jika tdk ada alatnya, nebulisasi dpt diganti dgn adrenalin rawat ke Ruang Rawat Intensif
subkutan 0,01 ml/kgBB/kali maksimal 0,3 ml/kali
3. Utk serangan sedang & terutama berat, oksigen 2-4 L/mnt
diberikan sejak awal, termasuk saat nebulisasi
TREATMENT IN PICU
Medicines at
ward is
continued
Mechanical
ventilator
ACUTE RESPIRATORY
FAILURE
DEFINITION

Respiratory system is unable to


maintain its function hypoxia &
hypercapnea.
ETIOLOGY

Increasing of co2
Ventilated disorder without lungs
dysfunction
Ventilated disorder with lungs dysfunction
Ventilated disorder of death space
CLINICAL
MANIFESTATION
Symptoms of lungs disorder :
wheezing, grunting, flaring of alae nasi,
retraction, tachypnea, bradypnea, apnea,
cyanosis.
Signs of heart disorder :
bradycardia/tachycardia,
hypotention/hypertention, cardiac arrest.
Symptoms of CNS disorder :
apatic, headache, convulsion, coma.
TREATMENT
Airway (position, suction, ET)
Breathing (oxygen)
Humidification
Bronchial washing
Physiotherapy
Rehydration
Causal therapy
Specific therapy (mechanical
ventilator)
Acidosis therapy
EPILEPTIC
STATUS
DEFINITION

Prolonged convulsion attack


(30 minutes or more)
Recurrent convulsion in a short time
as if no recovery
ETIOLOGY
Febrile convulsion
Idiopathic
Symptomatic
PATHOFISIOLOGY
Compensation
Decompensation
CLINICAL MANIFESTATION
Age Type of epileptic state Features
Neo- Neonatal epileptic state -subtle, tonic,
nates clonic,
myoclonic, apneic,
Neonatal syndromes fragmentary
epileptic
early infantile epileptic - tonic
encephalopathy - erratic, myoclonic
neonatal myoclonic - clonic
encephalopathy
benign familial neonatal
seizures
Infant & Febrile epileptic state - convulsive or
Child hemiconvulsive (tonic-
Infantile spasms (west clonic)
syndromes) - salaam attacks
State in childhood - myoclonic + absence
myoclonic syndromes - complex partial seizures
State in benign partial
epilepsy
Child & Tonic-clonic epileptic state - tonic-clonic, subtle
Adult Absence epileptic state - absence
Continue partially epileptic - simple partial
Myoclonic epileptic state in - myoclonic
coma - myoclonic
Myoclonic epileptic state - complex partial
syndromes - atypical absence, tonic,
Complex partial epileptic minor motor
state
Epileptic state in mental
retardation
TREATMENT
Initial treatment (stabilization)
Position
ABC
Vital signs monitoring
Blood glucose & electrolyte
Anticonvulsan
Benzodiazepine ( diazepam, midazolam)
Phenytoin
Phenobarbital
Cardiorespiratory & EEG monitoring
Refracted treatment
Barbiturate (Phenobarbital, thiopental)
Propofol & midazolam
INTUSSUSCEPTIO
N
DEFINITION

A condition where a section of intestine


telescope into its self (proximal
segment telescope into distal segment
of intestine).
PATHOFISIOLOGY
Intussusceptions
CLINICAL
MANIFESTATION
Colic
Vomiting
Bloody stool , currant jelly stool & terry
stool
Sausage-shaped mass
Pseudoportio
DIAGNOSIS
Clinical
manifestation
Radiology
assessment:
Doughnut sign

Target sign

Cupping sign
TREATMENT
Radiology reduction
Surgery
DIAPHRAGMATIC
HERNIA
DEFINITION

An abnormal opening in the


diaphragm that allow part of
abdominal organs to migrate into the
chest cavity.
ETIOLOGY
Improper fusion of the canal of
pleuroperitoneal
Medicines
Abnormal development of thoracic
mysencime
CLINICAL
MANIFESTATION
Dyspnea
Tachypnea
Cyanosis
Asymmetry of the chest wall
Tachycardia
Scapoid abdomen
Breath sound loosing at
defect side
DIAGNOSIS

Clinical manifestation
Radiology examination
TREATMENT

Oxygen (ET), position, stop oral


intake
Surgery