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FS - 1

FORCES IN SPACE
(Noncoplanar System of Forces)

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FS - 2
Forces in space
A Force in space: A Force is said to be in space if its line of
action makes an angle , and with respect to rectangular
co-ordinate axes X, Y and Z respectively as shown the Fig. 1.

F Fig. 1. A Force in space

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FS - 3
Forces in space
Noncoplanar system of forces (Forces in Space) and
Their Classifications
System of forces which do not lie in a single plane is called
noncoplanar system of forces(Forces in space ). A typical
noncoplanar system of forces (forces in space) is shown in the
Fig. 2. below

Fig. 2 Forces in space (noncoplanar system of forces)

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FS - 4
Forces in space

Noncoplanar system of forces(Forces in space) can be


broadly classified into three categories. They are

1. Concurrent noncoplanar system of forces


2. Nonconcurrent noncoplanar system of forces
3. Noncoplanar parallel system of forces

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FS - 5
Forces in space

1. Concurrent noncoplanar system of forces: Forces which


meet at a point with their lines of action do not lie in a
plane are called Concurrent noncoplanar system of
forces. A typical system of Concurrent noncoplanar
system of forces is shown in the Fig.3.

Fig. 3. Concurrent noncoplanar system of forces


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FS - 6

Forces in space
2. Nonconcurrent noncoplanar system of forces: Forces
which do not meet at a point and their lines of action do not
lie in a plane, such forces are called Nonconcurrent
noncoplanar system of forces. A typical system of
nonconcurrent noncoplanar system of forces is shown in the
Fig.4.

Fig. 4. Nonconcurrent noncoplanar system of forces

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FS - 7
Forces in space
3. Noncoplanar parallel system of forces: If lines of action of all
the forces in a system are parallel and they do not lie in a
plane such a system is called Non-coplanar parallel system
of forces. If all the forces are pointing in one direction then
they are called Like parallel forces otherwise they are called
unlike parallel forces as shown in the Fig.5.

Fig. 5 Noncoplanar parallel system of forces


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Forces in space
FS - 8

Rectangular components of a force in space

Fig. 6. Resolving a force in space into rectangular components


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FS - 9
Forces in space
Rectangular components of a force in space
In the Fig.6(a) a force F is acting at the origin O of the system
of rectangular coordinate axes X,Y,Z. Consider OBAC plane
passing through the force F. This plane makes an angle with
respect to XOY plane. Force F makes an angle y with
respect to Y-axis.

Fig.6(a)
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FS - 10
Forces in space
Rectangular components of a force in space

Fig.6(b)

In the Fig.6(b), the force F is resolved in the vertical (Y- axis) and
horizontal direction (X axis) as
Fy = F Cosy and
Fh = F Siny respectively.
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FS - 11
Forces in space
Rectangular components of a force in space

Fig.6(c)

In the Fig 6(c) the horizontal component Fh is again resolved in the X and
Z axes directions. These components are
Fx = Fh cos = F siny cos
Fz = Fh Sin = F siny sin
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Forces in space FS - 12

Now applying Pythagorean theorem to the triangles OAB


and OCD
F2 = (OA)2 = OB2 + BA2 = Fy2 +Fh2 ----------------(1)
Fh2 = OC2 = OD2 + DC2 = Fx2 +Fz2 ----------------(2)
Substituting equation (2) into the equation (1), we get
F2 = Fx2 +Fy2 + Fz2
F = Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2 ----------------(3)

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FS - 13
Forces in space
The relationship existing between the force F and its three components Fx,
Fy, Fz is more easily visualized if a box having Fx, Fy, Fz for edges is drawn
as shown below. The force F is then represented by the original OA of this
box.

Fig. 7 Relationship between Force F and its components Fx, Fy and Fz


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Forces in space FS - 14

From the above Figure (Fig. 7)

Fx = F Cos x, Fy = F Cosy, Fz = F Cosz ------------(4)

Where x, y, z are the angles formed by the force F with X, Y, Z axes respectively.
Fx,Fy,Fz are the rectangular components of the force F in the directions of X, Y, Z
axes respectively.

Cos x = Fx/F; Cosy = Fy/F; Cosz = Fz/F

Substituting equation (4) into the equation (3), we get

F = Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2

F = F2Cos2x + F2Cos2y + F2Cos2z


F2 = F2 ( Cos2x + Cos2y + Cos2z )

1 = Cos2x + Cos2y + Cos2z -------------(5)


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Forces in space FS - 15

Force Defined by its magnitude and two points on its line of action

From the adjacent Fig. 8.

dx= d Cos x, dy = d Cosy,


dz = d Cosz
----(6)
d = dx2 + dy2 + dz2
---(7)
Dividing member by
member the relations (4) and
(6), we obtain

Fx /dx = Fy/dy = Fz/dz = F/d


----------------------------(8) Fig 8
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Forces in space FS - 16

Resultant of concurrent forces in Space:-


Resolve all the forces into their rectangular components in X, Y and Z axes directions.
Adding algebraically all the horizontal components in the x direction gives

Rx = Fx,
Similarly adding algebraically all the components in y and z directions yield the
following relations
Ry = Fy,
Rz = Fz

Thus magnitude of resultant

R = Rx2 + Ry2 + Rz2

Angles x, y, z resultant forms with the axes of coordinates are obtained by


Rx Ry Rz
Cos x ; Cos y ; Cos z
R R R
Forces in space FS - 17

Problems:
(1) A tower guy wire is anchored by means of a bolt at A is shown in the following
Figure. The tension in the wire is 6000N. Determine
(a) The components Fx, Fy, Fz of the forces acting on the bolt.
(b) The angles x, y, z defining the direction of the force.

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Forces in space FS - 18

Solution: (a) Here dx = 50m, dy = 200m, dz = -100m


Total distance A to B
d = dx2 + dy2 + dz2
= (50)2 + (200)2 + (-100)2
= 229.13 m
Using the equation (8) Fx /dx = Fy/dy = Fz/dz = F/d
Fx = dx . (F/d) = (50 x 6000)/ 229.13 = 1309.3 N
Fy = dy . (F/d) = (200 x 6000)/ 229.13 = 5237.20 N
Fz = dz . (F/d) = (-100 x 6000)/ 229.13 = -2618.6 N
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Forces in space FS - 19

(b) Directions of the force:

Cos x = dx /d , x = Cos1 (50/229.13) = 77.4

y = Cos1 (dy /d) = Cos1 (200/229.13) = 29.2

z = Cos1 (dz /d) = Cos1 (-100/229.13) = 115.88

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Forces in space FS - 20

Problem(2) Determine (a) the x , y and z components of the 250 N


force acting as shown below
(b) the angles x, y, z that the force forms with the coordinate
axes.

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Forces in space FS - 21

Fh = 250 Cos60 = 125 N Fy = 250 Sin60 = 216.5 N


Fx = 125 Cos25 = 113.29 N Fz = 125Sin25 = -52.83 N

x = Cos1 ( Fx /F) = Cos1 (113.29/250) = 63


y = Cos1 ( Fy /F) = Cos1 (216.5/250) = 30
z = Cos1 ( Fz /F) = Cos1 (-52.83/250) = 102.11o

Components of 250 N in the x, y, z axes directions are

Fx = 113.29N Fy = 216.5 N Fz = -52.83N


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Forces in space FS - 22

Problem 3. Find the resultant of the system of forces as shown


below

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Forces in space FS - 23

Solution

Components of Force F1 = 3000 N:


o
Fy1 = 3000 x Cos40 = 2298.13 N
o
Fh1 = 3000 x Sin40 = 1928.36 N
o
Fx1 = 1928.36 x Cos30 =1670 N
o
Fz1 = 1928.36 x Sin30 = 964.18 N
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Forces in space FS - 24

Components of Force F2 = 2000 N:


Fy2 = 2000 x Cos20 = 1879.39 N
Fh2 = 2000 x Sin20 = 684.04 N
Fx2 = 684.04 x Sin35 = 392.35 N
Fz2 = 684.04 x Cos35 = 560.33N
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Forces in space FS - 25

Rx = Fx = Fx1 + Fx2 = 1670 392.35 = 1277.65


Ry = Fy = Fy1 + Fy2 = 2298.13 + 1879.39 = 4177.52 N
Rz = Fz = Fz1 + Fz2 = 964.18 + 560.33 = 1524.51 N
Resultant R = Rx2 + Ry2 +Rz2
= 1277.652 +4177.522 +1524.512
= 4626.9 N
Its inclinations with respect to x, y and z axes are
calculated as
x = Cos1 (1277.65 /4626.9) = 73 58' 13.1"
y = Cos1 (4177.52/4626.9) = 25 27'
z = Cos (1526.51/4626.9) = 70 4536
1 o
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Forces in space FS - 26

Problem 4. In the Fig shown below, the forces in the cables AB and AC
are 100 kN and 150 kN respectively. At the joint A loading is as
shown in the Fig. Find the resultant of system of forces in space and its
inclination with rectangular coordinates x,y and z axes.

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Forces in space FS - 27

Solution: Force in the cable AB = 100 kN

Force in the cable AC=150 kN

For the cable AB


dx = -20 m
dy = 15m
dz = 5m
dAB = dx2 +dy2 + dz2
= (-20)2 +(15)2 + (5)2 = 650 = 25.5 m

For the cable AC


dx = -20 m
dy = 25m
dz = -10m
(-20)
dAc |=Website
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2 +(25)
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2 + | (-10)
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2 = 1125 = 33.54 m
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Forces in space FS - 28

For the cable AB (1)


Fx1/dx1 = Fy1/dy1 = Fz1/dz1 = F/d
Fx1/-20 = Fy1/15 = Fz1/5 = 100/25.5
Fx1 = -78.41 kN
Fy1 = 58.82 kN
Fz1 = 19.61 kN

For the Cable AC (2)

Fx2/-20 = Fy2/25 = Fz2/-10 = 150/33.54

Fx2 = - 89.45 kN
Fy2 = 111.81 kN
Fz 2 = - 44.72
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Forces in space FS - 29

Component of force 60 kN

Fx3 = 60 x Cos(70) = 20.52 kN


Fy3 = 60 x Cos(30o) = 51.96 kN
Fz3 = 60 x Cos(11123)= - 21.88 kN

Component of the force 50KN

Fx4 = 50 kN
Fy4 = 0
Fz4 = 0

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Forces in space FS - 30

Algebraic summation of Rectangular Components in X, Y and Z


axes directions yield:
Rx = Fx = Fx1 + Fx2 + Fx3 + Fx4
= -78.43 - 89.45 + 20.52 + 50
= -97.36 kN
Ry = Fy = Fy1 + Fy2 + Fy3 + Fy4
= 58.82 + 111.81 + 51.96 + 0
= 222.59 kN

Rz = Fz = Fz1 + Fz2 + Fz3 + Fz4


= 19.61 44.72 21.88 + 0
= -46.99 kN

Resultant R = Rx2 + Ry2 + Rz2


= (-97.36)2 + (222.59)2 + (-46.99)2
= |247.45
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Forces in space FS - 31

Inclinations of the resultant with X,Y and Z axes:


x = Cos-1(Rx / R) = Cos-1 (-97.36/247.45) = 113 10
y = Cos-1(Ry / R) = Cos-1 (222.59/247.45) = 25 54
z = Cos-1(Rz / R) = Cos-1 (-46.99/247.45) = 100 56 47

Check:

Cos2x + Cos2y + Cos2z = 1


Cos2(11310) + Cos2(2554) + Cos2(10056) = 1

1 = 1 Hence OK

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FS - 32
Forces in space

Problem 5. a) Forces F1, F2, and F3 pass through the origin and
points whose coordinates are given. Determine the
resultant of the system of forces.

F1 = 20 kN, (3,-2,1)
F2 = 35 kN, (-2,4,0)
F3= 25 kN, (1,2,-3)

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Forces in space FS - 33

Solution:

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Forces in space FS - 34

Force F1 = 20 kN
d = 32 + (-2)2 + 12 = 14 = 3.74
Cos x1 = dx / d = 3/3.74 = 0.802
Cos y1 = -2/3.74 = -0.535; Cos z1 = 1/3.74 = 0.267

Force F2 = 35 kN
d = (-2)2 + 42 +0 = 20 = 4.47
Cos x2 = -2/4.47 = -0.45
Cos y2 = 4/4.47 = 0.9; Cos z2 = 0

Force F3 = 25 kN
d = (1)2 + 22 +(-3)2 = 14 = 3.74
Cos x3 = 1/3.74 = 0.267
Cos y3 = 2/3.74 = 0.535; Cos z3 = -3/3.74 = -0.802
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Forces in space FS - 35

Summation of the rectangular components in X, Y and Z axes directions


yield:
Rx = Fx = 20 x 0.802 + 35 x (-0.45) +25 x 0.267 = 6.965 kN
Ry = Fy = 20 x (-0.535) + 35 x 0.9 + 25 x 0.535 = 34.175 kN
Rz = Fz = 20 x 0.267 + 35 x 0 + 25 x (-0.802) = -14.71 kN

Resultant R = Rx2 + Ry2 + Rz2


= 6.9652 + 34.1752 + (-14.71)2
= 37.85 kN

Inclination of the resultant R with respect to X, Y and Z axes are


calculated as
x = Cos1(Rx / R) = Cos-1(6.965/37.85 ) = 79.4
y = Cos1(Ry /R) = Cos-1(34.175/37.85) = 25.46
z www.bookspar.com
= Cos1(Rz |/R) = Cos -1(-14.71/37.85) = 112.87
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Forces in space FS - 36

Equilibrium of Concurrent non-coplanar system of forces:


When a rigid body subjected to concurrent noncoplanar system of forces
F1, F2. ..FN as shown in the Fig. given below, is in equilibrium, then
algebraic summation of all the components of the forces in three mutually
perpendicular directions must be equal to zero.
i.e. Fx = 0
Fy = 0
Fz = 0 (1)
Above equations represent the static
conditions of equilibrium for concurrent
noncoplanar system of forces

Fig. A rigid body subjected to concurrent


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noncoplanar system of forces
Forces in
FS - 37
space
Problem (1) Find the forces in the rods AB , AC and AO subjected to
loading as shown below

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Forces in space FS - 38

Solution:

For the cable AB:

dx1 = 0 - 4 = - 4
dy1= 8 - 0 = 8
dz1 = 15 0 =15

d1 = (-4)2 +(8)2 +(15)2 = 17.46 m

Fx1/-4 = Fy1/8 = Fz1/15 = FAB/17.46

Fx1 = -0.23FAB,
Fy1 = 0.46FAB,
Fz1 = 0.86FAB
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Forces in space FS - 39

For the Cable AC:


dx2 = 0 - 4 = -4m
dy2 = 8 - 0 = 8m
dz2 = -20 0 = -20m

d2 = (-4)2 +(8)2 +(-20)2 = 480 = 21.91m


Fx2/-4 = Fy2/8 = Fz2/-20 = FAC/21.91
Fx2 = -0.18FAC, Fy2 = 0.365FAc, Fz2 = -0.91FAc

For the Force 120 N:


Fx3 = 120 N, Fy3 = 0, Fz3 = 0

For the force Fx4 = 300 N:


Fx4 = 0, Fy4 = -300N, Fz4 = 0

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Forces in space FS - 40

Conditions of Equilibrium
Fx = 0, Fy = 0, Fz = 0

Considering Fx = 0
Fx1 + Fx2 + Fx3 + Fx4 + Fx5= 0
-FAD-0.23F 0.18FAC + 120 + 0 = 0
FAD + 0.23FAB + 0.183FAC = 120 ----------------------(1)

Fy = 0
0.46FAB + 0.365FAC + 0 +0 300 = 0
0.46FAB + 0.365FAC = 300 ------------------------------(2)

Fz = 0
0.86 FAB 0.91 FAC + 0 = 0 -----------------------(3)

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Forces in space FS - 41

Solving Equations (1), (2) and (3), we get,


FAB = 372.675 N; FAC = 352.25 N ; FAO = - 30.18 N

Force in the rod AB , FAB = 372.675 N (Tensile)


Force in the rod AC, FAC = 352.25 N (Tensile)
Force in the rod AO, FAO = 30.18 N (Compressive)

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Forces in space FS - 42

2) Three cables are connected at D and support, the 400


kN load as shown in the Fig given below. Determine the
tensions in each cable

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Forces in space FS - 43

Let FDA, FDB and FDC are the forces in the cables AD, BD,
and CD respectively.
For Cable DA:
dx1 = (0 3) = -3m
dy1 = (6 - 4) =2 m
dz1 = (6 0 = 6 m
dAD = dx2 + dy2 + dz2
dAD = (-3)2 + (2)2 + (6)2 = 9 + 4 + 36 = 7 m
Fx1/dx1 = Fy1/dy1 = Fz1/dz1 = FDA/dDA
Fx1/(-3) = Fy1/2 = Fz1/6 = FDA/7
Fx1 = -0.43FDA, Fy1 =0.286FDA, Fz1 = 0.857FDA
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Forces in space FS - 44

For Cable DB:


dx2= (0 3) = -3m
dy2 = (6 - 4) =2 m
dz2 = (-6 0 = -6 m
dBD = d2 = (-3)2 + (2)2 + (-6)2 = 49 = 7 m
Fx2/dx2 = Fy2/dy2 = Fz2/dz2 = FDB/dDB

Fx2/(-3) = Fy2/2 = Fz2/-6 = FDB/7

Fx2 = -0.43FDB,
Fy2 =0.286FDB,
Fz2 = -0.857FDB
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Forces in space FS - 45

For Cable DC:


dx3 (0 3) = -3m
dy3= (0- 4) = -4m
dz3= (0 0 = 0m
dDC= d3= (-3)2 + (-4) + (0)2
= 9 + 16
= 5m
Fx3/dx3 = Fy3/dy3 = Fz3/dz3 = FDC/d DC
Fx3/(-3) = Fy3/-4 = Fz3/0 = FDC/5

Fx3 = -0.6FDC,
Fy3 =-0.8FDC,
Fz3 = 0
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Forces in space FS - 46

For the force 400KN


dx4 = 12m
dy4= -4m
dz4= 3m
d4= d400 = (12)2 + (4) + (3)2
= 144 +16 + 9
= 69 = 13m
Fx4/dx4 = Fy4/dy4 = Fz4/dz4 = F400/d4
Fx4/(12) = Fy4/-4 = Fz4/3 = 400/13

Fx4 = 369.23 kN,


Fy4 = -123.08 kN,
Fz4 = +92.31 kN
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Forces in space FS - 47

For Equilibrium, the algebraic summation of resolved


component in a particular direction is equal to zero.
i.e. Fx = 0 -------------(1)
Fy = 0 ------------- (2)
Fz = 0 --------------(3)

(1) Fx = Fx1 + Fx2 + Fx3 + Fx4 = 0


+ 0.43FDA + 0.43FDB + 0.6FDC = 369.23 ---------(1)
+ 0.286FDA + 0.286FDB 0.8FDC = 123.08 ------(2)
+ 0.857FDA - 0.857FDB + 0 = 92.31 ------------(3)
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Forces in space FS - 48

Solving equations (1), (2) and (3), we get


FDB = 304.1kN
FDA = 411.8 kN
FDC = 102 kN

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FS - 49
Forces in space
Practice Questions
1. A tower guy wire is anchored by means of a bolt at A as shown below.
The tension in the wire is 2500 N. Determine (a) the components Fx, Fy
and Fz of the force acting on the bolt, (b) the angles x, y, z defining
the direction of the force

(Ans: Fx= -1060 N , Fy = 2120 N, Fz= + 795 N


x = 115.1 o ; y= 32.0 o ; z= 71.5 o )
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FS - 50
Forces in space
Practice
2. Determine Questions
(a) x, y and z the components of the force 500 N in the below
Figure. (b) the angles x, y, z that the force forms with the
coordinate axes

(Ans: Fx= + 278 N , Fy = + 383 N, Fz= + 160.7


N
x = 56.2 o ; y= 40.0 o ; z= 71.3 o )
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FS - 51
Forces in space
Practice
3. Questions
In order to move a wrecked truck, two cables are attached at A and
pulled by winches B and C as shown. Knowing that the tension in the
cable AB is 10 kN, determine the components of the force exerted by
the cable AB on the truck

(Ans: Fx= -6.30 kN , Fy = 6.06 kN, Fz= + 4.85


kN)
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FS - 52
Forces in space
Practice
4. Questions
A 200 kg cylinder is hung by means of two cables AB and AC, which are
attached to the top of a vertical wall. A horizontal force P perpendicular
to the wall holds the cylinder in the position shown. Determine the
magnitude of the force P and the tension in each cable

(Ans: P = 235 N , TAB = 1401 N, TAC= + 1236 N


)
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Forces in space FS - 53

Practice
5. Three cablesQuestions
are connected at A, where the forces P and Q are applied as
shown. Determine the tension in each cable when P = 0 and Q = 7.28
kN

(Ans: TAB= 2.88 kN , TAC = 5.76 kN, TAD= 3.6


kN)
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FS - 54
Forces in space Practice Questions
6. A container of weight w = 400 N is supported by cables AB and AC which
are tied to ring A. Knowing that Q = 0, determine (a) the magnitude of
the force P which must be applied to the ring to maintain the container
in the position shown in figure below, (b) the corresponding the values
of the tension in cables AB and AC

(Ans: P = 138 N ,
TAB = 270N,
TAC = 196N )

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FS - 55
Forces in space Practice Questions
7. A container supported by three cables as shown below. Determine the
weight of the container, knowing that the tension in the cable AB is 4 kN

Ans: 9.32 kN

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FS - 56
Forces in space Practice Questions
8. Determine the resultant of the two forces shown below.

(Ans: R = 498 N ,
x = 68.9 o ; y= 26.3 o ; z= 75.1 o )
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FS - 57
Forces in space Practice Questions
9. A container of weight W = 1165 N is supported by three cables as shown
below. Determine the tension in each cable.

Ans: TAB = 500 N


TAC = 459 N
TAD = 516 N

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www.bookspar.com | Website for Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS