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- As 3778.4.7-1991 (R2009) Measurement of Water Flow in Open Channels Measurement Using Flow Gauging Structures
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You are on page 1of 34

Off Take Sluices, Canal outlets and Modules

BY

ROUTHU SATYANARAYANA

FORMER CHIEF ENGINEER

FORMER ADVISOR, GOVERNMENT OF A.P

Modular Outlets

DESIGN - EXAMPLES

HYDRAULIC DESIGN

OFM APM - PSM

Cross Masonry Works- Modular Outlets

Crumps Adjustable proportional Module

(Crumps APM)

Adjustable Orifice Semi module (AOSM)

Pipe Semi Module Pipe Out let (PSM)

Modular Outlets

The suitability of the type of the semi module outlet is determined based on the ratio of

parent canal discharge (Q) to the discharge of the out let (q) and the throat width (Bt) as

detailed below.

ii) for (Q/q ) < or = 20 and B t < 6 cm Adjustable Proportional module ( APM )

for (Q/q ) > 20

If the above requirements do not suit the site condition, provide pipe semi module (where

possible) with diaphragm of required diameter inserted at the first joint. The minimum

diameter of pipe used will be 150 mm.

Modular Outlets

If it is < or = 20, select OFM. Calculate the Bt ( throat width ), using weir formula.

If Bt is > 6 cm it is ok.

Otherwise select A.P.M.

Work out the Bt using the sluice formula setting the crest of outlet at less than 0.80 D

from FSL of Parent Channel and adjusting the height of outlet opening.

If Bt = or > 6 it is ok

Otherwise go for pipe semi module (PSM), if it is possible to do so.

Check for proportionally

Canal Outlets & Modular Outlets

Open Flume Module(OFM):

A smooth weir with a throat constricted sufficiently to ensure velocity above critical,

and long enough to ensure that the controlling section remain with in the parallel throat

at all discharges up to the maximum.

A gradually expanded flume is provided at the outfall to recover the head.

The entire work can be built in brick, but the controlling section is provided with cast

iron or steel bed and check plates.

Throat width Bt never kept less than 6cm hence it is necessary to raise the crest level

of the out let much above bed level.

Working head required with a 1 in 5 glacis and side walls splaying at 1 in 5 is 20% of

depth of water above the crest of out let.

Formation of hydraulic jump makes the out let independent of water level in the out let

channel

Canal Out lets & Modular Outlets

Open Flume Module (OFM):

Q in Cumecs = K Bt H3/2

For Bt , 6 cm to 9 cm K=1.6

9 cm to 12 cm K= 1.64

> 12cm K= 1.66

H = head over crest in m.

It is most suited to tail cluster and proportionate distribution.

Length of throat (crest) = 2H

Setting H = 0.9 D, where D is FS dept of Parent canal

Minimum working head (modular ) = 0.2 H

Crest level = U/S FSL 0.9 D

U/S approach to throat ----- one curved and diverging and another straight

D/S expansion------- splayed to 1 in 10 to meet the bed width of the out let channel

Canal Out lets & Modular Outlets

Canal Out lets & Modular Outlets

HYDRAULIC PARTICULARS

.

N Details Unit

Kopparam

o 13 R Minor

Major

.

1Discharge (Required) Cumecs 0.939 0.080

2Bed Width m 1.200 0.300

3F.S. Depth m 0.730 0.310

4Free Board m 0.610 0.460

5Bed Fall 1 in 2640 2000

6Side Slopes 1.5 : 1 1.5 : 1

7Velocity m/sec 0.561 0.339

8n 0.020 0.020

9CBL m 81.589 81.662

1

0FSL m 82.319 81.972

1

1TBL m 82.929 82.432

1

2GL m 82.929 82.432

Design of OFM

Canal Out lets & Modular Outlets

Open Flume Module (OFM):

Hydraulic Design:

= 11.738 < 20

Hence O.F.M. is Proposed.

FSD in the parent channel, D = 0.730 m

Depth of flow in the parent channel at 2/3rd discharge:

Dn = 0.594 m (assumed)

For 2/3rd Discharge in Parent Canal Qn = 2/3 x Q = 0.626 cumecs

Let Dn = 0.594 m , Area = 1.242 m2

Perimeter = 3.342 m, R = 0.372, and R2/3 = 0.517

Velocity = 0.504 m/sec

Discharge = 0.626 cumecs

Hence Dn i.e., depth of flow of 0.594 m in the parent channel assumed for

2/3rd discharge is correct.

Difference in depths of flow for full discharge and 2/3rd discharge

x = D - Dn = 0.730 - 0.594 = 0.136 m

Canal Out lets & Modular Outlets

Open Flume Module (OFM):

q = K x Bt x H3/2

Where K = Constant depending upon the width of flume

Bt = Throat width of weir

H = Head over crest in meters

Hn = Head over crest at 2/3 Q = ( H x )

For full discharge q = K x Bt x H3/2 - (1)

For 2/3 discharge q = K x Bt x (Hn)3/2 = K x Bt x (H-x)3/2 - ( 2 )

By dividing equation (1) by equation (2)

q / 2/3 q = K x Bt x H3/2 / 2/3 (q) K x Bt x (H - x)3/2

3/2 = (H3/2 /(H - x)3/2 ) 2/3

(3/2)2/3 = (H3/2 /(H - x)3/2 ) 2/3

1.310 = H / (H - x)

0.31 . H = 1.31 . x

H = 4.225 x

x = 0.136 m

Hence, H = 4.225 x 0.136 = 0.575 m

Crest Level = F.S.L. of Parent Channel - H

= 82.319 - 0.575 = 81.744 m

Canal Out lets & Modular Outlets

Open Flume Module (OFM):

Minimum Head required (modular) = 0.2 x H = 0.2 x 0.575 = 0.115 m

Available Working Head = Difference of FSL's in Parent Canal and Off - Take Canal

= 82.319 - 81.972 = 0.347 m OK

q = K x Bt x H3/2

Value of "K" as per IS: 12331-1988 = 1.64

Bt = q / (K . H3/2)

= 0.080 / 1.64 x (0.575)3/2 = 0.112 m

q = K x Bt x H3/2

= 1.64 x 0.112 x 0.5753/2

= 0.080 cumecs OK

For 2/3rd q:

qn = (2/3 x 0.080) = 0.053 cumecs

Hn = H - x = 0.575 - 0.136 = 0.439 m

qn = K x Bt x Hn3/2

= 1.64 x 0.112 x 0.4393/2 = 0.053 cumecs OK

In order to maintain the modularity of the outlet, the following parameters are

adopted.

Bt = 0.112 m

H = 0.575 m

Throat Length = 1.150 m

Crest Level = 81.744 m

Design of OFM

Open Flume Module

Canal Out lets & Modular Outlets

Canal outlets & Modules

Proportional Module (APM)

Q = 4.03 Bt Y Hs1/2

Y =Height of opening in meters.

Bt =Throat width (minimum 0.06 m )

H =Depth of water in parent canal over the crest in meters

Hs = Depth to under side of the roof block below FSL of parent canal.

Hs = H Y , Hs 0.80 D

y > (2/3 ) H

Setting of crest, H = 0.750 x D , where D = Full supply depth in the parent

canal

Setting of crest shall not be below D/S B.L.

Canal outlets & Modules

Minimum modular head Hm = 0.75 Hs for modularity between full supply and

any fraction of full supply.

Crest level U/S FSL- 0.75 D

Length of throat = width of roof block + H

U/S slope of glacis = curve with radius 2H.

U/s approach wings =one curved and the other straight, top at FSL + 0.15 m

D/S expansion =1 in 10 to meet bed width of outlet channel

Design of APM

Hydraulic Particulars:

At FS Discharge Condition At 2/3 FS Discharge Condition

2. Bed width in m 1.100 0.300 1.100 0.300

3. FSD in m 0.610 0.150 0.495 0.120

4. Bed fall 1 in 2500 2000 2500 2000

5. Value of n 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020

6. Velocity in m/s 0.518 0.231 0.464 0.183

7. Side slopes 1.5 : 1 1.5 : 1 1.5 : 1 1.5 : 1

8. Free board in m 0.610 0.450 0.610 0.450

9. CBL m 80.269 80.422 80.269 80.422

10. FSL m 80.879 80.572 80.764 80.542

11. TBL m 81.489 81.022

12. GL m 81.489 81.489

Ratio of Q / q = 0.636 / 0.018 = 35.333 > 20

Hence APM is proposed.

Design of APM

Design of APM

Hydraulic Design of APM

Propose APM if Q/q < 20 and Bt < 6 or Q/q >20

Ratio of Q/q = 0.636 / 0.018 = 35.333 > 20 Hence A P M is proposed

q = 4.03 x Bt x y x Hs1/2

Where Y = Height of opening in meters

Bt = Throat width

H =Depth of water in parent canal over the crest in meters.

Hs = Depth of under side of the roof block below FSL of parent canal

For 2/3 full supply Parent canal Off take canal

Qn =2/3Q = 0.424 cum qn =2/3*q = 0.012 cum

Let Dn = 0.496 m Let dn = 0.120

Area = 0.913 sq.m 0.058 sq. m

perimeter = 2.887 m 0.733 m

R = 0.316 m 0.079 m

R3/2 = 0.464 0.183

velocity = 0.464 m/sec 0.205 m/sec

discharge = 0.424 0.012

Design of APM

q = 4.03 x Bt x y x ( Hs ) (Page 11, Clause 6.3.1 of IS : 7986-1976)

Throat width Bt = q / (4.03 x (Hs) x Y)

Let Bt = 0.06 m

q = 4.03 x Bt x y x Hs1/2 --------------equation (1)

2/3 (q) = = 4.03 xBt x y x (Hsn)1/2 --------------equation (2)

Where Hsn = Hs - (D - Dn) = 4.03 x Bt x y x (Hs - (0.610 - 0.495))1/2

= 4.03 x Bt x y x (Hs - 0.115)1/2

Dividing equation (1) by (2)

q/ = 2/3 (q) = 4.03 x Bt x y x Hs1/2 / 4.03 x Bt x y x (Hs - 0.115)

3/2 = Hs1/2 / (Hs - 0.115)1/2

= 2 x Hs1/2 = 3 x (Hs - 0.115)1/2

4 x Hs = 9x (Hs - 0.115)

5 Hs = 1.0332

Hs = 0.207 m and Hs1/2 = 0.455

Hsn = Hs ( D Dn ) = 0.207 ( 0.610 0.495 ) = 0.092m

Design of APM

Y = q / 4.03xBtx(Hs)1/2

= 0.018 / 4.03 x 0.06 x 0.455

Y = 0.164 m say 0.165 m

Q = 4.03 Bt Y ( Hs ) = 4.03 x 0.06 x 0.165 x 0.455 = 0.018 cumecs

qn = 4.03 Bt Y ( Hsn ) = 4.03 x 0.06 x 0.165 x 0.303 = 0.012 cumecs

Bt = 0.060 m

Crest Level = U/S FSL - H = + 80.507

H = 0.372 m

Y = 0.165 m

Hs = 0.207 m

W= Setting forward of the D/S wing wall of the approach =0.15

The setting of the Wing wall W = K q/Q (Bu + D/2)

Design of APM

CRUMPS ADJUSTABLE PROPORTIONAL MODULE

Canal Outlets & Modules

Design criteria

The discharge through pipe semi module is given by

Q = Cd . A (2g hc )1/2

Where Cd = 0.62 for free pipe out let

hc = head on U/S above the centre of pipe

hc should be more than 1.5 times the dia of the pipe proposed.

Q = 0.62 x (2x 9.81 ) A (hcnt)

=2.746 A hc 1/2

For free fall condition set the F.S.L of OT Channel below the pipe sill level keeping in

view the command under the pipe sluice .It is a simplest type and the users will

appreciate.

Modular Outlets

DESIGN OF PIPE SEMI MODULE (for DIRECT OUTLET )

HYDRAULIC PARTICULARS

PARENT CHANNEL OUTLET CHANNEL

1 Ayacut Acres 597.0 75.00

2 Discharge (Required/Designed) Cumecs 0.2370 / 0.3460 0.030 / 0.033

3 Bed width m 1.100 0.300

4 Full Supply Depth m 0.500 0.220

5 Free board m 0.300 0.300

6 Side slopes (Inner / Outer) - 1.50 / 2 : 1 1.50 / 2 : 1

7 Top width of banks L/R m 4.000 / 2.50 0.900 / 0.900

8 C.B.L. m + 473.655 + 473.500

9 F.S.L. m + 474.155 + 473.720

10 T.B.L. m + 474.455 + 474.020

11 G.L. M + 474.855 + 474.855

Modular Outlets

Discharge through the Pipe Outlet by using Orifice formula:

Q = CA (2g hcnt)1/2

where C = 2. 476

Q = Discharge of Out Let

A = Cross section Area of Pipe

h(cnt) = Head of U/s water surface over the center of pipe

Q = CA (2g hcnt)1/2

Where C = 2.476

Provide Dia of Pipe = 16 cm

Area A = 0.020 m2

Q = 0.033 cumec

hcnt = Q CA 2

= 0.033 2.476x0.02

= 0.350 m > 1.5 times dia of pipe

Hydraulic Design of PSM

Pipe sill level (Invert Level) = 474.155 - 0.350 - 0.08 (pipe radius)

= 473.725m

Height of pipe above CBL = 473.725 475.655 = 0.070m

Pipe invert level = 473.725m

FSL of 17-R = 473.720m

Hence the pipe is at free fall condition

Design of PSM

THANK YOU

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