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TRAINING PROGRAMME ON

ENGINEERING DESIGNS-CANAL STRUCTURES

GENERAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES


Off Take Sluices, Canal outlets and Modules

BY
ROUTHU SATYANARAYANA
FORMER CHIEF ENGINEER
FORMER ADVISOR, GOVERNMENT OF A.P
Modular Outlets

DESIGN - EXAMPLES
HYDRAULIC DESIGN
OFM APM - PSM
Cross Masonry Works- Modular Outlets

Semi-Modular outlets or Flexible modules

Open Flume Outlet (OFMs)


Crumps Adjustable proportional Module
(Crumps APM)
Adjustable Orifice Semi module (AOSM)
Pipe Semi Module Pipe Out let (PSM)
Modular Outlets

The suitability of the type of the semi module outlet is determined based on the ratio of
parent canal discharge (Q) to the discharge of the out let (q) and the throat width (Bt) as
detailed below.

i) for (Q/q ) < or = 20 and B t 6 cm Open Flume Module( OFM)

ii) for (Q/q ) < or = 20 and B t < 6 cm Adjustable Proportional module ( APM )
for (Q/q ) > 20

If the above requirements do not suit the site condition, provide pipe semi module (where
possible) with diaphragm of required diameter inserted at the first joint. The minimum
diameter of pipe used will be 150 mm.
Modular Outlets

The above conditions are further explained as below

Arrive at the ratio of parent channel / out let channel.


If it is < or = 20, select OFM. Calculate the Bt ( throat width ), using weir formula.
If Bt is > 6 cm it is ok.
Otherwise select A.P.M.
Work out the Bt using the sluice formula setting the crest of outlet at less than 0.80 D
from FSL of Parent Channel and adjusting the height of outlet opening.
If Bt = or > 6 it is ok
Otherwise go for pipe semi module (PSM), if it is possible to do so.
Check for proportionally
Canal Outlets & Modular Outlets
Open Flume Module(OFM):

A smooth weir with a throat constricted sufficiently to ensure velocity above critical,
and long enough to ensure that the controlling section remain with in the parallel throat
at all discharges up to the maximum.
A gradually expanded flume is provided at the outfall to recover the head.
The entire work can be built in brick, but the controlling section is provided with cast
iron or steel bed and check plates.
Throat width Bt never kept less than 6cm hence it is necessary to raise the crest level
of the out let much above bed level.
Working head required with a 1 in 5 glacis and side walls splaying at 1 in 5 is 20% of
depth of water above the crest of out let.
Formation of hydraulic jump makes the out let independent of water level in the out let
channel
Canal Out lets & Modular Outlets
Open Flume Module (OFM):

Q in Cumecs = K Bt H3/2

Where K = a constant depending upon the width of the flume

Bt = throat width of the weir (minimum 6 cm)


For Bt , 6 cm to 9 cm K=1.6
9 cm to 12 cm K= 1.64
> 12cm K= 1.66
H = head over crest in m.
It is most suited to tail cluster and proportionate distribution.
Length of throat (crest) = 2H
Setting H = 0.9 D, where D is FS dept of Parent canal
Minimum working head (modular ) = 0.2 H
Crest level = U/S FSL 0.9 D
U/S approach to throat ----- one curved and diverging and another straight
D/S expansion------- splayed to 1 in 10 to meet the bed width of the out let channel
Canal Out lets & Modular Outlets

HYHDRAULIC DESIGN OF OFM


Canal Out lets & Modular Outlets

Open Flume Module (OFM):


HYDRAULIC PARTICULARS

S Parent Canal Off Take


.
N Details Unit
Kopparam
o 13 R Minor
Major
.
1Discharge (Required) Cumecs 0.939 0.080
2Bed Width m 1.200 0.300
3F.S. Depth m 0.730 0.310
4Free Board m 0.610 0.460
5Bed Fall 1 in 2640 2000
6Side Slopes 1.5 : 1 1.5 : 1
7Velocity m/sec 0.561 0.339
8n 0.020 0.020
9CBL m 81.589 81.662
1
0FSL m 82.319 81.972
1
1TBL m 82.929 82.432
1
2GL m 82.929 82.432
Design of OFM
Canal Out lets & Modular Outlets
Open Flume Module (OFM):

Hydraulic Design:

Ratio of Q/q = 0.939 / 0.08


= 11.738 < 20
Hence O.F.M. is Proposed.
FSD in the parent channel, D = 0.730 m
Depth of flow in the parent channel at 2/3rd discharge:
Dn = 0.594 m (assumed)
For 2/3rd Discharge in Parent Canal Qn = 2/3 x Q = 0.626 cumecs
Let Dn = 0.594 m , Area = 1.242 m2
Perimeter = 3.342 m, R = 0.372, and R2/3 = 0.517
Velocity = 0.504 m/sec
Discharge = 0.626 cumecs
Hence Dn i.e., depth of flow of 0.594 m in the parent channel assumed for
2/3rd discharge is correct.
Difference in depths of flow for full discharge and 2/3rd discharge
x = D - Dn = 0.730 - 0.594 = 0.136 m
Canal Out lets & Modular Outlets
Open Flume Module (OFM):

The discharge of the outlet q (in cumecs) is given by the formula:


q = K x Bt x H3/2
Where K = Constant depending upon the width of flume
Bt = Throat width of weir
H = Head over crest in meters
Hn = Head over crest at 2/3 Q = ( H x )
For full discharge q = K x Bt x H3/2 - (1)
For 2/3 discharge q = K x Bt x (Hn)3/2 = K x Bt x (H-x)3/2 - ( 2 )
By dividing equation (1) by equation (2)
q / 2/3 q = K x Bt x H3/2 / 2/3 (q) K x Bt x (H - x)3/2
3/2 = (H3/2 /(H - x)3/2 ) 2/3
(3/2)2/3 = (H3/2 /(H - x)3/2 ) 2/3
1.310 = H / (H - x)
0.31 . H = 1.31 . x
H = 4.225 x
x = 0.136 m
Hence, H = 4.225 x 0.136 = 0.575 m
Crest Level = F.S.L. of Parent Channel - H
= 82.319 - 0.575 = 81.744 m
Canal Out lets & Modular Outlets
Open Flume Module (OFM):
Minimum Head required (modular) = 0.2 x H = 0.2 x 0.575 = 0.115 m
Available Working Head = Difference of FSL's in Parent Canal and Off - Take Canal
= 82.319 - 81.972 = 0.347 m OK
q = K x Bt x H3/2
Value of "K" as per IS: 12331-1988 = 1.64
Bt = q / (K . H3/2)
= 0.080 / 1.64 x (0.575)3/2 = 0.112 m
q = K x Bt x H3/2
= 1.64 x 0.112 x 0.5753/2
= 0.080 cumecs OK
For 2/3rd q:
qn = (2/3 x 0.080) = 0.053 cumecs
Hn = H - x = 0.575 - 0.136 = 0.439 m
qn = K x Bt x Hn3/2
= 1.64 x 0.112 x 0.4393/2 = 0.053 cumecs OK
In order to maintain the modularity of the outlet, the following parameters are
adopted.
Bt = 0.112 m
H = 0.575 m
Throat Length = 1.150 m
Crest Level = 81.744 m
Design of OFM
Open Flume Module
Canal Out lets & Modular Outlets

HYHDRAULIC DESIGN OF APM


Canal outlets & Modules

Adjustable Orifice Semi Module (A.O.S.M) or Adjustable


Proportional Module (APM)

Discharge through outlet in cumecs


Q = 4.03 Bt Y Hs1/2
Y =Height of opening in meters.
Bt =Throat width (minimum 0.06 m )
H =Depth of water in parent canal over the crest in meters
Hs = Depth to under side of the roof block below FSL of parent canal.
Hs = H Y , Hs 0.80 D
y > (2/3 ) H
Setting of crest, H = 0.750 x D , where D = Full supply depth in the parent
canal
Setting of crest shall not be below D/S B.L.
Canal outlets & Modules

Setting of crest shall not be below D/S B.L.


Minimum modular head Hm = 0.75 Hs for modularity between full supply and
any fraction of full supply.
Crest level U/S FSL- 0.75 D
Length of throat = width of roof block + H
U/S slope of glacis = curve with radius 2H.
U/s approach wings =one curved and the other straight, top at FSL + 0.15 m
D/S expansion =1 in 10 to meet bed width of outlet channel

Design of APM

Hydraulic Particulars:

S.No. Details Kuppam Major DP 17-R Kuppam major DP 17-R


At FS Discharge Condition At 2/3 FS Discharge Condition

1. Discharge in Cumecs 0.636 0.018 0.424 0.012


2. Bed width in m 1.100 0.300 1.100 0.300
3. FSD in m 0.610 0.150 0.495 0.120
4. Bed fall 1 in 2500 2000 2500 2000
5. Value of n 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.020
6. Velocity in m/s 0.518 0.231 0.464 0.183
7. Side slopes 1.5 : 1 1.5 : 1 1.5 : 1 1.5 : 1
8. Free board in m 0.610 0.450 0.610 0.450
9. CBL m 80.269 80.422 80.269 80.422
10. FSL m 80.879 80.572 80.764 80.542
11. TBL m 81.489 81.022
12. GL m 81.489 81.489

Propose APM if Q / q < 20, or Q / q > 20, and Bt < 60 mm


Ratio of Q / q = 0.636 / 0.018 = 35.333 > 20
Hence APM is proposed.
Design of APM
Design of APM
Hydraulic Design of APM
Propose APM if Q/q < 20 and Bt < 6 or Q/q >20
Ratio of Q/q = 0.636 / 0.018 = 35.333 > 20 Hence A P M is proposed
q = 4.03 x Bt x y x Hs1/2
Where Y = Height of opening in meters
Bt = Throat width
H =Depth of water in parent canal over the crest in meters.
Hs = Depth of under side of the roof block below FSL of parent canal
For 2/3 full supply Parent canal Off take canal
Qn =2/3Q = 0.424 cum qn =2/3*q = 0.012 cum
Let Dn = 0.496 m Let dn = 0.120
Area = 0.913 sq.m 0.058 sq. m
perimeter = 2.887 m 0.733 m
R = 0.316 m 0.079 m
R3/2 = 0.464 0.183
velocity = 0.464 m/sec 0.205 m/sec
discharge = 0.424 0.012
Design of APM

Discharge through the outlet in cumecs.


q = 4.03 x Bt x y x ( Hs ) (Page 11, Clause 6.3.1 of IS : 7986-1976)
Throat width Bt = q / (4.03 x (Hs) x Y)
Let Bt = 0.06 m
q = 4.03 x Bt x y x Hs1/2 --------------equation (1)
2/3 (q) = = 4.03 xBt x y x (Hsn)1/2 --------------equation (2)
Where Hsn = Hs - (D - Dn) = 4.03 x Bt x y x (Hs - (0.610 - 0.495))1/2
= 4.03 x Bt x y x (Hs - 0.115)1/2
Dividing equation (1) by (2)
q/ = 2/3 (q) = 4.03 x Bt x y x Hs1/2 / 4.03 x Bt x y x (Hs - 0.115)
3/2 = Hs1/2 / (Hs - 0.115)1/2
= 2 x Hs1/2 = 3 x (Hs - 0.115)1/2
4 x Hs = 9x (Hs - 0.115)
5 Hs = 1.0332
Hs = 0.207 m and Hs1/2 = 0.455
Hsn = Hs ( D Dn ) = 0.207 ( 0.610 0.495 ) = 0.092m
Design of APM

Y = q / 4.03xBtx(Hs)1/2
= 0.018 / 4.03 x 0.06 x 0.455
Y = 0.164 m say 0.165 m
Q = 4.03 Bt Y ( Hs ) = 4.03 x 0.06 x 0.165 x 0.455 = 0.018 cumecs
qn = 4.03 Bt Y ( Hsn ) = 4.03 x 0.06 x 0.165 x 0.303 = 0.012 cumecs

The following Parameters may be adopted


Bt = 0.060 m
Crest Level = U/S FSL - H = + 80.507
H = 0.372 m
Y = 0.165 m
Hs = 0.207 m
W= Setting forward of the D/S wing wall of the approach =0.15
The setting of the Wing wall W = K q/Q (Bu + D/2)
Design of APM
CRUMPS ADJUSTABLE PROPORTIONAL MODULE
Canal Outlets & Modules

Pipe semi module (PSM)

Design criteria
The discharge through pipe semi module is given by
Q = Cd . A (2g hc )1/2
Where Cd = 0.62 for free pipe out let
hc = head on U/S above the centre of pipe
hc should be more than 1.5 times the dia of the pipe proposed.

The above formulae can be reduced to


Q = 0.62 x (2x 9.81 ) A (hcnt)
=2.746 A hc 1/2
For free fall condition set the F.S.L of OT Channel below the pipe sill level keeping in
view the command under the pipe sluice .It is a simplest type and the users will
appreciate.
Modular Outlets
DESIGN OF PIPE SEMI MODULE (for DIRECT OUTLET )

HYDRAULIC PARTICULARS

DESCRIPTION UNIT ` PARTICULARS


PARENT CHANNEL OUTLET CHANNEL
1 Ayacut Acres 597.0 75.00
2 Discharge (Required/Designed) Cumecs 0.2370 / 0.3460 0.030 / 0.033
3 Bed width m 1.100 0.300
4 Full Supply Depth m 0.500 0.220
5 Free board m 0.300 0.300
6 Side slopes (Inner / Outer) - 1.50 / 2 : 1 1.50 / 2 : 1
7 Top width of banks L/R m 4.000 / 2.50 0.900 / 0.900
8 C.B.L. m + 473.655 + 473.500
9 F.S.L. m + 474.155 + 473.720
10 T.B.L. m + 474.455 + 474.020
11 G.L. M + 474.855 + 474.855
Modular Outlets
Discharge through the Pipe Outlet by using Orifice formula:
Q = CA (2g hcnt)1/2
where C = 2. 476
Q = Discharge of Out Let
A = Cross section Area of Pipe
h(cnt) = Head of U/s water surface over the center of pipe

Q = CA (2g hcnt)1/2
Where C = 2.476
Provide Dia of Pipe = 16 cm
Area A = 0.020 m2
Q = 0.033 cumec
hcnt = Q CA 2
= 0.033 2.476x0.02
= 0.350 m > 1.5 times dia of pipe

Provide did. of pipe = 200mm


Hydraulic Design of PSM

The Center line of the Pipe = 474.155 0.350 = 473.805m


Pipe sill level (Invert Level) = 474.155 - 0.350 - 0.08 (pipe radius)
= 473.725m
Height of pipe above CBL = 473.725 475.655 = 0.070m
Pipe invert level = 473.725m
FSL of 17-R = 473.720m
Hence the pipe is at free fall condition
Design of PSM
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