You are on page 1of 45

WELCOME

Research Presentation on
Principal Researcher: Sagun Malla
ID NO: R2009-ANU-02M

Major Advisor: Prof. M. Sapkota, PhD


IAAS, Rampur, Chitwan

Funded by: NARDF


Background

Introduction Livestock subsystem is an integral part of agricultural


production system of Nepal and contributes 15% to
Literature Review
the national gross domestic product (GDP) in which
Materials and poultry sector alone contribute about 4% (Dhakal,
Methodology 2005).
Results and Discussions
Commercial poultry farming is growing at a rate of
Summary about 15% per annum involving over 30,000 farm
families directly or indirectly (Shrestha et.al, 1998).
Conclusion
The major problems to the growth of commercial
poultry enterprise are higher cost of production and
unavailability of feed ingredients and small holders
(100-300) birds/farm are affected more by the
problem (Shrestha et.al, 1998).
contd.

Farmers are seeking the measures for control and


Introduction management and use of alternative unconventional
feedstuffs to replace more costly ingredients with the
Literature Review cheaper one for better solution.
Materials and
Methodology Use of oilseed cakes and industrial byproducts could
have better practical importance but due to adoption of
Results and genetically modified crops there is need of other
Discussions
unconventional protein source be incorporated in feed
Summary (Chad, 2004) and it needs large experimentation and trial
before recommendation to farmers level.
contd.
Cassia tora L. (Taapre) grows in dry soil throughout the
tropical region of the country which grow abundantly
Introduction during the monsoon in uncultivated and barren lands.

Literature Review A single plant is capable of producing numerous sickle


shaped fruits, each containing many seeds.
Materials and
Methodology
Seeds: rhombohedral and brown in color, about 30 to 50
Results and in number.
Discussions

Summary The plant bears flowers in the rainy season and fruits in
the winter.
Proximate composition of raw C. tora seed

DM 97.5%
CP 17.8%
Introduction EE 6.00%
Literature Review CF 13.4%
Materials and Ash 6.1%
Methodology
Energy 366 Kcal
Results and
Discussions Calcium 781 mg/ 100 g

Summary
Iron 114 mg/ 100 g
Magnesium 220 mg/ 100 g
Zinc 3.6 mg/ 100 g

Source: Siruguri et. al., 2009


contd.

Japanese quail are used for commercial specialty in


Introduction meat and egg production and considered as research
animals.
Literature Review
Quails are fast growing birds, a day-old chicks matured
Materials and at 4 weeks period for table purpose and lay eggs in 36
Methodology
days of age.
Results and
Discussions They reproduce next generation in 70 days rearing
period (Osti, 2002).
Summary

Japanese quail used 27 percent crude protein diet for


starter and growing period and 20 percent CP for
breeder (NRC, 1984).
contd.

Use of unconventional feed resources like Cassia tora


may be used as a nutrient source of protein which may
reduce the feed cost and increase return in poultry
Introduction production.
Literature Review
Cassia are found abundantly in the arid areas of tropics
Materials and and subtropics, with CP content of 17.8% and energy
Methodology value of 3252.8 Kcal/kg seed and thus may be used in
poultry feeding.
Results and
Discussions

Summary
Objectives

General objective
To understand the effect of Cassia tora L. seed meal fed
Introduction
diets on the growth performance, meat characteristics
Literature Review
and economics of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix
japonica) production.
Materials and
Methodology
Specific objectives
To determine the chemical composition, nutritive value,
Results and weekly and daily feed consumption, feed conversion
Discussions ratio (FCR) and digestibility coefficient of different
nutrients (DM, CP, CF, EE, TA).
Summary To find out weekly cumulative live weight, weekly live
weight gain and daily weight gains of quail.
To know the meat characteristics (dressing percentage,
edible meat, giblet, offal and viscera) and economic
production (net income and benefit cost ratio).
Introduction
Unconventional feed stuffs
Cassia tora as livestock and poultry feed
Literature
Review Cassia tora seed
Materials and
Chemical composition of C. tora seed
Methodology
Effect on inclusion of C. tora in poultry diets
Results and
Discussions Economics of quail production
Conclusion
Experimental Site

Livestock farm
Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science
Introduction
Rampur, Chitwan.
Literature Review
Experimental Period
Materials and
Methodology
June 8, 2011 July 20, 2011 (42 days)
Results and Discussions

Summary
Experimental Design
Complete Randomised Design (CRD)
5 treatments
3 replications
sample size (n)= 7
Treatment and replication
Treatments Dietary description

T1 No inclusion of C. tora seed


Introduction T2 5% inclusion of C. tora seed
T3 10% inclusion of C. tora seed
Literature Review
T4 15% inclusion of C. tora seed
T5 20% inclusion of C. tora seed
Materials and
Methodology 250 280 310 315 350
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
Results and 807 750 710 630 612
Discussions T5 T4 T1 T3 T2

810 815 850 884 911


Summary T5 T1 T4 T2 T3

Lay out of an experiment (CRD) with five


treatments and three replications
Experimental Details

105 day old unsexed quail chicks were divided into 5


Introduction treatment groups and replicated thrice, consisting 7
quail chicks in each treatment group.
Literature Review

Materials and
Methodology
Results and Discussions

Summary
Procurement of materials

Required amount of feed ingredients was


Introduction
purchased from Suryalaxmi Poultry Farm,
Belchock, Narayangarh.
Literature Review

Materials and 105 day old Japanese quail was purchased from
Methodology the Bastola Poultry Farm, Naranyangarh.

Results and
Discussions Cassia tora seed was collected in coordination with
community from IAAS, Lamjung campus.
Summary
Housing Preperation

Cleaning and disinfections


Introduction
Preparation of experimental pen
Literature Review

Materials and
Methodology
Results and
Discussions

Summary
Feed formulation

S.No. INGREDIENTS T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
1Maize 41.05 35.6 29.61 23.74 17.43
2Rice Polish 5.38 6.03 6.56 7.04 7.75
Introduction 3DOC 0.5 1.54 3.38 5.58 6.41
4Cassia tora Seeds 0 5 10 15 20
Literature Review
5Soya cake 41.81 39.03 36.03 33 30.06
6Full fat soya 4.63 5.8 7.03 8.23 9.59
Materials and
7Molasses 0.5 0.5 1.01 1.15 2.64
Methodology
Meat and Bone
8 Meal 5 5 5 5 5
Results and
Discussions 9Calcium Dust 1.06 1.46 1.34 1.22 1.08
10Mineral Mixture 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04
Summary 11DL Methionine 0.03 0 0 0 0
Total 100 100 100 100 100

Cost (NRs/Kg) 29.61 28.22 26.96 25.69 24.43

Formulated through WINFED 2.8, 2010.


Processing and mixing of feed

Introduction

Literature Review

Materials and
Methodology

Results and
Discussions

Summary
Feed formulation and Feeding

The birds were given starter/grower diet from 0


Introduction to 6th week of age. The diet had energy value of
2750 ME Kcal/ Kg and CP content will be 27
Literature Review according to NRC (1984) feeding standard.
Materials and
Methodology
Results and
Discussions

Summary
Calculated nutrient composition of Japanese quail
starter/grower diets

Nutrients T1 T2 T3 T4 T5

Metabolizable energy (ME), Kcal/kg 2750.00 2750.00 2750.00 2750.00 2750.00

Introduction Crude protein (CP), % 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00

Literature Review Crude fibre (CF), % 4.67 4.71 4.83 5.00 5.00

Calcium (Ca), % 1.01 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20


Materials and
Methodology Phosphorous (available),% 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45

Lysine, % 1.56 1.71 1.85 2.00 2.14


Results
Methionine, % 0.44 0.45 0.48 0.51 0.54

Summary Methionine + Cystein, % 0.76 0.79 0.84 0.90 0.96

T1 = 0% inclusion of Cassia tora seeds in diets, T2 = 5% inclusion of Cassia tora seeds in diets, T3 = 10% inclusion of
Cassia tora seeds in diets, T4 = 15% inclusion of Cassia tora seeds in diets, T5 = 20% inclusion of Cassia tora seeds
in diets
Observation recorded

Chemical composition of C. tora seed


Proximate analysis of quail diets
Introduction
Body weight ( initial and weekly)
Literature Review Weekly feed consumption
Feed conversion ratio (FCR)
Materials and Dressing percentage
Methodology Economics
Results and
Discussions

Summary
calculations

Average weekly feed Intake (ADFI)


= Weekly feed offered- weekly left over feed
Introduction
Final wt. Initial wt. of birds
Literature Review Average daily gain = ------------------------------------------------
(ADG) No. of days No of birds
Materials and Average daily feed intake (g)
Methodology Feed conversion efficiency = -------------------------------------------
(FCR) Average daily gain (g)
Results and
Discussions feed consumed (g) faeces voided (g)
Digestibility coefficient = -------------------------------------------------------x 100
nutrient in feed (g)
Summary
nutrient in feed (g) nutrient in faeces (g)
DC of nutrients (%) = ------------------------------------------------------------x 100
nutrient in feed (g)
Dressing Percentage:
For determining dressing percentage, one bird from each treatment in all
replication was taken and the dressing percentage and sharing of different
Introduction organ like drum stick, breast ( boneless), Thigh, Back and inedible organ
Literature Review (viscera, shank, head, feather, blood ) were noted.

Materials and
Methodology

Results and
Dressed wt of birds (gm)
Discussions
Dressing percentage = -------------------------- 100
Summary Live weight of birds (gm)
Economics of production

Introduction
Gross income - Gross expenditure
Literature Review
Net income per birds (Rs) = ------------------------------------------------
Materials and Number of live birds
Methodology

Results and
Discussions

Summary
Statistical methods and data analysis

Data obtained from feeding trial will be recorded in MS Excel


and analysis of variance by using MSTAT program.
Introduction
Comparison between means was done by LSD at 5% level of
Literature Review
significance.
Materials and
Methodology

Results and
Discussions

Summary
Chemical composition of Cassia tora seed

DM % CP % CF % EE % TA%

C. tora seeds 87.6 20.51 13.8 4.3 12.6


Introduction
Roasted C. tora seeds 91.6 18.28 14.4 3.2 11.8
Literature Review
DM= Dry matter, CP= Crude protein, CF= Crude fiber, EE= Ether extract, TA= Total ash
Materials and
Methodology The findings of chemical composition of C. tora seed through
proximate analysis was well supported by the findings of Singh (1964),
Results Gohl (1975) and Taparia et al. (1978)

and The CP content was found slight higher than that found by Siruguri et
Discussions al. (2009) and Yen et al. (1998) which was 17.8% and 17.7%
respectively.
Summary
The percentage of CF and EE found was well supported by findings of
Siruguri et al. (2009) which was 13.6% and 6.0%.

Total ash content was found higher than findings of Siruguri et al.
(2009) and Yen et al. (1998) which was 6.1% and 4.83% respectively.
Table. Analyzed chemical composition of Japanese quail starter/grower
diets used in the experiment

Treatments DM % CP % CF % EE % TA%
Introduction T1 = 0% inclusion of C. tora 90.6 28.15 3.9 4.7 11.8
seed
Literature Review
T2 = 5% inclusion of C. tora 91.0 28.52 4.2 4.1 12.0
Materials and seed
Methodology T3 = 10% inclusion of C. tora 92.6 28.28 4.9 4.0 12.4
seed
Results T4 = 15% inclusion of C. tora 91.4 28.84 5.2 4.2 12.8
and seed

Discussions T5 = 20% inclusion of C. tora 91.8 28.19 5.9 4.2 12.8


seed
Summary Overall mean 91.48 28.39 4.82 4.24 12.36
Table. Effect of inclusion of C. tora seed meal on diets on digestibility
coefficient of Japanese quail at Rampur, Chitwan during 2011

Digestibility Coefficient, %
Treatments
Introduction DM CP EE CF TA
T1 36.42 35.03 49.15 28.21 15.25
Literature Review
T2 40.22 34.19 36.83 38.10 9.17
Materials and T3 44.28 35.57 31.00 44.90 11.29
Methodology
T4 42.23 32.18 29.52 36.54 11.72
Results T5 44.66 24.33 14.29 38.98 13.28
and
Discussions
The present result is supported by the findings of
Summary Ayssiwede et. al. (2010) who recorded the digestibility of CP
increases on 5 % inclusion of C. tora in feed and decreases on
further addition of Cassia
Table. Cumulative weekly feed intake of Japanese quail under different level of C. tora seed
meal included on their diets at IAAS, Rampur, 2011.

Treatment First week Second week Third week Fourth week 42 days

T1 160.070.98 295.753.46 426.694.50 585.332.77ab 680.943.08ab

T2 159.791.54 292.716.77 431.206.48 594.027.91a 688.448.58a

T3 157.182.53 290.753.38 426.500.65 580.973.80b 674.684.31bc

T4 159.771.31 290.033.96 424.601.82 578.602.56b 672.583.38bc

T5 156.630.82 287.161.32 97.382.70 573.683.59b 666.953.78c

F-value 3.356 1.767 1.226 8.587* 8.009*


Probability >0.05 >0.05 >0.05 <0.05 <0.05
CV % 0.98 1.43 0.89 0.78 0.75
LS0.05 ns ns ns 9.03 9.180
Contd.

The results are in agreement with findings of Ayssiwede


Introduction et. al. (2010) who reported decrease in feed intake with
increase in inclusion of C. tora seed on diets
Literature Review

Materials and The total feed consumption on all treatments at 42 days


Methodology age are higher than that of findings of Chimote et. al.
(2009) and Thapa (2008)
Results
and Lower feed intake with increased amount of C. tora
seed in the diets may be due to the presence of tannins
Discussions and saponins in the seed which resembles the results by
Summary
Katoch et. al. (1978)
Table. Cumulative weekly body weight of Japanese quail under different level of C. tora seed
meal included on their diets at IAAS, Rampur, 2011.

Treatment 0 day 1st week 2nd week 3rd week 4th week 42 days

T1 36.450.67 71.420.35 108.304.10a 127.085.08a 141.344.67ab 147.145.67a

T2 36.540.62 70.882.42 108.332.70a 127.612.89a 143.571.89a 149.094.02a

T3 36.510.55 69.391.64 103.811.80a 125.951.09a 137.383.93b 142.382.97a

T4 36.740.53 72.572.32 106.672.30a 124.053.57a 138.810.41ab 145.240.82a

T5 36.750.87 72.662.09 97.382.70b 110.003.78b 118.573.57c 126.433.98b

F-value 0.133 1.478 7.910 13.076** 27.866** 16.805**


Probability 1.80 2.69 2.69 2.87 2.41 2.70
CV % NS NS 5.141 6.424 5.965 6.980
LS0.05 0.38 1.11 1.63 2.04 1.89 2.22
Figure. Weekly body weight of Japanese quail under different level of C.
tora seed meal included on their diets at IAAS, Rampur, 2011.

Introduction
160

140

Literature
Review 120

100
Materials and T1
weight (gm)

Methodology
T2
80
T3
T4

Results
60
T5

and
40

Discussions 20

Summary
0 day 1st week 2nd week 3rd week 4th week 42 days
Figure . Trend of final body weight of Japanese quail under different level
of C. tora seed meal included in their diets

155
Introduction 150
145

Weight, g
140
Literature Review 135
130

Materials and 125


120
Methodology 115
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5

Results Treatment

and Weight was significantly difference with inclusion of different level


Discussions of C. tora seed meal in Japanese quail diets

Summary It was found slight increased in 5% inclusion of C. tora seed meal


but sharply decreased with 20% inclusion of C. tora seed
Contd.

The present results are in arrangement with the findings of

Introduction Ayssiwede et. al. (2010) who recorded decreased body weight
gain on increased C. tora inclusion in the diets
Literature Review
Singh et. al. (2001) who recorded increased body weight gain in
Materials and all C.tora fed groups
Methodology
Murty and Iyer (1957) who found non significant difference in
Results body weight gain in control diet and 10% inclusion of C. tora seed
and meal on the diets

Discussions
Summary
Table. Average Daily Gain (ADG) of Japanese quail under different level of
C. tora seed meal included on their diets at IAAS, Rampur, 2011.

Introduction Treatment Average Daily Gain (g)


Feed with NO inclusion of C. tora seed -T1
Literature 0.430.02a
Review
Feed with 5% inclusion of C. tora seed -T2 0.430.01a
Materials and Feed with 10% inclusion of C. tora seed -T3 0.420.01ab
Methodology Feed with 15% inclusion of C. tora seed -T4 0.370.06bc
Feed with 20% inclusion of C. tora seed -T5 0.350.02c
Results F-value 5.221*

and
Probability >0.05
CV % 7.21
Discussions LS0.05 0.057

Summary

The present findings is well supported by Ayssiwede et. al. (2010) who
recorded decreased average daily gain on increased amount of C. tora on diets of
poultry
Table. Feed conversion ratio of Japanese quail under different level of C. tora seed meal included
in the diets at IAAS, Rampur, 2011

Age of birds (weeks) on feeding trial


Treatments
Initial First Second Third Fourth Fifth

T1 1.980.04 2.240.01 2.730.11b 3.360.14b 4.150.16b 4.630.19b

T2 1.980.03 2.260.08 2.700.12b 3.380.03b 4.140.03b 4.620.09b

T3 1.980.03 2.260.02 2.800.04b 3.370.04b 4.230.10b 4.740.08b

T4 1.970.03 2.200.09 2.720.08b 3.440.10b 4.170.02b 4.630.03b

T5 1.970.03 2.160.06 2.950.09a 3.860.12a 4.840.13a 5.280.14a

F-value 0.131 1.761 3.558* 13.650** 26.176** 16.893**


CV % 1.79 2.69 3.35 2.86 2.37 2.49
LSD0.05 NS NS 0.1726 0.1819 0.1819 0.2153
SEM 0.02 0.004 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.014
Contd.

The present result was well supported by the findings of


Introduction Singh et. al. (2001) who reported the lower feed conversion
ratio in C. tora fed groups with lowest in 5% inclusion in
Literature Review broiler diets
Materials and
Methodology
The result of feed conversion ratio was in contradiction to
findings of
Ayssiwede et. al. (2010) who reported the non-significant
Results result on feed conversion ratio
and
Discussions
Summary
Table. Dressing percentage and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail
under different level of C. tora seed meal included in the diets at IAAS,
Rampur, 2011

Treatments
Particulars
Introduction T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
Live Body weight 160.81 164.37 185.14 167.18 149.08
Literature Review Leg, % 18.26 17.61 16.58 16.86 17.20

Materials and Wings, % 4.03 4.86 4.31 4.20 3.87


Methodology Chest, % 26.64 25.48 28.23 25.55 26.29
Back meat, % 12.76 15.92 12.75 12.85 13.59
Results Visceral, % 17.29 17.86 21.55 18.56 18.69
and Liver, % 2.00 2.56 3.46 3.00 2.69
Discussions Heart, % 0.81 0.57 0.73 0.90 0.94
Gizzard, % 3.13 3.43 3.95 3.77 3.50
Summary
Empty Gizzard, % 2.07 2.48 2.68 2.64 2.54
Head, % 3.65 3.56 3.22 3.64 3.54
Neck, % 2.92 2.77 2.93 3.00 3.11
Dressing, % 68.26 70.20 68.01 66.09 67.60
Contd.

Introduction
The present results are supported by Singh et. al. (2001) and Pandit
Literature Review et. al. (1979) who reported non significant dressing percentage between
the treatment groups
Materials and
Methodology The chest meat and legs constituted major proportion of the body
weight which is supported by the findings of Tserveni and Yannakopulos
Results (1986)

and
Discussions
Summary

Conclusion
Table . Economics of Quail Production
Introduction

Literature
Review
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5
Materials and Cost of production for each
Methodology bird 58.01 57.28 56.04 55.13 54.14

Results Income per bird 82.27 89.45 85.42 87.14 75.85


and
Net Income per bird 24.26 32.17 29.38 32.01 21.71
Discussions
Benefit Cost Ratio 1.41 1.56 1.52 1.58 1.40
Summary

Conclusion
The chemical composition of C. tora seed was recorded as
87.6% DM, 20.51% CP, 13.8% CF, 4.3% EE and 12.6% total ash
Introduction
Cumulative feed consumption was recorded significant
Literature (P<0.05), the highest on T2 (688.44 g) and minimum on T5
Review (666.95 g), and no significant difference between control and
15% inclusion of C. tora seed
Materials and
Methodology Average cumulative body weight was recorded significantly
(P<0.05) highest at T2 on second, third, fourth and fifth week
Results and of feeding trial which is non significant between T1, T3 and T4
Discussions but significantly differ from T5

Summary
Conclusion
Contd.

Introduction

Literature Feed conversion ratio on the fifth week of feeding trial was
Review good on T2 (4.62) and poor on T5 (5.28)

Materials and The highest dressing percentage was recorded on T2 (70.20%)


Methodology and lowest on T5 (67.60%)

Results and The net income per bird was recorded maximum (Rs. 32.01)
Discussions on T4 and minimum (Rs. 21.71) on T5

Summary
Conclusion
Better cumulative live weight at 42 days of age (149.09 g)
was obtained when quails are fed with diets including 5%
Introduction
C. tora seed meal
Literature
Feed conversion ratio, dressing percentage and net income
Review
are also recorded highest in 5% inclusion of C. tora seed
meal in the diets
Materials and
Methodology
weekly body weight gain, cumulative body weight,
average daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio
Results and
are non significant among control diet and diet containing
Discussions
15% C. tora seed meal, and benefit cost ratio was highest
for 15% C. tora included meal, it can be concluded that C.
Summary
tora seed can be included upto 15 % of the total feed in
Japanese Quail.
Conclusion
Acknowledgements to:
Advisory Committee
NARDF
Dean, IAAS
Assistant Deans and PG Coordinator
Prof . Jagat Lal Yadav, Ph. D. and Department of Animal Nutrition and
Fodder Production
Nabin Dawadi
Nirmal Katuwal
Colleagues and Friends

THANK YOU