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REASONING

STATEMENT

FALSE BUT NOT BOTH

STATEMENT

TEN IS LESS THAN ELEVEN

STATEMENT ( TRUE )

STATEMENT ( FALSE)

NOT A STATEMENT

no Sentence statement Not reason

statement

1 123 is true

divisible by 3

2

3 4 5

2 2 false

4 Is 1 a prime

number? A question

true

eight sides

QUANTIFIERS

USED TO INDICATE THE QUANTITY

ALL TO SHOW THAT EVERY OBJECT

SATISFIES CERTAIN CONDITIONS

OBJECTS SATISFY CERTAIN CONDITIONS

QUANTIFIERS

EXAMPLE :

- Some even numbers are divisible by 4

- All perfect squares are more than 0

OPERATIONS ON SETS

NEGATION

changed by adding the word not into a

statement.

TRUE FALSE

NEGATION

EXAMPLE

NUMBER (FALSE )

COMPOUND

STATEMENT

COMPOUND STATEMENT

A compound statement is formed when

two statements are combined by using

Or

and

COMPOUND STATEMENT

P Q P AND Q

TRUE TRUE TRUE

TRUE FALSE FALSE

FALSE TRUE FALSE

FALSE FALSE FALSE

COMPOUND STATEMENT

P Q P OR Q

TRUE TRUE TRUE

TRUE FALSE TRUE

FALSE TRUE TRUE

FALSE FALSE FALSE

COMPOUND STATEMENT

EXAMPLE :

( TRUE )

Q : -6 > -1

( FALSE )

P and Q :

FALSE

COMPOUND STATEMENT

P : All even numbers can be divided by 2

( TRUE )

Q : -6 > -1

( FALSE )

P OR Q :

TRUE

IMPLICATIONS

SENTENCES IN THE FORM

If p then q ,

where

p and q are statements

q is the consequent

IMPLICATIONS

Example :

If x3 = 64 , then x = 4

Antecedent : x3 = 64

Consequent : x = 4

IMPLICATIONS

Example :

Identify the antecedent and consequent for the

implication below.

If the whether is fine this evening, then I

will play football

Answer :

Antecedent : the whether is fine this evening

Consequent : I will play football

p if and only if q

The sentence in the form p if and only if

q , is a compound statement containing

two implications:

a) If p , then q

b) If q , then p

p if and only if q

p if and only if q

If p , then q If q , then p

Homework !!!!

Pg: 96 No 1 and 2

Pg: 98 No 1, 2 ( b, c )

4 ( a, b, c, d)

IMPLICATIONS

The converse of

If p ,then q

is

if q , then p.

IMPLICATIONS

Example :

If x = -5 , then 2x 7 = -17

Mathematical reasoning

Arguments

ARGUMENTS

What is argument ?

- A process of making conclusion based on

a set of relevant information.

premises and a conclusion

ARGUMENTS

Example :

rhombus is a quadrilateral. Therefore, a

rhombus has four sides.

ARGUMENTS

arguments :

Argument Form I ( Syllogism )

Premise 1 : All A are B

Premise 2 : C is A

Conclusion : C is B

ARGUMENTS

Argument Form 1( Syllogism )

below:

Premise 1 : All even numbers can be divided

by 2

Premise 2 : 78 is an even number

ARGUMENTS

Argument Form II ( Modus Ponens ):

Premise 1 : If p , then q

Premise 2 : p is true

Conclusion : q is true

ARGUMENTS

Example

Premise 1 : If x = 6 , then x + 4 = 10

Premise 2 : x = 6

Conclusion : x + 4 = 10

ARGUMENTS

Argument Form III (Modus Tollens )

Premise 1 : If p , then q

Premise 2 : Not q is true

Conclusion : Not p is true

ARGUMENTS

Example :

Premise 1 : If ABCD is a square, then

ABCD has four sides

Premise 2 : ABCD does not have four

sides.

Conclusion : ABCD is not a square

ARGUMENTS

Completing the arguments

form

ARGUMENTS

Example

Premise 1 : All triangles have a sum of

interior angles of 180

PQR is a triangle

Premise 2 :

___________________________

Conclusion : PQR has a sum of interior

angles of 180

Argument Form I

ARGUMENTS

Premise 1 : If x - 6 = 10 , then x = 16

x 6 = 10

Premise 2

:__________________________

Conclusion : x Argument

= 16 Form II

ARGUMENTS

number

__________________________

Conclusion : Argument

x is not Form

divisible

III by 2

ARGUMENTS

Homework :

Pg : 103 Ex 4.5 No 2,3,4,5

MATHEMATICAL

REASONING

DEDUCTION

AND

INDUCTION

REASONING

There are two ways of making conclusions

through reasoning by

a) Deduction

b) Induction

DEDUCTION

IS A PROCESS OF MAKING A

SPECIFIC CONCLUSION BASED ON A

GIVEN GENERAL STATEMENT

DEDUCTION

Example :

general

David is a student in Form 4X.

Conclusion : David is present today

Specific

INDUCTION

CONCLUSION BASED ON SPECIFIC

CASES.

INDUCTION

INDUCTION

Amy is a student in Form 4X. Amy likes

Physics

Carol is a student in Form 4X. Carol likes

Physics

Elize is a student in Form 4X. Elize likes

Physics

..

Conclusion : All students in Form 4X like

Physics .

REASONING

Deduction

GENERAL SPECIFIC

Induction

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