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# MATHEMATICAL

REASONING
STATEMENT

## A SENTENCE EITHER TRUE OR

FALSE BUT NOT BOTH
STATEMENT
TEN IS LESS THAN ELEVEN
STATEMENT ( TRUE )

## TEN IS LESS THAN ONE

STATEMENT ( FALSE)

## PLEASE KEEP QUIET IN THE LIBRARY

NOT A STATEMENT
no Sentence statement Not reason
statement
1 123 is true
divisible by 3
2
3 4 5
2 2 false

## 3 X-2 9 Neither true or false

4 Is 1 a prime
number? A question

## 5 All octagons have

true
eight sides
QUANTIFIERS
USED TO INDICATE THE QUANTITY
ALL TO SHOW THAT EVERY OBJECT
SATISFIES CERTAIN CONDITIONS

## SOME TO SHOW THAT ONE OR MORE

OBJECTS SATISFY CERTAIN CONDITIONS
QUANTIFIERS
EXAMPLE :

## - All cats have four legs

- Some even numbers are divisible by 4
- All perfect squares are more than 0
OPERATIONS ON SETS
NEGATION

## The truth value of a statement can be

changed by adding the word not into a
statement.

TRUE FALSE
NEGATION
EXAMPLE

## P (NOT P ) : 2 IS NOT AN EVEN

NUMBER (FALSE )
COMPOUND
STATEMENT
COMPOUND STATEMENT
A compound statement is formed when
two statements are combined by using

Or
and
COMPOUND STATEMENT

P Q P AND Q
TRUE TRUE TRUE
TRUE FALSE FALSE
FALSE TRUE FALSE
FALSE FALSE FALSE
COMPOUND STATEMENT

P Q P OR Q
TRUE TRUE TRUE
TRUE FALSE TRUE
FALSE TRUE TRUE
FALSE FALSE FALSE
COMPOUND STATEMENT
EXAMPLE :

## P : All even numbers can be divided by 2

( TRUE )
Q : -6 > -1
( FALSE )
P and Q :
FALSE
COMPOUND STATEMENT
P : All even numbers can be divided by 2
( TRUE )
Q : -6 > -1
( FALSE )

P OR Q :
TRUE
IMPLICATIONS
SENTENCES IN THE FORM

If p then q ,
where
p and q are statements

## And p is the antecedent

q is the consequent
IMPLICATIONS
Example :

If x3 = 64 , then x = 4
Antecedent : x3 = 64
Consequent : x = 4
IMPLICATIONS
Example :
Identify the antecedent and consequent for the
implication below.
If the whether is fine this evening, then I
will play football
Antecedent : the whether is fine this evening
Consequent : I will play football
p if and only if q
The sentence in the form p if and only if
q , is a compound statement containing
two implications:
a) If p , then q
b) If q , then p
p if and only if q
p if and only if q

If p , then q If q , then p
Homework !!!!

Pg: 96 No 1 and 2

Pg: 98 No 1, 2 ( b, c )
4 ( a, b, c, d)
IMPLICATIONS

The converse of
If p ,then q
is
if q , then p.
IMPLICATIONS

Example :

If x = -5 , then 2x 7 = -17
Mathematical reasoning
Arguments
ARGUMENTS
What is argument ?
- A process of making conclusion based on
a set of relevant information.

## - Simple arguments are made up of two

premises and a conclusion
ARGUMENTS
Example :

## All quadrilaterals have four sides. A

rhombus is a quadrilateral. Therefore, a
rhombus has four sides.
ARGUMENTS

## There are three forms of

arguments :
Argument Form I ( Syllogism )
Premise 1 : All A are B

Premise 2 : C is A

Conclusion : C is B
ARGUMENTS
Argument Form 1( Syllogism )

## Make a conclusion based on the premises given

below:
Premise 1 : All even numbers can be divided
by 2
Premise 2 : 78 is an even number

## Conclusion : 78 can be divided by 2

ARGUMENTS
Argument Form II ( Modus Ponens ):
Premise 1 : If p , then q
Premise 2 : p is true
Conclusion : q is true
ARGUMENTS
Example

Premise 1 : If x = 6 , then x + 4 = 10
Premise 2 : x = 6
Conclusion : x + 4 = 10
ARGUMENTS
Argument Form III (Modus Tollens )
Premise 1 : If p , then q
Premise 2 : Not q is true
Conclusion : Not p is true
ARGUMENTS
Example :
Premise 1 : If ABCD is a square, then
ABCD has four sides
Premise 2 : ABCD does not have four
sides.
Conclusion : ABCD is not a square
ARGUMENTS
Completing the arguments

## Complete the argument according to its

form
ARGUMENTS

Example
Premise 1 : All triangles have a sum of
interior angles of 180
PQR is a triangle
Premise 2 :
___________________________
Conclusion : PQR has a sum of interior
angles of 180
Argument Form I
ARGUMENTS

Premise 1 : If x - 6 = 10 , then x = 16
x 6 = 10
Premise 2
:__________________________

Conclusion : x Argument
= 16 Form II
ARGUMENTS

## Premise 1 : If x divisible by 2 , then x is an even

number
__________________________

## Premise 2 : x is not an even number

Conclusion : Argument
x is not Form
divisible
III by 2
ARGUMENTS
Homework :
Pg : 103 Ex 4.5 No 2,3,4,5
MATHEMATICAL
REASONING
DEDUCTION
AND
INDUCTION
REASONING
There are two ways of making conclusions
through reasoning by

a) Deduction
b) Induction
DEDUCTION

IS A PROCESS OF MAKING A
SPECIFIC CONCLUSION BASED ON A
GIVEN GENERAL STATEMENT
DEDUCTION
Example :
general

## All students in Form 4X are present today.

David is a student in Form 4X.
Conclusion : David is present today

Specific
INDUCTION

## A PROCESS OF MAKING A GENERAL

CONCLUSION BASED ON SPECIFIC
CASES.
INDUCTION
INDUCTION
Amy is a student in Form 4X. Amy likes
Physics
Carol is a student in Form 4X. Carol likes
Physics
Elize is a student in Form 4X. Elize likes
Physics
..
Conclusion : All students in Form 4X like
Physics .
REASONING
Deduction

GENERAL SPECIFIC

Induction