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MATHEMATICAL

REASONING
STATEMENT

A SENTENCE EITHER TRUE OR


FALSE BUT NOT BOTH
STATEMENT
TEN IS LESS THAN ELEVEN
STATEMENT ( TRUE )

TEN IS LESS THAN ONE


STATEMENT ( FALSE)

PLEASE KEEP QUIET IN THE LIBRARY


NOT A STATEMENT
no Sentence statement Not reason
statement
1 123 is true
divisible by 3
2
3 4 5
2 2 false

3 X-2 9 Neither true or false

4 Is 1 a prime
number? A question

5 All octagons have


true
eight sides
QUANTIFIERS
USED TO INDICATE THE QUANTITY
ALL TO SHOW THAT EVERY OBJECT
SATISFIES CERTAIN CONDITIONS

SOME TO SHOW THAT ONE OR MORE


OBJECTS SATISFY CERTAIN CONDITIONS
QUANTIFIERS
EXAMPLE :

- All cats have four legs


- Some even numbers are divisible by 4
- All perfect squares are more than 0
OPERATIONS ON SETS
NEGATION

The truth value of a statement can be


changed by adding the word not into a
statement.

TRUE FALSE
NEGATION
EXAMPLE

P : 2 IS AN EVEN NUMBER ( TRUE )

P (NOT P ) : 2 IS NOT AN EVEN


NUMBER (FALSE )
COMPOUND
STATEMENT
COMPOUND STATEMENT
A compound statement is formed when
two statements are combined by using

Or
and
COMPOUND STATEMENT

P Q P AND Q
TRUE TRUE TRUE
TRUE FALSE FALSE
FALSE TRUE FALSE
FALSE FALSE FALSE
COMPOUND STATEMENT

P Q P OR Q
TRUE TRUE TRUE
TRUE FALSE TRUE
FALSE TRUE TRUE
FALSE FALSE FALSE
COMPOUND STATEMENT
EXAMPLE :

P : All even numbers can be divided by 2


( TRUE )
Q : -6 > -1
( FALSE )
P and Q :
FALSE
COMPOUND STATEMENT
P : All even numbers can be divided by 2
( TRUE )
Q : -6 > -1
( FALSE )

P OR Q :
TRUE
IMPLICATIONS
SENTENCES IN THE FORM

If p then q ,
where
p and q are statements

And p is the antecedent

q is the consequent
IMPLICATIONS
Example :

If x3 = 64 , then x = 4
Antecedent : x3 = 64
Consequent : x = 4
IMPLICATIONS
Example :
Identify the antecedent and consequent for the
implication below.
If the whether is fine this evening, then I
will play football
Answer :
Antecedent : the whether is fine this evening
Consequent : I will play football
p if and only if q
The sentence in the form p if and only if
q , is a compound statement containing
two implications:
a) If p , then q
b) If q , then p
p if and only if q
p if and only if q

If p , then q If q , then p
Homework !!!!

Pg: 96 No 1 and 2

Pg: 98 No 1, 2 ( b, c )
4 ( a, b, c, d)
IMPLICATIONS

The converse of
If p ,then q
is
if q , then p.
IMPLICATIONS

Example :

If x = -5 , then 2x 7 = -17
Mathematical reasoning
Arguments
ARGUMENTS
What is argument ?
- A process of making conclusion based on
a set of relevant information.

- Simple arguments are made up of two


premises and a conclusion
ARGUMENTS
Example :

All quadrilaterals have four sides. A


rhombus is a quadrilateral. Therefore, a
rhombus has four sides.
ARGUMENTS

There are three forms of


arguments :
Argument Form I ( Syllogism )
Premise 1 : All A are B

Premise 2 : C is A

Conclusion : C is B
ARGUMENTS
Argument Form 1( Syllogism )

Make a conclusion based on the premises given


below:
Premise 1 : All even numbers can be divided
by 2
Premise 2 : 78 is an even number

Conclusion : 78 can be divided by 2


ARGUMENTS
Argument Form II ( Modus Ponens ):
Premise 1 : If p , then q
Premise 2 : p is true
Conclusion : q is true
ARGUMENTS
Example

Premise 1 : If x = 6 , then x + 4 = 10
Premise 2 : x = 6
Conclusion : x + 4 = 10
ARGUMENTS
Argument Form III (Modus Tollens )
Premise 1 : If p , then q
Premise 2 : Not q is true
Conclusion : Not p is true
ARGUMENTS
Example :
Premise 1 : If ABCD is a square, then
ABCD has four sides
Premise 2 : ABCD does not have four
sides.
Conclusion : ABCD is not a square
ARGUMENTS
Completing the arguments

recognise the argument form

Complete the argument according to its


form
ARGUMENTS

Example
Premise 1 : All triangles have a sum of
interior angles of 180
PQR is a triangle
Premise 2 :
___________________________
Conclusion : PQR has a sum of interior
angles of 180
Argument Form I
ARGUMENTS

Premise 1 : If x - 6 = 10 , then x = 16
x 6 = 10
Premise 2
:__________________________

Conclusion : x Argument
= 16 Form II
ARGUMENTS

Premise 1 : If x divisible by 2 , then x is an even


number
__________________________

Premise 2 : x is not an even number

Conclusion : Argument
x is not Form
divisible
III by 2
ARGUMENTS
Homework :
Pg : 103 Ex 4.5 No 2,3,4,5
MATHEMATICAL
REASONING
DEDUCTION
AND
INDUCTION
REASONING
There are two ways of making conclusions
through reasoning by

a) Deduction
b) Induction
DEDUCTION

IS A PROCESS OF MAKING A
SPECIFIC CONCLUSION BASED ON A
GIVEN GENERAL STATEMENT
DEDUCTION
Example :
general

All students in Form 4X are present today.


David is a student in Form 4X.
Conclusion : David is present today

Specific
INDUCTION

A PROCESS OF MAKING A GENERAL


CONCLUSION BASED ON SPECIFIC
CASES.
INDUCTION
INDUCTION
Amy is a student in Form 4X. Amy likes
Physics
Carol is a student in Form 4X. Carol likes
Physics
Elize is a student in Form 4X. Elize likes
Physics
..
Conclusion : All students in Form 4X like
Physics .
REASONING
Deduction

GENERAL SPECIFIC

Induction