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Republic of the Philippines

LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY


MAIN CAMPUS
Sta. Cruz, Laguna

GRADUATE STUDIES AND APPLIED RESEARCH

Planning and Controlling

Course Code : EM 505


Course Title: Institutional Management and Control
Professor : Mario C. Pasion, Ed. D. Ffp
Reporter : Cecilia Jocson
CONCEPTS OF
PLANNING
DEFINITION OF PLANNING

McFarland (1964)
Planning is an important administrative function.
To get things done, administrators must plan
ahead.
Planning bridges the gap between where we are
now and where we want to be.
Pervasive and continuous executive function
involving complex processes or perception,
analysis, conceptual thought, communication,
decision and action.
Ackoff (1964)
Planning is the design of the desired future and
of effective ways of bringing it abroad.

Hick and Gullet (1976)


Planning is deciding in advance what to do,
how to do it, when to do it, who is to do it and
how to measure performance

out planning, we leave the events to cha


WHY, WHAT,
IMPACT OF
PLANNING
Rich, uneducated Chinese
businessmen dont plan at
A good question to start with is:

Why PLAN in the first place?

What does a university or a school get out of planning?


Does it make any difference?

Some will claim that they have not been doing any
planning all through the years and still the school
operates, runs along every year, students come in and out,
teachers come in and out, so whats the great difference
about planning or not planning at all?
PLANNING is not just paper documents, or
computer-aided analyses or academic research
studies. It is not budget, or even forecasts.
Planning is not the work done by one planning
officer, and then shelved. It is not just academic or
a mere theory. Not just a workshop or a seminar.
Franco adds, planning may be articulated through
these means, or their inputs taken from these
studies, or their outputs documented on computer
printouts and paper volumes.
WHY PLAN IN THE FIRST PLACE?

Why should we plan, and what can we gain from it?


Planning is vital to all schools because it helps build better
programs for students. It does this by helping you to:

Decide how and where to set priorities in the use of


limited human and economic resources.
Decide how to accomplish not only your short-range
goals, but also your medium and long-range goals.
Build on the strong and successful parts of the program,
as well as to identify and improve the weak points.
Reach agreement in the school community about what to
do and how to do it.
What a Good Planning Process Is
What a Good Planning Process Is
Not
It is organized thinking that helps in It is not merely writing a plan or
deciding what needs to be done, how filling out forms.
it will happen, and who will do it. It is not using steps or processes that
It is the setting or priorities. dont work.
It is trying to anticipate the future. It is not involving people without
It is involving those affected by the considering their ideas.
results of planning It is not deciding what to do without
It is adapting and modifying steps or figuring out how it will happen.
processes until they work for you. It is not letting the program guide
It is using leadership to motivate and coordinate itself.
people and to coordinate their
activities.
It is reflecting on what has been
planned already
It includes the periodic recording of
planning decisions for future
reference.
What a Good Planning Process
What a Good Process Should Do
Should Not Do
It should stimulate change and It should not make planning more
improvement. important than everything else you
It should help you figure out what do teaching, administering, or
will happen and how it should parenting, for instance.
happen. It should not result in a process or
It should raise awareness about a plant that is rigid and inflexible.
what is being done and why. It should not result in a process
It should build a trail of activities that has not been adapted to your
over time so you can look at what schools particular needs.
has worked well and what has not. It should not focus your attention
It should produce a blueprint, road on only one aspect of the programs,
map, or recipe to be used. excluding all others.
It should decrease fear about the
process of change and its results.
Ernesto Franco

BASIC IDEAS AND CONCEPTS


ABOUT PLANNING
1. Planning has to do with change.
2. Planning is critical to managers.
3. Planning is not an end by itself, reminding planners of
the often-quoted phrase: Paralysis through analysis
4. Planning is not simply projections of a highly optimistic
level or just improving public relations or volumes of
paper
5. It makes managers aware of the environment or the
student-market and the forces for changing education.

6. Planning clears the ground for establishing goals and


objectives

7. Provides tools and techniques for alternative choices,


for examining options.
8. Accdg. to Edmund Mendoza planning also allows
rational examination of alternatives and options
through:

a. definition of criteria for selection or for making


priorities,
b. use of evaluation tools and techniques
c. the iterative process of comparing organizational
capabilities and resources against desired objectives and
the university mission and priorities.
9. Planning arms managers with the tools, frame of mind, and
emotional confidence to make decisions, to solve problems, to
choose among alternatives and to push for action.
10. Planning allows managers to take action, to plot activities
step by step
11. Planning also means implementing taking action, making
things happen.
OPERACY the ability to make things happen.
12. Planning facilities what Franco calls critical mass
decision.
13. Planning helps firm up a person or a university to say
no!.
PLANNING:
TODAY, THEN TOMORROW, BUT HOW?

Y. DROR defined PLANNING as the process or preparing a


set of decisions for action in the future directed at achieving
goals by optimal means. In this sense, Ernesto Franco adds,
educational planning is a group of related activities which
establish objectives and targets for educational development
over a defined period using given resources properly
managed.
THE KEY ASPECTS OF PLANNING

It is a dynamic process of on-going activities, not a one-shot or once-for


all static function
It is a preparatory step, resulting in findings and recommendations that
will have to be approved and then implemented in the proper order
Planning not only solves problems and facilitates decision-making, it
involves sets of decisions which are linked to each other
It should be action-directed, implementable, and cast in the practice of
management, not theory or academic bias alone;
It takes note of existing arrangements and sets directions for the future,
but which directions can only be made if decisions are made now, and
not tomorrow
These directions are articulated in terms of goals, objectives and
targets, over given time frames; and
These are to be achieved in cost-effective strategies and tactics directed
by efficient management mobilizing needed funds and resources,
including community participation.
Franco points out the basic questions:
1. Where are we today?
2. Where do we want to go?
3. How do we get from where we are
today to where we want to go
tomorrow?
Tanzanian Government

TO PLAN IS TO CHOOSE
THE TERRITORY OF PLANNING INCLUDES CHANGE
Planners in Third World countries including the
Philippines, observes Ernesto Franco, lack the ability to
recognize, and accept as real, the forces for change, and
are unable to establish a favorable climate or ambience
for introducing change in their education systems. They
are able to prepare good-looking, rich-sounding, and
properly-formatted paper documents on education
policies-programs-projects.
PLANNING: AS SEEN BY UNESCO

The UNESCO, as paraphrased by the DepEd, explains that


every action must be preceded by a conscious movement of
thinking or brain work. In management, this is held as one
of the most important principles. A popular saying
emphasizes it:

WHAT THE HEAD DOES NOT DO, THE LEGS WILL


HAVE TO DO.
Continuous planning is necessary to minimize waste in resources both
material and human and to achieve organizational objectives
expeditiously, observe Adrian Arcelo and Felix Santos, Jr.

PLANNING
Is the first stage of the Management Process. However, in
organizational objectives being more complex, the resources to achieve
them being more varied, and the obstacles in the way being many, a
managers function in planning is much more than pausing to think
before starting some operation. We plan where there is a need
something to be accomplished. Some management specialists defined
a stage called CREATING to precede planning. By creating it was
meant that a need to accomplish something is identified: How good if
we could inculcate the dignity of labor in our youth!
The first activity in the planning process is to find
answers to such questions as:

a. What can be done?


b. When can it be done?
c. How can it be done?
WHAT PLANNING IS NOT?

Educational planning
Is not just optimistic projections, improved
communications, or a public relations statement. The
contents of a plan document contain the mechanics or the
plan such as the statement of policies, criteria for priorities,
objectives, strategy, implementation arrangement, budget
and resources, timetable..etc. They are part and parcel of the
plan but they do not mean that they are the plan itself.
Many plans contain flowery statement, literary devices,
splashy illustrations and graphic statements that impress
ministers, secretaries, donors and beneficiaries. However, it
may have a dangerous consequence, Ernesto Franco warns.
Planning is not an attempt to avoid taking risks or
new interventions

FRANCO, stresses that planning should build on past


gains or achievements: at the same time however, it
should start new initiatives and strike for new
grounds precisely because change never ends, is
always taking place, and will even be more complex
and rapid in years ahead.
PRINCIPLES OF
CONTROLLING
THE FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTROLLING

Defining control
Entails ensuring that an event occurs as it was
planned to occur.

Planning and Controlling


Are virtually inseparable functions
Siamese twins of management
Murphys Law

Is a lighthearted adage making the serious point


that managers should continually control.

Check to see that organizational activities and


processes are going as planned.
Defining controlling
Process that managers go through to control.
Process of making things happen as planned.

**** According to Roberto Mockler controlling is a


systematic effort by business management to compare
performance to predetermined standards, plans or
objectives to determine whether performance is in line
with these standards and presumably to take any
remedial action required to see that human and other
corporate resources are being used in the most effective
and efficient way possible in achieving corporate
objectives.
THE CONTROLLING SUBSYSTEM

Can be viewed as a subsystem of the over-all


management system.
The purpose of this subsystem is to help managers
enhance the success of the overall management
system through effective controlling.
THE THREE MAIN STEPS
IN CONTROLLING PROCESS

1. Measuring performance
2. Comparing measured performance to
standards

3. Taking correlative action


input
1. Man
2. Money
3. Machine
4. Materials

Process (controlling process)


Work
continues No correlative
action necessary Performance
equivalent to
standards
Measure Compare
performance measurement to
standards
Performance
Take correlative action: significantly
change plans, different from
New work organization, or standards
situation influencing methods
begins

output
COMPARING MEASURED
PERFORMANCE TO
STANDARD

THE NEXT STEP IN CONTROLLING ONCE


MANAGERS HAVE TAKEN A MEASURE OF
ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE.
Measuring Performance

Before managers can determine what must be done to


make an organization more effective and efficient, the
must measure current organizational performance.
Before they can take such measurement, they must
establish some unit of measure that ranges
performance and observe the quantity of this unit as
generated by the item whose performance is being
measured.
The degree of difficulty in measuring various types of
organizational performance is determined primarily by the
activity being measured.
Standard

Is the level of activity establishes to serve as a


model for evaluating organizational performance.
In essence, standard are the yardsticks that
determine whether organizational performance is
adequate or inadequate.
General Electric

Gives us some insights into different kinds of standards managers


can establish.
GEs following standards.
a) Profitability Standards
b) Market Position Standards
c) Productivity Standards
d) Product Leadership Standards
e) Personal Development Standards
f) Employee Attitude Standards
g) Social Responsibility Standards
h) Standard Reflecting the relative balance between short-and-long
range goals
Correlative Action

Is a managerial activity aimed at bringing


organizational performance up to the level of
performance standards.
Focuses on correcting organizational mistakes that
are hindering organizational performance.
POWER AND CONTROL

Power
Extent of which an individual is able to influence
others so that they respond to orders.
The Total Power of a manager possesses two
different kinds:

Position power- is power derived from the


organizational position a manager holds.
Personal Power- is power derived from a managers
relationship with others.
STEPS FOR INCREASING PERSONAL POWER
A Sense of obligation toward the manager
A belief that the manager possesses a high level of
expertise within an organization
A sense of identification with the manager
The perception that they are dependent on the
manager
Making Controlling Successful

Specific organizational activities being focused on


Different kinds of organizational goals
Timely corrective action
Communication of the mechanics of the control
process
Isaiah 55:8-11
For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your
ways my ways, declares the Lord. For as the heavens are
higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your
ways and my thoughts than your thoughts. For as the rain
and the snow come down from heaven and do not return
there but water the earth, making it bring forth and sprout,
giving seed to the sower and bread to the eater, so shall my
word be that goes out from my mouth; it shall not return to
me empty, but it shall accomplish that which I purpose,
and shall succeed in the thing for which I sent it.
THANK YOU!