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AIR COMPRESSOR

PACKAGE

Prepared by :
Sujeet Tambe
Sr Process Engineer
CONTENTS :

INTRODUCTION AND BASICS OF AIR COMPRESSOR

MODELS OF COMPRESSION CYCLE

TYPES OF COMPRESSOR

SIZING AND SEPECIFYING AIR COMPRESSOR

AUXILLARY EQUIPMENTS
INTRODUCTION AND BASICS :

Compressor is an equipment used to compress gases from lower pressure to


high pressure

It converts mechanical energy to pressure energy

Density change is appreciable so Bernoulli equation does not hold

Air compressor is used to deliver compressed air required in plant for various
application.
CYLINDER ACTION : It can be single acting or double acting

CYLINDER TYPE : Lubricated and Non lubricated. In former type piston wearing
ring (e.g. TEFLON) is provided to maintain proper clearance between cylinder and
piston.

PISTON DISPLACEMENT : Actual travel of piston in one stroke

COMPRESSION RATIO : Ratio of discharge pressure to the suction pressure of one


particular stage.
(Pn/P1)^(1/n) where n = no. of stage

VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY : Ratio of Actual capacity to the piston displacement.

COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY : Ratio of actual work to the input work

PISTON SPEED : (RPM) x (Stroke length)


IDEAL COMPRESSION CYCLE
MODELS OF COMPRESSION

ISOTHERMAL : This model assumes that the compressed gas remains at a constant temperature
throughout the compression or expansion process.

ADIABATIC : This model assumes that no energy (heat) is transferred to or from the gas during
the compression, and all supplied work is added to the internal energy of the gas, resulting in
increases of temperature and pressure.

POLYTROPIC : This model takes into account both a rise in temperature in the gas as well as
some loss of energy (heat) to the compressor's components. Compression efficiency is then the
ratio of temperature rise at theoretical 100 percent (adiabatic) vs. actual (polytrophic).
TYPES OF COMPRESSOR:
ROTARY SCREW TYPE:

Capacity control for these compressors is accomplished by variable speed and variable
compressor displacement.

For the latter control technique, a slide valve is positioned in the casing. As the compressor
capacity is reduced, the slide valve opens, bypassing a portion of the compressed air back to
the suction.

RECIPROCATING TYPE:

Capacity control for these compressors is accomplished by unloading individual cylinders.


Typically, this is accomplished by throttling the suction pressure to the cylinder or bypassing
air either within or outside the compressor.
SIZING AND SPECIFYING AIR COMPRESSOR

SIZING AIR COMPRESSOR :


Air consumption for total plant based on histogram and peak consumption

Size Air compressor for average or max. anticipated operating flow.

Calculate capacity based site condition in terms of NM3/hr or SCFM

Actual capacity will vary significantly compare to capacity at standard


condition.
SPECIFICATION FOR AIR COMPRESSOR :

The compressor package shall include oil free, reciprocating or rotary screw
air compressor together with all necessary accessories required for safe and
satisfactory operation.

Reciprocating Air compressor shall have NRV, Suction strainer, Intercooler


and after cooler with automatic moisture separator & safety valve, suction
silencer

For high flow rotary screw compressor can be considered.

Drive arrangement generally v-belt driven or gear box operated

Capacity control Load unload through pressure switch, VFD

For higher compression ratio the multiple stages shall be considered


SPECIFICATION FOR AIR COMPRESSOR :

Temperature read out on panel : - Delivery air


- LP element outlet
- HP element inlet
- HP element outlet
- Oil
- Cooling air / water

Pressure readouts on panel : - Delivery air


- Inter-cooler
- Air filter pressure differential
- Oil

Safety shut down controls : - Low oil pressure (oil lubricated)


- High intercooler temperature
- High discharge pressure
- Cooling media low pressure
- High coolant temperature
- Motor overload
AUXILLARY EQUIPMENTS:

(1) AIR RECEIVER


:
Takes care of load variation in case of surge or shortfall

Separates the condensate

Acts as a fluctuation damper in case of load on/off

It should be installed between compressor and dryer so that moisture does


not ingress into air dryer

Shall have following accessories


- Auto drain valve (timer operated)
- Pressure safety valve
- Foundation bolts
- Pressure gauge
- Inspection window with opening cover
(2) AIR DRYER:

Refrigerated type air dryer

For instrument air consider atmosphere dew point better than -22C

Good practice is to keep dew point at rated pressure not more than 4C

Dryer shall be complete with refrigeration unit including hermetically


sealed compressor, moisture separator, automatic drain valve, HP & LP
switch.