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OF TWO PARTICLES

Todays Objectives:

Students will be able to:

1. Relate positions, velocities, and

accelerations of particles In-Class Activities:

undergoing dependent motion. Check Homework

Reading Quiz

Applications

Define Dependent Motion

Develop Position,

Velocity, and Acceleration

Relationships

Concept Quiz

Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

READING QUIZ

of the particles are ______

A) always independent. B) always dependent.

C) not always dependent. D) None of the above.

another particle, each coordinate axis system for the

particles _______

A) should be directed along the path of motion.

B) can be directed anywhere.

C) should have the same origin.

D) None of the above.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

APPLICATIONS

can be used to modify the speed of

the mine car, A, relative to the speed

of the motor, M.

It is important to establish the

relationships between the various

motions in order to determine the

power requirements for the motor

and the tension in the cable.

know the motor characteristics, how can we determine the

speed of the mine car? Will the slope of the track have any

impact on the answer?

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

APPLICATIONS (continued)

are often used to assist in lifting

heavy objects. The total lifting

force required from the truck

depends on both the weight and

the acceleration of the cabinet.

acceleration and velocity of

the cabinet if the acceleration

of the truck is known?

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

DEPENDENT MOTION (Section 12.9)

depend on the motion of another object.

connected by an inextensible cord

wrapped around a pulley.

If block A moves downward along

the inclined plane, block B will

move up the other incline.

defining position coordinates, sA and sB. Each coordinate axis is

defined from a fixed point or datum line, measured positive along

each plane in the direction of motion of each block.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

DEPENDENT MOTION (continued)

coordinates sA and sB can be

defined from fixed datum lines

extending from the center of

the pulley along each incline

to blocks A and B.

and sB are related mathematically by the equation

sA + lCD + sB = lT

Here lT is the total cord length and lCD is the length of cord

passing over the arc CD on the pulley.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

DEPENDENT MOTION (continued)

can be related by differentiating

the position equation. Note that

lCD and lT remain constant, so

dlCD/dt = dlT/dt = 0

The negative sign indicates that as A moves down the incline

(positive sA direction), B moves up the incline (negative sB

direction).

Accelerations can be found by differentiating the velocity

expression. Prove to yourself that aB = -aA .

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

DEPENDENT MOTION EXAMPLE

example. Position coordinates (sA

and sB) are defined from fixed

datum lines, measured along the

direction of motion of each block.

center of the pulley above block

B, since this block moves with the

pulley. Also, h is a constant.

during motion of the blocks.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

DEPENDENT MOTION EXAMPLE (continued)

the equation

2sB + h + sA = lT

Where lT is the total cord length minus

the lengths of the red segments.

during the motion, the velocities and

accelerations can be related by two

successive time derivatives:

2vB = -vA and 2aB = -aA

(-sA). Remember to be consistent with your sign convention!

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

DEPENDENT MOTION EXAMPLE (continued)

by defining the position coordinate

for B (sB) from the bottom pulley

instead of the top pulley.

acceleration relations then become

2(h sB) + h + sA = lT

and 2vB = vA 2aB = aA

Prove to yourself that the results are the same, even if the sign

conventions are different than the previous formulation.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

DEPENDENT MOTION: PROCEDURES

These procedures can be used to relate the dependent motion of

particles moving along rectilinear paths (only the magnitudes of

velocity and acceleration change, not their line of direction).

1. Define position coordinates from fixed datum lines,

along the path of each particle. Different datum lines can

be used for each particle.

2. Relate the position coordinates to the cord length.

Segments of cord that do not change in length during the

motion may be left out.

3. If a system contains more than one cord, relate the

position of a point on one cord to a point on another

cord. Separate equations are written for each cord.

4. Differentiate the position coordinate equation(s) to relate

velocities and accelerations. Keep track of signs!

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE

at A is pulled down with a speed

of 3 m/s.

Find: The speed of block D.

the motion, so only one

position/length equation is required.

Define position coordinates for block

D and cable lengths that change,

write the position relation and then

differentiate it to find the relationship

between the two velocities.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution:

1) A datum line can be drawn through the upper, fixed pulleys.

Two coordinates must be defined: one for block D (sD) and

one for the changing cable length (sA).

sD can be defined to the center

sA sD of the pulley above D.

All coordinates are defined as

positive down and along the

direction of motion of each

point/object.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE (continued)

the cord. Define lT as the length of

the cord, minus any segments of

sA sD constant length.

sA + 3sD = lT

relationship:

vA + 3vD = 0

3 + 3vD = 0 vD = -1 m/s = 1 m/s

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

CONCEPT QUIZ

A) 1 m/s B) 2 m/s

cable. Which of the following is

correct? y

A) (vx)A= - (vx)B B) vA= - vB

x

C) (vy)A= - (vy)B D) All of the above.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I

the cord at A is pulled

down with a speed of 2

m/s.

Find: The speed of block B.

in the motion in this example.

There will be two position

equations (one for each cord).

Write these two equations,

combine them, and then

differentiate them.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)

Solution:

1) Define the position coordinates from a fixed datum line. Three

coordinates must be defined: one for point A (sA), one for block B

(sB), and one for block C (sC).

pulley (which has a fixed position).

sA can be defined to the point A.

sB can be defined to the center of the

pulley above B.

sC is defined to the center of pulley C.

All coordinates are defined as

positive down and along the direction

of motion of each point/object.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING I (continued)

each cord. Define l1 as the length of

the first cord, minus any segments of

constant length. Define l2 in a similar

manner for the second cord:

Cord 1: sA + 2sC = l1

Cord 2: sB + (sB sC) = l2

3) Eliminating sC between the two

equations, we get

sA + 4sB = l1 + 2l2

4) Relate velocities by differentiating this expression. Note that l1 and l2

are constant lengths.

vA + 4vB = 0 vB = 0.25vA = 0.25(2) = 0.5 m/s

The velocity of block B is 0.5 m/s up (negative sB direction).

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II

moving downward with a speed

of 6 ft/s while block C is

moving down at 18 ft/s.

Find: The speed of block B.

Plan:

position/length equation will be required. Define

position coordinates for each block, write out the

position relation, and then differentiate it to relate the

velocities.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING II (continued)

Solution:

1) A datum line can be drawn through the upper, fixed, pulleys

and position coordinates defined from this line to each block

(or the pulley above the block).

2) Defining sA, sB, and sC as shown,

Datum the position relation can be written:

sA + 2sB + 2 sC = lT

sA sC

sB 3) Differentiate to relate velocities:

vA + 2vB + 2 vC = 0

6 + 2vB + 2(18) =0

vB = - 21 ft/s = 21 ft/s

The velocity of block B is 21 ft/s up.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

ATTENTION QUIZ

block A is moving down at 6 ft/s while

block C is moving down at 18 ft/s .

A) 24 ft/s B) 3 ft/s

C) 12 ft/s D) 9 ft/s vA=6 ft/s vC=18 ft/s

block A when block B is moving

downward with a speed of 10 m/s.

j

A) (8i + 6j) m/s B) (4i + 3j) m/s

vB=10 m/s

C) (-8i - 6j) m/s D) (3i + 4j) m/s

i

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

Dynamics, Fourteenth Edition Copyright 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

R.C. Hibbeler All rights reserved.

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