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MAE 4261: AIR-BREATHING ENGINES

Velocity Triangles Example

April 12, 2012

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department


Florida Institute of Technology

D. R. Kirk
EXAMPLE: SEE SECTION 8.2 FROM H&P
a

c
Draw velocity triangles assuming that wr = 2 times the axial velocity w (w = constant)
VELOCITY TRIANGLES AT b

Start by drawing the axial velocity to some scale (10 units here)
VELOCITY TRIANGLES AT b

Vb
w bb=75

Draw the absolute velocity vector


VELOCITY TRIANGLES AT b

Vb
w bb=75

vqb

Draw vq in direction of rotation from the axis to absolute velocity vector


VELOCITY TRIANGLES AT b

Vb
w bb=75

wr

vqb

Add the rotational velocity (wr) and remember Vabs=Vrel+Vcs


VELOCITY TRIANGLES AT b

Vb
w bb=75

wr

vqb

Draw in the velocity to the rotor as seen from the rotating frame
VELOCITY TRIANGLES AT b

relative frame inlet


velocity to rotor Stationary frame inlet
velocity to rotor
Vb
w bb=75

wr

vqb
VELOCITY TRIANGLES AT c

wr

Either start with the fixed axial velocity or fixed rotational speed
VELOCITY TRIANGLES AT c

bc=55

wr

Add the velocity from the rotor blades in the relative frame
VELOCITY TRIANGLES AT c

bc=55

wr
vqc

Add the velocity exiting the rotor in the absolute frame


VELOCITY TRIANGLES AT c
stationary frame exit
velocity of rotor

relative frame exit bc=55


velocity of rotor

wr
vqc

Again, draw vq in the direction of rotation to the absolute velocity vector


COMPOSITE TRIANGLE

Fixed or metal blade angles

bc=55

w bb=75 w

wr

vqb
vqc
To draw the composite velocity triangle, overlay the rotational velocity
QUESTIONS
Is this a compressor or a turbine? How can you tell?

On which blade row(s) is there a torque applied? Why?

Describe in words the energy exchange process in each of the two blade rows
QUESTIONS
Is this a compressor or a turbine?
This is a turbine. The stationary frame tangential velocity (vq) in the direction
of rotor motion is reduced across the moving blade row
On which blade row(s) is there a torque applied? Why?
Torque is applied to both blade rows since there is a change in angular
momentum across each of them. However, power is extracted only from the

T m r Vq ,out Vq ,in
moving blades.

P wT
Describe in words the energy exchange process in each of the two blade rows
In the first blade row, fluid internal energy is converted to swirling kinetic
energy by accelerating the flow through a nozzle. No additional energy is
added or removed from the flow.
In the second blade row, swirling kinetic energy is extracted from the flow
reducing the overall level of energy in the flow and transferring it to the
spinning rotor blades.
ADDITIONAL QUESTION
So far, we have looked at trailing edge angles of the blades (bb and bc)
Why do we care about exit velocities from stator in the relative frame? Why do we
even draw this on velocity triangles?

relative frame inlet


velocity to rotor Stationary frame inlet
velocity to rotor
Vb
w bb=75

Why draw this?


wr

vqb
ADDITIONAL QUESTION

Information about
how to shape
leading edge of
rotor blade

Doesnt come into


ideal Euler equation
but obviously
important for
aerodynamic
Purposes
(rotor relative inflow
angle)