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Class No-1&2

Unit Code: Nominal Duration:


SEIP-BPO-BKO-1-G 8 Hrs. (2 Days Lesson Plan)

Unit of Competency
1(Generic)
Basic Computing Principles

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Learning Objectives

At the end of the session successful participants will be able to


Recognize the importance of computer literacy
Identify the components of a computer
Identify the categories of software
Discuss the uses of the Internet
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Basics of Computers

What is computer literacy?

Knowledge and understanding of computers


and their uses

Now-a-days computers are everywhere


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Everywhere...

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Basics of Computers

What is a computer?

A computer is an electronic device that manipulates


information, or data

It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data.

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Basics of Computers

Data
Data is unprocessed facts and figures without any added
interpretation or analysis

Information
Information is data that has been interpreted so that it has
meaning for the user
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Advantages of Computers

Speed
Storage
Reliability
Consistency
Communication
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Components of a Computer

It consists of both hardware, the information


will be stored on hardware. Information stored
on computer hardware is often called software.
Hardware components of a computer system are the
electronic and mechanical parts.
Software components of a computer system are the
data and the computer programs.
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Hardware - Input Devices

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Hardware - Output Devices

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Hardware - Storage Devices

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Software

Consists of a series of instructions that tells the computer what


to do and how to do it, is also called a program.
Types of software:
System Software
Application Software
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System Software

System software (systems software) is computer software


designed to operate and control the computer hardware and to
provide a platform for running application software. System
software can be separated into two different categories,
operating systems and utility software.

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Application Software

Application software (an application) is a set of computer


programs designed to permit the user to perform a group of
coordinated functions, tasks, or activities. Application software
cannot run on itself but is dependent on system software to
execute.

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Data Storage - Memory

Memory is the storage space in a computer where data is to be


processed and instructions required for processing are stored.
Memory is of three types:
Primary Memory/Main Memory
Secondary Memory
Cache Memory
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Memory Types

Memory can be classified as:


Volatile requires power to maintain stored
information
Non-Volatile does not require a maintained
power supply

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Primary Memory/Main Memory

The Primary memory is accessible directly by the processing unit.


RAM (Random Access Memory) is an example of primary
memory. As soon as the computer is switched off the contents of
RAM are lost.
You can store and retrieve data much faster with primary
memory compared to secondary memory.

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Secondary Memory Devices

Secondary Memories are non-volatile in nature


Data can be accessed in any order from anywhere on the device
Example: Hard disk, Pen drive, DVD, CD-ROM

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Cache Memory

A memory placed between CPU and main memory


Contains a copy of the portion of main memory
When processor needs some information, it first checks cache

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Operating System

Operating System is a software, which makes a computer to


actually work.
It is the software that enables all the programs we use.
The OS organizes and controls the hardware.
OS acts as an interface between the application programs and
the machine hardware.
Examples: Windows, Linux, Unix and Mac OS, etc.,
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Operating System - Services
Memory Management
Processor Management
Device Management
File Management
Security
Control over system performance
Error detecting
Coordination between other software and users
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Operating Systems - Layers

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Operating Systems - Layers
The structure of OS consists of 4 layers:
Hardware consists of CPU, Main memory, I/O Devices, etc.,
Software (Operating System) includes process management, memory management, I/O control and file management.
System programs layer consists of compilers, assemblers, linker etc.
Application programs are dependent on users need. Ex. Railway reservation system, Bank database management etc.,

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Types of Operating Systems
Based on the types of computers they control and the sort of
applications they support the operating systems are of four
types.
1 Real-time Operating System (RTOS)
2 Single-user, single task
3 Single-user, multi-tasking
4 Multi-user
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Real-time Operating System
(RTOS)

Very fast small Operating System


Built into a device
Respond quickly to user input
MP3 players, Medical devices

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Single user/Single tasking OS
One user works on the system
Performs one task at a time
MS-DOS and Palm OS
Takes up little space on disk
Run on inexpensive computers
Operating System cannot take control back from the running
process/task/application
If a process calls an I/O Instruction then Processor must wait for
I/O instruction to complete before preceding 26
Single user/Multitasking OS
User performs many tasks at once
Most common form of OS
Windows XP and OS X
Require expensive computers
Operating System can take control back from the running
process and can give it to another.
When one job needs to wait for I/O, the processor can switch to
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Multi user/Multitasking OS

Many users connect to one computer


Each user has a unique session
UNIX, Linux, and VMS
Maintenance can be easy
Requires a powerful computer

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Networking

A computer network consists of two or more computing


devices that are connected in order to share the components
of your network (its resources) and the information store.

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Types of Computer Networks

1. Personal Area Network (PAN)


2. Local Area Network (LAN)
3. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
4. Wide Area Network (WAN)

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Personal Area Network

A Personal Area Network (PAN) is smallest network which is


very personal to a user.
This may include Bluetooth enabled devices or infra-red
enabled devices.
PAN has connectivity range up to 10 meters.
PAN may include wireless computer keyboard and mouse,
Bluetooth enabled headphones, wireless printers, and TV
remotes
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Personal Area Network

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Local Area Network

A computer network spanned inside a building.


Operated under single administrative system.
Covers an organization offices, schools, colleges or universities.
Number of systems connected in LAN may vary from as least as
two to as much as 16 million.

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Local Area Network

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Metropolitan Area Network

It generally expands throughout a city such as cable TV network.


It can be in the form of Ethernet, Token-ring, ATM, or Fiber
Distributed Data Interface (FDDI).
Backbone of MAN is high-capacity and high-speed fiber optics.
MAN provides uplink for LANs to WANs or internet.

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Metropolitan Area Network

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Wide Area Network

It covers a wide area which may span across provinces and even
a whole country.
Generally, telecommunication networks are Wide Area
Networks.
These networks provide connectivity to MANs and LANs.
Since they are equipped with very high speed backbone, WANs
use very expensive network equipment.
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Wide Area Network

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Thank You

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