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Examples in Chapter 1

Problem 1.42

Vector A has components Ax=1.30 cm and


Ay= 2.25 cm; vector B has components
Bx=4.10 cm, By=-3.75 cm. Find
a) The components of the vector sum
A+B
b) the magnitude and direction of A+B
c) The components of the vector B-A
d) The magnitude and direction of B-A
The components of the vector sum
A+B
The sum of the x- Ax 1.30
components of A
and B are equal to Bx 4.10
the x component of
A+B
A B x
5.40cm

Ay 2.25
By 3.75

A B y
1.50
Find the magnitude of A+B
(A+B)x

(A+B)y
(A+B)

A B A B
2 2 2
A B
x y

5.4 1.5 31.41


2 2

A B 31.41 5.60
Find the direction of A+B
(A+B)x


(A+B)y
(A+B)
y
A B
tan
y

x
A B x

1.5
tan
1
0.27 radians
5.4
180
0.27 15.5o

Components, magnitude and
direction of B-A

A 1.30 2.25 ; B 4.10 3.75

B A x
(4.10) ( 1.30) 2.8

B A y
(3.75) (2.25) 6

2.8 6
2 2
43.84 B A 6.62
6
tan 1
1.134 64.98o
2.8
Problem 1.55

Find the vector product A B where


A 4.00 x 3.00 y
B 5.00 x 2.00 y
What is the magnitude of the vector product?
Your books way

The book gives 3 formulae for C=AxB


Cx=AyBz-AzBy
Cy=AzBx-AxBz

Cz=AxBy-AyBx

Since A and B have only x- and y-


components, we find Cz by
Cz=4*(-2)-5*3=-8-15=-23
||AxB||=23
My way: First, a review?

A determinant represents a single number


and is used in linear algebra

For a 2x2 matrix, its determinant is written:


a b
det( A) ad cb
c d
A 3 x 3 determinant
a b c
d e f
g h i
a b c
d e f a ei hf
g h i
a b c
d e f b di gf
g h i
a b c
d e f c dh eg
g h i
For a cross-product

x
y
z
d e f
g h i

x
y
z
d e f ei hf
x
g h i

x
y
z
d e f di gf
y
g h i

x
y
z
d e f dh eg
z
g h i
For our problem
x y z
4 3 0
5 2 0
x y z
4 3 0 x 3* 0 ( 2) * 0 0 x
5 2 0
x y z
4 3 0 y 4 * 0 5* 0 0 y
5 2 0
x y z
4 3 0 z dh eg (4 * ( 2) 3*5) z 23 z
5 2 0
Problem 1.61

Biological tissues are typically made up of


98% water. Given that the density of
water is 1 x 103 kg/m3, estimate the
mass of
a) the heart of an adult human
b) a cell with a diameter of 0.5 mm.
c) a honey bee.
Best guesses

Human heart: size of fist (cylinder 4 long


with diameter of 3)
Honey bee: 1 or 2.5 cm long cylinder
with 0.25 diameter
Heart Problem
4 = 4*2.54 cm = 10.16 cm or 0.1016 m
3 =3 * 2.54 cm = 7.62 cm
Volume of cylinder= *(d/2)2 *L
* (7.62/2)2 *10.16=463 cm3 or cc

1m3 4 3
463cc 3 3
4.63 x10 m
100 cm
m
m V 1000* 4.63x104 0.463kg
V
Note: 0.454 kg =1 pound
A cell

Assume spherical!
Volume=4*/3*(d/2)3

d 0.5m m 0.5 x106 m


3
4 0.5 x10 6
V 5.23 x10 19

3 2
m V 1000*5.23x10 5.23x10 kg
19 16

Book answer differs by order of magnitude


Honey bee

V=*(d/2)2 *L=*(.25/2)2 *1=0.049 in3

3 3 3 3
2.54 cm 1m 7
0.049in 3
8.04 x10
13 in3 1003 cm3
m V 1000*8.04 x107 8.04 x104 kg or 0.80 g

Book assumes in long


Problem 1.70

A sailor in a small sailboat encounters


shifting winds. She sails 2.0 km east
then 3.5 km southeast (-450 w.r.t. east)
and then an unknown distance. Her final
position is 5.8 km directly east of starting
point. Find magnitude and direction of
the third leg of the journey.
Step 1: Draw it!

5.80 km
2.0 km

3.5 km
Step 2: Sketch in the details

5.80 km
2.0 km

3.5 km
Ay
Ay

Ay

?
Step 3: Simplify

5.80 km-2.0 km=3.8km

2.0 km

3.5 km
Ay
Ay

Ay2 Ay2 2 Ay2 3.52 Ay


3.5
Ay 2.47km
2 ?
Step 4: Solve

5.80 km-2.0 km=3.8km

2.0 km Ay

3.5 km
Ay
Ay

Ay2 Ay2 2 Ay2 3.52


3.5
Ay 2.47km
2 ?=3.8-2.47=1.33 km
Step 5:

5.80 km-2.0 km=3.8km

2.0 km Ay

3.5 km
Ay Ay=2.47 km

Ay2 Ay2 2 Ay2 3.52


3.5
Ay 2.47km
2 ?=3.8-2.47=1.33 km=Ax
Step 6:

1.332 2.47 2 7.98


2.47 km
Distance= 7.98 2.81km
2.47
tan1
1.07radian
1.33
1.33 km
180
1.07radian 61.69o