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or simply

"aggregate", is a broad category of coarse


particulate material used in construction,
including
Sand
Gravel
Crushed stone
Slag
Recycled concrete
Geosynthetic aggregates
Aggregates are a component of
composite materials such as concrete and
asphalt concrete; the aggregate serves as
reinforcement to add strength to the
overall composite material.
Sources for these basic materials can be
grouped into three main areas:
Mining of mineral aggregate deposits,
including sand, gravel, and stone;
Use of waste slag from the manufacture of
iron and steel; and
Recycling of concrete (which is itself chiefly
manufactured from mineral aggregates)
Sand is a naturally occurring granular
material composed of finely divided rock
and mineral particles. Its most common
constituent is silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2),
usually in the form of quartz.
Sand is formed by the weathering of
rocks. Based on the natural sources from
which sand is obtained, it is classified as
follows:
Pit sand
River sand
Sea sand
This sand is obtained by forming pits in
soils, it consists of sharp angular grains
which are free from salts. It is excavated
from a depth of 1-2 meters from the
ground level.
Pit sand serves as an excellent
material for mortar or concrete work.
This sand is obtained from the banks or
beds of rivers and it consists of fine
rounded grains. This sand is widely used for
all purposes.
This sand is obtained from sea shores, as
it is obtained from the sea, it contains salt. It
has fine rounded grains and is brown in color.
It is generally not used for engineering
purposes due to
its retard setting
action of cement.
Based on grain size distribution:
Fine Sand
Sand passing through a sieve with clear
openings of 1.5875 mm
Mainly used for plastering
Coarse Sand
Sand passing through a sieve with clear
openings of 3.175 mm
Used for masonry work
Gravelly Sand
Sand passing through a sieve with clear
openings of 7.62 mm
Used for concrete work
Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock
fragments. Gravel is classified by particle
size range and includes size classes from
granule- to boulder-sized fragments.
Gravel is an important commercial
product, with a number of applications.
Many roadways are surfaced with gravel,
especially in rural areas where there is little
traffic.
Crushed stone or angular rock is a form
of construction aggregate, typically
produced by mining a suitable rock deposit
and breaking the removed rock down to the
desired size using
crushers. It is distinct
from gravel which is
produced by natural
processes of weathering
and erosion, and
typically has a more
rounded shape.
Slag is the glass-like
by-product left over after
a desired metal has
been separated (i.e.,
smelted) from its raw ore.
Slag is usually a mixture
of metal oxides and
silicon dioxide.
The use of slag
aggregates from iron and
steel production in
construction dates back to
the Romans who used
crushed slag from the crude
iron production of that time
to build their roads.
Nowadays, slag is still used
to build roads.
However, slag use is not
limited to roads anymore,
but slag aggregates are
widely used in all kinds of
civil works. An aggregate is
a granular material used in
construction. Properly
applied aggregates
contribute to the strength
and mechanical stability of
the construction.
Recycled concretes come from
concretes from demolition sites that are
put through a crushing machine. Crushing
facilities accept only uncontaminated
concrete, which must be free of trash,
wood, paper and other such materials.
Smaller pieces of concrete are used
as gravel for new construction projects.
Crushed recycled concrete can also be
used as the dry aggregate for brand new
concrete if it is free of contaminants.
Larger pieces of crushed concrete can be
used as riprap revetments, which are "a
very effective and popular method of
controlling streambank erosion."
Generally for bituminous or asphalt
pavement, the aggregates constitute 88%
to 96% by weight or more than 75% by
volume. The AASHTO standard
specifications provide that:
The aggregate shall consist of hard, durable particles
of fragments of stone or gravel and sand or other fine
mineral particles free from vegetable matter and
lumps or balls of clay and of such nature it can be
compacted readily to form a firm, stable layers. It
shall conform to the grading requirements shown in
table 3 when tested by AASHTO T-11 and 27.
The following materials are classified
under Item 300 of the DPWH standard
specifications.
The coarse aggregate material retained on the 2.00
mm (No. 10) sieve shall have a mass percent of wear by
the Los Angeles Abrasion Test (AASHTO T-96) of not
more than 45.
When crushed aggregate is specified, not less than 50
mass percent of the particles retained on the 4.75 mm
(No. 4) sieve shall not have at least one fractured face.
The fraction passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve should
not be greater than two thirds of the fraction passing
the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve.
The fraction passing 0.425 mm (No.40) sieve shall have a
liquid limit of not greater than 35 and a plasticity index
range of 4 to 9 when tested by AASHTO T-89 and T-90
respectively.
The following materials are classified
under Item 300 of the DPWH standard
specifications.
Abrasion Value (<45%)

If crushed aggregate is called, it is a must that:


> 50% of mass (No. 4) has no fractured face
2
Mass on No. 200 sieve < of mass on No. 40 sieve
3

No. 40 aggregates should have a liquid limit (LL)


thats < 35%, and plasticity index range of 4-9.
The presence of organic impurities in the
aggregates intended for concreting road
pavement may cause slow or non-hardening of
the concrete. Under AASHTO T-21 standard test,
the aggregate is treated with a mixture of Sodium
Hydrochloride Solution and when the treated
aggregate turns dark, organic materials are said to
be present in the aggregate.
The strength of fine aggregate is measured by the
compression tests of sand-cement mortar.
Soundness of fine aggregate is measured by their
resistance to deterioration under the action of
solutions of Sodium or Magnesium Sulfate. The
sodium sulfate test is five cycle. The maximum loss
under AASHTO specifications is 10%. (AASHTO T 104
and ASTM C 88)
For coarse aggregate, the requirement consists of
crushed stone, gravel, blast furnace slag, or
approved inert materials of similar characteristics or
combination thereof having hard, strong durable
pieces free from adherent coatings.
The Department of Public Works and
Highways standard specifications classify
aggregate under Item 703, and specifically
provides that:
Aggregate shall consist of hard, durable particles of
fragments of crushed stone, crushed slug or crushed or
natural gravel. Materials that break up when
alternately wetted and dried shall not be used.
Coarse aggregate is the material retained on the 2.00
mm (No. 10) sieve and shall have a percentage of
water or more than 50 for sub-base and not more than
45 for base and surface courses as determined by
AASHTO designation test T-96.
Fine aggregate is the material passing the No. 10 sieve
(2.00 mm) consisting of natural, crushed sand and fine
minerals particles. The fraction passing the 0.075 mm
(No. 200) sieve should not be greater than two-thirds of
the fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve.
The Department of Public Works and
Highways standard specifications classify
aggregate under Item 703, and specifically
provides that:
Aggregate shall consist of hard, durable particles of
fragments of crushed stone, crushed slug or crushed or
natural gravel. Materials that break up when
alternately wetted and dried shall not be used.
Materials retained on sieve No. 10 as coarse
aggregates.
For sub-base, water > 50%
For base and surface course, water < 45%

Materials passing through sieve No. 10 as fine


aggregates. Also, it is a must that:

Mat. passing Sieve No. 200 < of mat. passing Sieve No. 40