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Soap and Detergents

Demmy Rose S. Nugas


Soaps
A cleansing agent,
manufactured in bars, granules,
flakes, or liquid form, made
from a mixture of the sodium
salts of various fatty acids of
natural oils and fats.
Soaps
Fats and Oils
The fats and oils used in soapmaking
come from animal or plant sources.
Each fat or oil is made up of a
distinctive mixture of several different
triglycerides.
Soaps
Alkali
An alkali is a soluble salt of an alkali
metal like sodium or potassium.
Soap Manufacturing
Soap Manufacturing
Soap is produced industrially in four
basic steps:
1. Saponification: process of making soap
by the hydrolysis of fats and oils with
alkali
2. Glycerine Removal
3. Soap Purification
4. Finishing
Detergent

Detergent is an emulsifying agent that is


scientifically referred to as sodium dodecyl
benzene sulphonate and has a chemical
formula of C18H29NaO3S.
Detergent
Surfactants
Classifications: Anionic, Cationic,
Nonionic, Amphoteric
Builders
Additives
Bleaching Agents, Fillers, Enzyme,
Bluings and Fabric Brightener
Detergent
Environmental Impacts
Soap and detergent that
leaves the home enters
the ocean and damages
the environment. When
soap goes down the
drain, it contaminates
groundwater and poisons
the environment.
Environmental Impacts
Damages the fragile
aquatic biomes
Phosphate Pollution
The soap and detergent industry is committed to
understanding the impact of its products and packages
on the environment. With this understanding comes the
ability to reduce their impact and improve their
environmental quality.
Mitigation
Wastewater treatment
Primary treatment, consists of the removal of
solid material, such as grit or grease, from the
wastewater by physical means.
Secondary treatment, removes the dissolved
material by biological means
Mitigation
Eco Friendly Soaps and Detergents:

Biodegradable Soaps & Detergents

Eco-Friendly Household Cleaning Products


Mitigation
Biodegradable Soaps & Detergents:
The sulphonic acid and nonionic detergents
that are used to produce both liquid and
powder detergents have found to be
completely biodegradable and comply with
the relevant environmental standards and
guidelines.
Mitigation
Eco-Friendly Household Cleaning
Products
The non-addition of additives, like perfumes,
color and brightening agents decreases the
toxicity of detergents.
Mitigation
Phosphate Reduction
a chemical compound in detergents, serves
as food for algae. As a result, industry was
forced to remove it from detergents.
References
http://www.cleaninginstitute.org/clean_living/soaps__detergents_saf
ety_2.aspx
https://prezi.com/fkm2euoubr92/negative-effects-of-soap-on-the-
environment/
http://www.detergentsandsoaps.com/environmental-
implications.html
https://www.slideshare.net/hazelcledera5/cpi-no-9-soap-and-
detergentsfinal
http://www.mvla.net/view/27581.pdf