You are on page 1of 52

Loss Reduction of Rajasthan Power System

with Distributed Generation in


Transmission Network

Supervisor Co-Supervisor Submitted by


SeeshRam Ola Dr. M. P. Sharma Puja Rani
Dean R&D Assistant Engineer E.No. : 13E2AXPSF1XP812
E.E.Dept. Power System Study Roll No. : 13EAXPS812
AIET, Jaipur. RRVPNL, Jaipur

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


APEX INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING &TECHNOLOGY
JUNE 2016
CONTENTS OF PRESENTATIONS

Existing Energy Scenario


Objectives & Significance of Dissertation

Literature Survey

Detailing Rajasthan Power System

Test System Modeling using MiPower Software

Simulation Study & Results

Transmission voltage Control using DG

Conclusion & Future scope


EXISTING ENERGY SCENARIO
Rise in the use of electricity is closely linked to the development of
countries.
The total installed capacity for electricity generation in the country
has increased from 145755 MW as on 31.03.2006 to 284,634 MW
as on 31.03.2014, registering a compound annual growth rate
(CAGR) of 7.72%.
An all India Installed capacity of 303083.21 MW till 31-05-2016.
OBJECTIVE OF DISSERTATION
The dissertation work performed recommends the power loss reduction
of Rajasthan state power system by proposing the placement of
Distributed Generation (D.G) in Transmission System.
The objectives are :
To access the requirements of DG in power deficit part of Rajasthan
Power system.
To obtain the effects of DG on existing system loadings, voltage
profile and losses.
To control high & low voltage issues of Test System by utilizing DG.
SIGNIFICANCE OF DISSERTATION
The major problems existing in the Rajasthan Power System
configuration can be summarized in points below.
The no. of EHV substations and lines of various voltage levels
i.e. 765/400 kV, 400/220 kV, 220/132 kV and 132/33 kV have
been constructed which have acquired large chunk of land.
Due to large capacity thermal power plants, air pollution level
is very high in the vicinity.
Due to long EHV lines, power system angle and voltage
stability problems have been increased.
Transmission losses are in range of 4 to 5 %.

Reliability of power supply is also low.

Very high expenditure is required for R&M of present power


system structure.
LITERATURE SURVEY

Literature survey provides the analysis of the


initial work being carried in the field of
distributed generation till published date.
Witnessing the needs of future generation
sources the first literature published by T.
Ackermann in 2000 provided large number of
terms and definitions connecting distributed
generation [1].
RESEARCH STUDIES
The drivers, challenges & opportunities in integrating DG units were
laid out by J.A. Pecas Lopes et.al. [2].
DG ranges from 1 kW PV installations, 1 MW engine generators to
1000 MW offshore wind farms. Proper location of DGs in power
systems is important for obtaining their maximum potential benefits
[3].
The shortage & losses in transmission capacities have led to
increased concern of DG as investigated by Caisheng Wang in 2004
[4].
Losses in transmission networks cause electrical energy loss as well
as occupy capacity of transformers and lines. The increased losses at
peak times of load consumption, increases the investment cost &
restricts further developments as detailed by Arash Mahari [5].
DG when installed at load ends resulted in economic savings
demonstrated by reducing losses [6].
Similarly lots of researchers have put forwarded their research studies &
have laid the requirement of DG.
DISTRIBUTED GENERATION INTEGRATING WITH GRID

Distributed generation is considered as an electrical source


connected to the power system, in a point very close to consumers
site, which is small enough compared with the centralized power
plants.
The connection point of an energy source to the grid is usually
referred to as the point of common connection (PCC).
RAJASTHAN STATE POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Rajasthan power system has been considered to study the effects of


distributed generation.
Peak demand of Rajasthan system is approximately 10500 MW which is met
by coal based thermal power plants located in southern and north part of
Rajasthan.
Following transmission system exists in Rajasthan to transmit power from
power plants to load centers:
Power map of Rajasthan
Transmission System in Rajasthan as on 31-3-2016

S.No. Particulars Number of GSS MVA capacity Circuit kms

1 765/400 kV GSS 2 6000 426

2 400/220 kV GSS 21 16610 8000

3 220/132 kV GSS 111 26645 13725

4 132/33 kV GSS 393 27842 16180


RAJASTHAN POWER SECTOR: OVERVIEW
Generation Sector
Installed Capacity (in MW) (as on 31st March 2016)

Coal 9734(54 %)
GAS 825 (4 %)
Hydro 1750(10 %)
Nuclear 557 (3 %)
Wind 3866 (21 %)
Solar 1265 (7 %)
Biomass 114 (1 %)
Total 18111
EXISTING POWER PLANTS (AS ON 31ST DEC 2015) IN RAJASTHAN
EXISTING POWER PLANTS (AS ON 31ST DEC 2015) IN RAJASTHAN
EXISTING CENTRAL SECTOR POWER PLANTS IN RAJASTHAN
15
UNDER CONSTRUCTION POWER PLANTS IN RAJASTHAN

Suratgarh SCTPS (2x660 MW)

CHHABRA SCTPS (2x660 MW)


16
UNDER PLANNING POWER PLANTS IN RAJASTHAN

Suratgarh SCTPS (2x800 MW)

RAPP (D) (2x700 MW)

Kalisindh SCTPS (2x800 MW)


RESEARCH OUTLINE
In southern eastern Rajasthan i.e. Udaipur, Banswara and
Dungarpur districts, coal based thermal power do not exists.
Therefore, power demand of these districts are being met from
power plants located in southern part of Rajasthan through long
transmission lines.
In this research work, 80 MW coal based thermal power plant is
proposed in Udaipur district.
To critically analyze the effect of distributed generation, GUI
file of power system in the vicinity of distributed generator has
been drawn under zone 2 which is referred as Test System in
this research work.
Single Line diagram of test system is placed at next slide along
with particulars of Test System.
PARTICULARS OF TEST SYSTEM USED FOR MODELING
S.No. Input Data Data Values
1 Total Real Power Load 380 MW
2 Total Reactive Power Load 184 MVAr
3 Load Power Factor 0.9
4 Total Number of Buses 29
5 Number of 220 kV Buses 4
6 Number of 132 kV Buses 24
7 Number of Generator Buses 1
8 Number of Total Lines 40
9 Number of 220 kV Lines 8
10 Number of 132 kV Lines 32
11 Number of Total Transfomers 10
12 Number of 220/132 kV Transfomers 9
13 Number of 132/11 kV Transfomer 1
14 Number of Load Buses 23
SIMULATION MODEL OF TEST SYSTEM USING MIPOWER SOFTWARE

1. Bus data
Test system is a model of 29 BUS.
There are 4 buses of 220 kV voltages level & twenty four buses of 132 kV voltage level and
1 generator bus at 11 kV. The bus data for the considered test system is placed in next slide.

220 kV Bus representations in Mi-Power Software 11 kV Bus representations in Mi-Power Software


BUS DATA OF TEST SYSTEM
Nominal BUS
S.No. Bus Name Bus ID VMIN (P.U.) VMAX (P.U.)
Voltage (KV)
A 220 KV Bus
1 MADRI MADRI2 220 0.95 1.05
2 BANSWARA BANSWRA2 220 0.95 1.05
3 ASPUR ASPUR2 220 0.95 1.05
4 DEBARI DEBARI2 220 0.95 1.05
B 132 KV BUS
5 DEBARI DEBARI1 132 0.95 1.05
6 SEESARMA SEESRMA1 132 0.95 1.05
7 BANSWARA BANSWRA1 132 0.95 1.05
8 DALOT DALOT1 132 0.95 1.05
9 BHINDAR BHINDAR1 132 0.95 1.05
10 MAHI I MAHI_I 132 0.95 1.05
11 MAHI II MAHI_II 132 0.95 1.05
12 MADRI MADRI1 132 0.95 1.05
13 PRATAPNAGAR PRATNGR1 132 0.95 1.05
14 SUKHER SUKHER1 132 0.95 1.05
15 BHATEWAR BHATWAR1 132 0.95 1.05
16 ZAWARMINES ZMINES1 132 0.95 1.05
17 SALUMBER SALUMBR1 132 0.95 1.05
18 ASPUR ASPUR1 132 0.95 1.05
19 DHARIWAD DRIWAD1 132 0.95 1.05
20 SAGWARA SAGWARA1 132 0.95 1.05
21 DUNGARPUR DUNGRPR1 132 0.95 1.05
22 KHERWARA KHERWAR1 132 0.95 1.05
23 RISHABDEO RISHDEO1 132 0.95 1.05
24 PARTAPUR PARTAPR1 132 0.95 1.05
25 PALODA PALODA1 132 0.95 1.05
26 BAGIDORA BAGIDRA1 132 0.95 1.05
27 KHUSHALGARH KUSHLG1 132 0.95 1.05
28 DG -132 KV BUS DG-132KV 132 0.95 1.05
C GENERATOR BUS
2. Line Data
The transmission lines designed under Mipower utilizes different
conductors as per desired voltage level.
The Test System consists of total forty transmission lines.
Two major types of conductors namely Zebra & Panther have
been deployed. Zebra conductor is used in 220 kV lines &
panther conductor for 132 kV lines in the test system.
Line length and line parameters of various sections for various
voltage levels are mentioned in Tables respectively.
Conductor Parameters for EHV Lines

Line parameters
SIL Thermal
Voltage Type of
S.No Value Rating
(KV) Conductor
R /km/ckt X /km/ckt B/2 mho/km/ckt (MW) (MVA)

1 220 Zebra 0.1622174 0.386116 1.46E-06 150 170


2 132 Panther 0.0748746 0.399252 1.47E-06 50 71
MIPOWER INTERFACE WINDOW SPECIFICATIONS

220 kV line data in Mi-Power Software Zebra conductor Library in Mi-Power Software
3. Generator Data

132 kV GSS Zawar mines is 50 kM away from Udaipur.


Zawar mines is directly connected to
220 kV GSS Madri

132 kV GSS at Rishebdeo & Salumber through 132 kV


transmission lines.
Therefore, 80 MW thermal generator is connected at 132 kV GSS
Zawarmines at 132 kV voltage level through 132 kV transmission line
The data presenting distributed generation unit is being tabulated in
Tables
Generator Data of Test System
Generator Rating MVAR Rating
Name of Generator Voltage
S.No. MVA MW
Generator Rating (KV) Max. Min
Rating Rating
A Captive Thermal Power Plant
1 Unit-I 11 125 80 40 -20
MIPOWER INTERFACE WINDOW SPECIFICATIONS

Modeling Diagram representing Generator Data Modeling diagram representing Generator library
4. Transformer & Shunt Capacitor Bank Modeling
The test system consist of
one 132/11 kV generator transformer
nine 220/132 kV voltage level transformers.
Shunt capacitor banks are represented at 132 kV voltage
buses to balance the reactive power requirements.
Transformer Data of Test System
From To Bus Voltage Ratio Transformer
S.No. From Bus Name To Bus Name
Bus No. No (MVA) Capacity
A. 220/132 kV Transformers
1 8 MADRI2 30 MADRI1 220/132 100
2 9 BANSWRA2 20 BANSWRA1 220/132 100
3 9 BANSWRA2 20 BANSWRA1 220/132 100
4 10 ASPUR2 36 ASPUR1 220/132 100
5 16 DEBARI2 17 DEBARI1 220/132 160
6 16 DEBARI2 17 DEBARI1 220/132 160
7 16 DEBARI2 17 DEBARI1 220/132 100
8 16 DEBARI2 17 DEBARI1 220/132 50
9 16 DEBARI2 17 DEBARI1 220/132 50
B. 132/11 kV Generator Transformer
10 747 DG-132 KV 748 DG-G BUS 132/11 125
5. Load Data
Load is represented at 132 kV voltage level.
There are 23 number of load buses.
Load is represented as constant power load.
Thus providing a total load of 380 MW.
The modeled test system with installed bus
number and loads in MW and MVAr are
tabulated in table in the next slide.
Load Data of Test System
Load
S.No. Bus No. Bus Name
MW MVAr
1 28 MAHI_I 0.28 0.136
2 29 MAHI_II 0.504 0.244
3 20 BANSWRA1 21.284 10.308
4 21 DALOT1 12.322 5.968
5 27 BHINDAR1 18.483 8.952
6 33 BHATWAR1 19.043 9.223
7 17 DEBARI1 22.404 10.851
8 30 MADRI1 39.767 19.26
9 31 PRATNGR1 33.606 16.276
10 32 SUKHER1 29.685 14.377
11 18 SEESRMA1 20.164 9.766
12 34 ZMINES1 7.841 3.798
13 35 SALUMBR1 16.803 8.138
14 36 ASPUR1 7.561 3.662
15 37 DRIWAD1 10.082 4.883
16 38 SAGWARA1 23.524 11.393
17 39 DUNGRPR1 33.046 16.005
18 40 KHERWAR1 6.721 3.255
19 41 RISHDEO1 13.442 6.51
20 42 PARTAPR1 7.561 3.662
21 43 PALODA1 11.762 5.697
22 44 BAGIDRA1 16.243 7.867
23 45 KUSHLG1 7.561 3.662
Total Load 380 184
LOAD FLOW SOLUTION IN MI POWER SOFTWARE

The Test system is a part of Rajasthan Power System.


Test system is a generation deficit area having no availability of
nearby generation unit.
Following case studies have been carried in the load flow study:-
Case I: Load flow study of Test System without Distributed
Generation.
Case II: Load flow study of Test System with Distributed
Generation of 80 MW connected to 132 kV GSS Zawar
mines at 132 kV voltage level.
The results of load flow study of Case-I & Case-II are plotted at
next consecutive slide.
LFS USING MI POWER SOFTWARE
LFS OF TEST SYSTEM WITHOUT DG
LFS OF TEST SYSTEM WITH DG
SIMULATION STUDY RESULTS

1. EFFECT ON LINES LOADING


2. EFFECT ON TRANSFORMERS LOADING
3. EFFECT ON LOSSES
4. EFFECT ON VOLTAGE
5. ANNUAL ENERGY & COST SAVINGS
1. EFFECT ON LINES LOADING

The MVA loading of Effect of DG on Transmission Lines Loading


lines of Test System To Line Loading (MVA)
From From Bus
have been tabulated in Bus No. Name
Bus
No.
To Bus Name
Without With
Table. DG DG
16 DEBARI2 13 RAPP-A2 127.271 118.33
From Table it is 16 DEBARI2 14 RAPP-B2 130.288 121.209
observed that with DG 16 DEBARI2 15 CHITORG2 83.489 74.028

the loading of lines 10 ASPUR2 16 DEBARI2 91.917 76.917


16 DEBARI2 8 MADRI2 96.89 83.566
which are feeding the 9 BANSWRA2 8 MADRI2 50.342 46.463
load of Udaipur district 16 DEBARI2 53 KANKRL42 93.044 67.655
have been reduced 20 BANSWRA1 42 PARTAPR1 19.041 9.952

Power flow on trans. 26 MANGLWR1 27 BHINDAR1 17.559 16.195

lines emanating from 17 DEBARI1 30 MADRI1 56.032 33.846

132 kV GSS Zawar 34 ZMINES1 30 MADRI1 57.575 24.537


32 SUKHER1 31 PRATNGR1 41.163 21.911
mines have been 17 DEBARI1 32 SUKHER1 99.488 87.078
increased. 38 SAGWARA1 39 DUNGRPR1 16.351 9.448
38 SAGWARA1 42 PARTAPR1 11.568 2.059
747 HZL1 34 ZMINES1 - 81.497
2. EFFECT ON TRANSFORMERS LOADING

MVA loading of 220/132 kV Transformers of Test System have


been tabulated here under
From Table it is observed that with distributed generation in
transmission network loading of 220/132 kV transformers have
been reduced.
Redundancy available on lines and transformers in Case II can be
used to load growth in the respective areas.
Therefore with the placement of distributed generation in power
system requirement of new lines and transformers have been
reduced.

Effect of DG on Transformers Loading


Agg. Transformers Transformer Loading (MVA)
From Bus Name To Bus Name
MVA Capacity Without DG With DG
BANSWRA2 BANSWRA1 200 87.38 83.30
ASPUR2 ASPUR1 100 54.15 36.705
DEBARI2 DEBARI1 520 228.31 205.95
MADRI2 MADRI1 100 47.27 37.78
3. EFFECT ON VOLTAGE

Bus voltages in Test System without and with


distributed generator is tabulated at table on
next slide.
Effect of DG on Transmission System Network Voltage
Nominal Bus Voltage Voltage (P.U)
S. No. Bus No. Bus Name
(KV) Without DG With DG
1 8 MADRI2 220 0.9315 0.9577
2 9 BANSWRA2 220 0.9152 0.9505
3 10 ASPUR2 220 0.9219 0.9567
4 16 DEBARI2 220 0.9348 0.9584
5 17 DEBARI1 132 0.9296 0.9558
6 18 SEESRMA1 132 0.9193 0.9438
7 20 BANSWRA1 132 0.9053 0.9431
8 21 DALOT1 132 0.9075 0.9228
9 27 BHINDAR1 132 0.9054 0.9305
10 28 MAHI_I 132 0.9049 0.9432
11 29 MAHI_II 132 0.9221 0.943
12 30 MADRI1 132 0.9219 0.9546
13 31 PRATNGR1 132 0.9245 0.9521
14 32 SUKHER1 132 0.9177 0.9522
15 33 BHATWAR1 132 0.9114 0.9426
16 34 ZMINES1 132 0.9134 0.9699
17 35 SALUMBR1 132 0.9143 0.9611
18 36 ASPUR1 132 0.9089 0.9604
19 37 DRIWAD1 132 0.9005 0.9562
20 38 SAGWARA1 132 0.9035 0.9412
21 39 DUNGRPR1 132 0.9018 0.9354
22 40 KHERWAR1 132 0.8882 0.9451
23 41 RISHDEO1 132 0.8934 0.9547
24 42 PARTAPR1 132 0.8815 0.942
25 43 PALODA1 132 0.8892 0.9389
3. EFFECT ON VOLTAGE

It is seen that network voltage with DG has been


significantly improved as compared to Case I i.e
without DG.
After adding generation capacity in load area,
power flow on the lines has been reduced.
Due to reduction in power flow, voltage drop in
network has been reduced.
Therefore, quality of power supply is improved with
distributed generation instead of concentrated
generation
4. EFFECT ON LOSSES
The effect of placement of distributed generator unit on
MW losses of Test System and Rajasthan power system
are tabulated in Table.
The MW loss reduction from 462.18 MW to 455.77 MW
has been obtained by the addition of distributed
generation in the system.

Effect of Distributed Generation on MW Losses

Particulars Without DG With DG Saving (MW)

MW losses of
21.29 17.53 3.76
Test system

MW losses of
462.18 455.77 6.10
Rajasthan system
5. ANNUAL ENERGY & COST SAVINGS

DG placement provides reduction in power flow on lines and transformers, therefore,


transmission losses are reduced.
Annual Savings can be found by multiplying the tariff rates to the annual units saved.
Average tariff rate in Rajasthan is 5 Rs/unit have been considered to calculate the Annual
Cost Saving:
In view of above annual cost saving, commercial viability of small capacity (50 to 100
MW) distributed power plants needs to be assessed instead of large capacity super thermal
power plants.

ANNUAL ENERGY SAVINGS ANNUAL COST SAVING (ACS)


[(MW Saving) x 365 x24 x LLF x 1000/ 105] [(No. of units saved) x (Per unit tariff)]

TEST SYSTEM TEST SYSTEM

AES = [(3.76) x 365 x 24 x 0.688 x 1000/105] ACS = [(226.61) X (5)]

AES = 226.61 LUs/Annum ACS = 1133.05 Lakhs/Annum

RAJASTHAN POWER SYSTEM RAJASTHAN POWER SYSTEM

AES = [(6.41) x 365 x 24 x 0.688 x 1000/105] ACS = [(386.31) x (5)]

AES = 386.31 LUs/Annum ACS = 1931.55 Lakhs/Annum


TRANSMISSION VOLTAGE CONTROL USING DG
In power system different sectors are facing low as well as high
voltage problems.
Since power plants are not in coordination with transmission
system operators for voltage control in transmission system.
When voltage in transmission system is low or high then by
increasing or decreasing the reference voltage of the generator,
transmission voltage can be increased or decreased
respectively.
With the increase of reference voltage generator injects more
reactive power into the system according to its capability
curve.
With the decrease of reference voltage generator absorbs the
reactive power from the transmission system.
Simulations have been carried out on test system to assess the
impact on bus voltage due to connected Distributed Generator.
CASE CONSIDERATIONS
A. Role of DG in Low Transmission Voltage Condition
LFS results of test system for peak loading condition and 1.0 PU reference voltage of generator
are initialized.
Under this condition, voltage in test system is very low whereas generator is injecting only 7
MVAR against its 40 MVAR capacity.
The voltage profile of Test System is assessed by changing the generator terminal voltage.
Generator reference voltage has been increased from 1.00 pu to 1.05 pu in steps of 0.05 to
simulate the effect on test system voltage as shown in fig 1.

B. Role of DG in High Transmission Voltage condition


LFS results of test system for low loading condition and 1.05 PU reference voltage of generator
are initialized.
Under this condition, voltage in test system is very high whereas generator is absorbing only 2
MVAR against its 20 MVAr capacity.
Generator reference voltage has been decreased from 1.05 pu to 1.01 pu in steps of 0.05 to
simulate the effect on test system voltage

FIG 1 FIG 2
LOW VOLTAGE CONDITION REFERNCE VOLTAGE 1PU
LOW VOLTAGE CONDITION REFERNCE VOLTAGE 1.05 PU
HIGH VOLTAGE CONDITION FOR REFERNCE VOLTAGE 1.05 PU
HIGH VOLTAGE CONDITION FOR REFERNCE VOLTAGE 1.01 PU
1. Effect on Generator Reactive Power Output

With the increase of reference voltage, reactive power output of generator is


also increases.
In all six cases, reactive loading on generator is below its maximum capacity
i.e. 40 MVAR.

Case No. Generator Reference Voltage(PU) Generator Reactive Power Output (MVAR)
1 1.00 7
2 1.01 11
3 1.02 19
4 1.03 20
5 1.04 24
6 1.05 28
2. Effect on Test System voltage profile

From simulation studies it is observed that with the increase of


generator terminal voltage, transmission system voltage is also
significantly improved.
220 kV bus voltage of test system for different generator reference voltages
are plotted in Fig.
CONCLUSION AND FUTURESCOPE OF WORK
The conclusions which can be made on from load flow studies of Case I and Case II
(without DG and with DG) can be detailed as follow:

Simulation studies indicate that loading on lines & 220/132 kV transformers in Case II has
been reduced as compared to Case I.
The network voltage in Case II has been significantly improved as compared to Case I.
In Case II total system losses are reduced as compared to Case I. The system losses are
reduced from 21.294 MW to 14.803 MW.
The effects of DG placement on Rajasthan State Power System is also reflected with
power loss reduction of 6.41 MW.
Annual cost saving of approx. Rs 1955.27 Lakhs/Annum envisaged if, Distributed
Generation could be availed jointly by the utilities annually.

With DG placement, loading on lines has been significantly reduced. This created extra
capability of the system to meet the future load growth. Thus avoiding the layout of more
lines in the system. Improvements in voltage profile, line losses & reliability have been
achieved successfully. Therefore, quality of power supply is also greater than before.
CONCLUSION AND FUTURESCOPE OF WORK
Future Scope of work
Studies should be carried out for placement of DG in various
pockets of Rajasthan.
Studies should be carried out for various size DG in the power
system at specific locations.
PAPER SUBMISSION

The Dissertation work has been submitted &


accepted successfully
For 2016 IEEE International Conference on
Power Electronics, Intelligent Control & Energy
Systems.
The presentation has been scheduled for Track
1, Session 6 (Venue 4),DAY 2, 05/07/2016,