Three Phase Circuits
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Introduction:
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The generator , motor , transformer or rectifier have only one winding is called a single phase system
If the current or voltage follows a phase difference 90 ^{0} in a two windings , called two phase systems
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If the phase difference is 120 ^{0} between voltages or currents in a three winding , called as Three phase systems
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In poly-phase systems , there are more than three windings
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Advantages of three phase system:
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More efficient than single phase system Cost is less Size is small . Compared to single phase system
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Adavantages of Three Phase Circuits
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The amount of conductor material is required less for transmitting same power, over the same distance , under same power loss
Three phase motors produce uniform torque , where as torque produced by single motor is pulsating
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Three phase generators not produce the harmonics when they are connected in parallel
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Three phase motors are self starting whereas single phase motors are not self starting
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Generation of Three Phase Voltages
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Vectorially r.m.s values of voltages induced in three windings are represented in the diagram
E _{R} = E ∟0 ^{o} v, E _{Y} = E ∟-120 ^{o} v
E _{B} = E ∟+120
^{o} v
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Balanced three phase supply:
• A three phase supply is said to be balanced, when all the three voltages have the same magnitude but differ in phase by 120° with respect to one another.
• The three phase supply is said to be unbalanced, even if one of the above conditions is not satisfied.
Balanced Load:
• A three phase load is said to be balanced, when the impedances of all the three phases are exactly the same. Even if one of them is different
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from the other, then the three phase load is said to be unbalanced
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In a three phase balanced load, whether star connected or delta connected, the magnitudes of the phase currents are the same but differ in phase by 120 ^{o} with respected to one another
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But in an unbalanced load, when a three phase balanced supply is given, the magnitudes and phases of all the three phase currents will be different.
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Three phase connections:
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Star connection (Y):
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There are two types of three phase connections
Star connection (Y) Delta connection (Δ)
In this method of inter-connection, the similar ends, say, “start” ends of three coils (it could be “finishing” ends also) are joined together at point ‘N’
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The point ‘N’ is known as star point or neutral point If this three-phase voltage is applied across a balanced symmetrical load, the neutral wire will be carrying three currents which are exactly equal in magnitude but are 120 ^{o} out of phase with each other. Hence, their vector sum is zero I _{R} + I _{Y} + I _{B} = 0
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Voltages and Currents in Y-Connection:
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The voltage induced in each winding is called the
‘phase’ voltage and current in each winding is known as ‘phase’ current.
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The vector diagram for phase voltages and currents in a star connection shows that E _{R} = E _{Y} = E _{B} = E _{p}_{h} (phase e.m.f)
Line voltage V _{R}_{Y} between line 1 and line 2 is the vector difference of E _{R} and E _{Y} .
Line voltage V _{Y}_{B} between line 2 and line 3 is the vector difference of E _{Y} and E _{B} .
Line voltage V _{B}_{R} between line 3 and line 1 is the vector difference of E _{B} and E _{R} .
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The p.d. between lines 1 and 2 is V _{R}_{Y} = E _{R} - E _{Y} (Vector difference) V _{R}_{Y} is found by compounding E _{R} and E _{Y} reversed and its value is given by the diagonal of the paral1elogram in figure. The angle between E _{R} and E _{Y} reversed is 60°. If E _{R} = E _{Y} = E _{B} = E _{p}_{h} the Phase e.m.f then,
o
cos30
2 E cos30
ph
o
2
2
E
3E
ph
ph
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C
O
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Line Currents and Phase Currents:
_{•} Current in line 1 = I _{R} _{•} Current in line 2 = I _{Y} Current in line 3 = I _{B}
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Since I _{R} = I _{Y} = I _{B} = say,
I _{p}_{h} - the phase current Line current I _{L} = I _{p}_{h}
Power:
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The total power in the circuit is the sum of the three phase powers. Hence
Total Power =3 x phase power=
•
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•
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Delta (Δ) or Mesh Connection:
Phase sequence is R, Y, B R leads Y by 120° and Y leads B by 120°. The voltage between lines 1 and 2 as V _{R}_{Y}
The voltage between lines 2 and 3 as V _{Y}_{B} V _{R}_{Y} leads V _{Y}_{B} by 120 V _{Y}_{B} leads V _{B}_{R} by 120°.
V _{R}_{Y} =V _{Y}_{B} = V _{B}_{R} = line voltage V _{L} Then, it V _{L} = E _{p}_{h}
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Line Currents and Phase Currents:
_{•} Current in line 1 is I _{1} = I _{R} – I _{B} Current in line 2 is I _{2} = I _{Y} – I _{R} Current in line 3 is I _{3} = I _{B} - I _{Y} Current in line 1 is found by compounding I _{R} with I _{B} reversed and its value is given by the diagonal of the parallelogram The angle between I _{R} and I _{B} reversed (-I _{B} ) is 60°. If I _{B} = I _{R} = I _{Y} = I _{p}_{h} phase current, then current in line 1 is
_{•}
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_{•}
_{•}
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Since all line currents are equal in magnitude i.e., I _{1} = I _{2} = I _{3} = I _{L}
From Vector diagram, it should be noted that • (a) Line currents are 120 o apart. (b) Line currents are 30 o behind the respective phase currents. (c) The angle between the line current and the corresponding line voltage is
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(30 + ɸ) with the current lagging.
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Measure of power in Three Phase Circuits:
Wattmeter is the instrument which is used to measure power in an electrical circuit. It consists of (i) a current coil ML’ through which the line current flows (ii) a potential coil PV, which is connected across the circuit.
The full voltage is applied across the potential coil and it carries a very small current proportional to the applied voltage.
Three single phase watt-meters may be connected in each phase
The algebraic sum of their readings gives the total power consumed by the three phase circuit.
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It can be proved that only two watt-meters are sufficient to
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measure power in a three phase circuit
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Two Wattmeter Method:
1. Balanced or Unbalanced Load:
• The current coils of the two watt meters are inserted in any two lines The potential coils joined to the third line. Sum of the instantaneous powers indicated by W _{1} and W _{2} gives the instantaneous power absorbed by the three loads L _{1} , L _{2} and L _{3} .
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Instantaneous current through W _{1} = I _{R}
Instantaneous P.D. Across
Power read by
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W
1
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_{•}
W _{1} = V _{R}_{B} = E _{R} - E _{B}
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= I _{R} (E _{R} – E _{B} )
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_{•}
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Contd .. Instantaneous current through W _{2} = I _{Y} Instantaneous P.D. across W _{2} = V _{Y}_{B} = E _{Y} - E _{B}
Power read by
W _{2} = I _{Y} (E _{Y} – E _{B} )
Therefore, W _{1} + W _{2} = I _{R} (E _{R} – E _{B} ) + I _{Y} (E _{Y} – E _{B} )
= I _{R} E _{R} + I _{Y} E _{Y} – E _{B} (I _{R} + I _{Y} ) I _{R} + I _{Y} + I _{B} = 0 I _{R} + I _{Y} = -I _{B}
= I _{R} E _{R} + I _{Y} E _{Y} – E _{B} (-I _{B} ) = I _{R} E _{R} + I _{Y} E _{Y} + E _{B} I _{B} = P _{1} + P _{2} + P _{3} Where P _{1} is the power absorbed by load L _{1} , P _{2} that absorbed
by L
and P
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that absorbed by L _{3} .
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W + W = total power absorbed
Balanced Load:
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The load is said to be balanced, when the impedances of the three phases are equal
The supply is said to be balanced, if the three voltages are equal and are displaced by 120 ^{o} with respect to one another. When a balance supply is given to a balanced load, the currents flowing through the three phases will be equal in magnitude and are displaced by 120 ^{o} with respect to each other.
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Two wattmeter connections to measure power in a three phase balanced circuit
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as shown above figure
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Let E _{R} , E _{Y} and E _{B} be the r.m.s. values of the three-phase voltages and I _{R} , I _{Y} and I _{B} be the r.m.s. values of the currents
The currents lagging behind their phase voltages by ‘ɸ’. Current through wattmeter W _{1} = I _{R}
P.D. across voltage coil of
-E _{B}
W _{1} = V _{R}_{B} = E _{R} – E _{B}
Now reading W _{1} = V _{R}_{B} I _{R} cos (30° - ɸ) Current through wattmeter W _{2} = I _{Y} P.D. across voltage coil of W _{2} = V _{Y}_{B} = E _{Y} – E _{B}
W _{2} = V _{Y}_{B} I _{Y} cos (30° + ɸ) Since the load is balanced, V _{R}_{B} = V _{Y}_{B} = line voltage, V _{L} I _{R} = I _{Y} = line current, I _{L} W _{1} = V _{L} I _{L} cos (30° - ɸ) --------(1)
W
= V
I
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2
L
L
cos (30° + ɸ)-------(2)
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Contd ..
W _{1} + W _{2} = V _{L} I _{L} cos (30° - ɸ) + V _{L} I _{L} cos (30° + ɸ) = V _{L} I _{L} [cos 30° cos ɸ + sin 30° sin ɸ + cos 30° cos ɸ - sin 30° sin ɸ]
= V
I
L
L
W W P
1
2
(2 cos 30° cos ɸ)
V I
L
• Expression for Power Factor (p.f):
W _{1} - W _{2} = V _{L} I _{L} cos (30° - ɸ) - V _{L} I _{L} cos (30° + ɸ)
= V _{L} I _{L} [cos 30° cos ɸ + sin 30° sin ɸ - cos 30° cos ɸ + sin 30° sin ɸ] = V _{L} I _{L} (2 sin 30° sin ɸ)
= V _{L} I _{L} sin ɸ
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• Effect of p.f. on W _{1} and W _{2} :
W _{1} = V _{L} I _{L} cos (30° - ɸ) = V _{L} I _{L} cos 30°
(ɸ = 0)
= (√3/2) V _{L} I _{L} W _{2} = V _{L} I _{L} cos (30° + ɸ) = V _{L} I _{L} cos 30° (ɸ = 0) = (√3/2) V _{L} I _{L}
The two wattmeter readings are positive and equal.
W _{1} = V _{L} I _{L} cos (30° - 60 o ) = V _{L} I _{L} cos (-30°) (ɸ = 60 o ) = (√3/2) V _{L} I _{L}
(ɸ = 60 o )
W _{2} = V _{L} I _{L} cos (30° + 60 o ) = V _{L} I _{L} cos 90° = 0
One of the watt meters reads zero.
W _{1} = V _{L} I _{L} cos (30° - 90 o ) = V _{L} I _{L} cos (-60°) (ɸ = 90 o ) = (1/2) V _{L} I _{L}
W _{2} = V _{L} I _{L} cos (30° + 90 o ) = V _{L} I _{L} cos (120°) (ɸ = 90 o ) = - (1/2) V _{L} I _{L}
One of the watt-meters, reads negative (-ve).
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Observations:
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One of the watt-meters reads -ve. The pointer of this watt- meter kicks back and hence the reading can not be taken.
Then, either the current coil connections or potential coil connections are interchanged, pointer moves in the forward direction and the reading can be taken.
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But this reading has to be considered as -ve.
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Conclusion:
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For p.f. lying between 0 to 0.5, one of the watt-meters, reads negative (-ve).
When p.f. = 0.5, one wattmeter reads zero (0). When p.f. lies between 0.5 to 1.0, both watt-meter readings are positive (+). When p.f. = 1, the readings of both watt-meters are equal.
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