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Three Phase Circuits

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Introduction:

The generator , motor , transformer or rectifier have only one winding is called a single phase system

If the current or voltage follows a phase difference 90 0 in a two windings , called two phase systems

If the phase difference is 120 0 between voltages or currents in a three winding , called as Three phase systems

In poly-phase systems , there are more than three windings

Advantages of three phase system:

More efficient than single phase system Cost is less Size is small . Compared to single phase system

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Introduction: • The generator , motor , transformer or rectifier have only one winding is called
Introduction: • The generator , motor , transformer or rectifier have only one winding is called

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Adavantages of Three Phase Circuits

The amount of conductor material is required less for transmitting same power, over the same distance , under same power loss

Three phase motors produce uniform torque , where as torque produced by single motor is pulsating

Three phase generators not produce the harmonics when they are connected in parallel

Three phase motors are self starting whereas single phase motors are not self starting

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Adavantages of Three Phase Circuits • The amount of conductor material is required less for transmitting
Adavantages of Three Phase Circuits • The amount of conductor material is required less for transmitting

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Generation of Three Phase Voltages

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Generation of Three Phase Voltages www.bookspar.com | Website for Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS

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Generation of Three Phase Voltages www.bookspar.com | Website for Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS
Generation of Three Phase Voltages www.bookspar.com | Website for Students | VTU NOTES | QUESTION PAPERS

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Vectorially r.m.s values of voltages induced in three windings are represented in the diagram

E R = E ∟0 o v, E Y = E ∟-120 o v

E B = E ∟+120

o v

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• Vectorially r.m.s values of voltages induced in three windings are represented in the diagram E

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• Vectorially r.m.s values of voltages induced in three windings are represented in the diagram E
• Vectorially r.m.s values of voltages induced in three windings are represented in the diagram E

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Balanced three phase supply:

A three phase supply is said to be balanced, when all the three voltages have the same magnitude but differ in phase by 120° with respect to one another.

The three phase supply is said to be unbalanced, even if one of the above conditions is not satisfied.

Balanced three phase supply: • A three phase supply is said to be balanced, when all
Balanced three phase supply: • A three phase supply is said to be balanced, when all

Balanced Load:

A three phase load is said to be balanced, when the impedances of all the three phases are exactly the same. Even if one of them is different

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Balanced three phase supply: • A three phase supply is said to be balanced, when all

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from the other, then the three phase load is said to be unbalanced

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In a three phase balanced load, whether star connected or delta connected, the magnitudes of the phase currents are the same but differ in phase by 120 o with respected to one another

But in an unbalanced load, when a three phase balanced supply is given, the magnitudes and phases of all the three phase currents will be different.

Three phase connections:

Star connection (Y):

There are two types of three phase connections

Star connection (Y) Delta connection (Δ)

In this method of inter-connection, the similar ends, say, “start” ends of three coils (it could be “finishing” ends also) are joined together at point ‘N’

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In a three phase balanced load, whether star connected or delta connected, the magnitudes of the

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In a three phase balanced load, whether star connected or delta connected, the magnitudes of the

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The point ‘N’ is known as star point or neutral point If this three-phase voltage is applied across a balanced symmetrical load, the neutral wire will be carrying three currents which are exactly equal in magnitude but are 120 o out of phase with each other. Hence, their vector sum is zero I R + I Y + I B = 0

Voltages and Currents in Y-Connection:

The voltage induced in each winding is called the

‘phase’ voltage and current in each winding is known as ‘phase’ current.

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The point ‘N’ is known as star point or neutral point If this three-phase voltage is
The point ‘N’ is known as star point or neutral point If this three-phase voltage is

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The vector diagram for phase voltages and currents in a star connection shows that E R = E Y = E B = E ph (phase e.m.f)

Line voltage V RY between line 1 and line 2 is the vector difference of E R and E Y .

Line voltage V YB between line 2 and line 3 is the vector difference of E Y and E B .

Line voltage V between line 2 and line 3 is the vector difference of E and

Line voltage V BR between line 3 and line 1 is the vector difference of E B and E R .

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• • The vector diagram for phase voltages and currents in a star connection shows that

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• • The vector diagram for phase voltages and currents in a star connection shows that

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The p.d. between lines 1 and 2 is V RY = E R - E Y (Vector difference) V RY is found by compounding E R and E Y reversed and its value is given by the diagonal of the paral1elogram in figure. The angle between E R and E Y reversed is 60°. If E R = E Y = E B = E ph the Phase e.m.f then,

o

cos30

V RY 2 E ph
V
RY
2
E
ph
  • V RY

2E cos30

ph

o

• • The p.d. between lines 1 and 2 is V = E - E (Vector
3
3

2

• • The p.d. between lines 1 and 2 is V = E - E (Vector

2

E

3E

ph

ph

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C

• • The p.d. between lines 1 and 2 is V = E - E (Vector

O

• • The p.d. between lines 1 and 2 is V = E - E (Vector

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similarly V  E  E Vector Difference ( ) YB Y B  3 E
similarly
V
E
E Vector Difference
(
)
YB
Y
B
 3 E
ph
V
V
V
RY
YB
BR
line voltage V
,
L
and
V
E
 3 E
E
(
Vector Difference
)
BR
B
R
Hence, in star connection
ph
V  3E
L
ph
It will be noted from figure that
(a) Line voltages are 120° apart.
(b) Line voltages are 30° ahead of their respective phase
voltages.
(c) The angle between the line currents and the
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corresponding line voltages is (30 + ɸ) with current lagging.
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Line Currents and Phase Currents:

Current in line 1 = I R Current in line 2 = I Y Current in line 3 = I B

Since I R = I Y = I B = say,

I ph - the phase current Line current I L = I ph

Power:

The total power in the circuit is the sum of the three phase powers. Hence

Line Currents and Phase Currents: Current in line 1 = I Current in line 2 =
Line Currents and Phase Currents: Current in line 1 = I Current in line 2 =

Total Power =3 x phase power=

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Line Currents and Phase Currents: Current in line 1 = I Current in line 2 =

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Line Currents and Phase Currents: Current in line 1 = I Current in line 2 =

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Delta (Δ) or Mesh Connection:

Phase sequence is R, Y, B R leads Y by 120° and Y leads B by 120°. The voltage between lines 1 and 2 as V RY

The voltage between lines 2 and 3 as V YB V RY leads V YB by 120 V YB leads V BR by 120°.

V RY =V YB = V BR = line voltage V L Then, it V L = E ph

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• • Delta (Δ) or Mesh Connection: Phase sequence is R, Y, B R leads Y
• • Delta (Δ) or Mesh Connection: Phase sequence is R, Y, B R leads Y

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Line Currents and Phase Currents:

Line Currents and Phase Currents: Current in line 1 is I = I – I Current

Current in line 1 is I 1 = I R – I B Current in line 2 is I 2 = I Y – I R Current in line 3 is I 3 = I B - I Y Current in line 1 is found by compounding I R with I B reversed and its value is given by the diagonal of the parallelogram The angle between I R and I B reversed (-I B ) is 60°. If I B = I R = I Y = I ph phase current, then current in line 1 is

Line Currents and Phase Currents: Current in line 1 is I = I – I Current

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Line Currents and Phase Currents: Current in line 1 is I = I – I Current

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Line Currents and Phase Currents: Current in line 1 is I = I – I Current

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Since all line currents are equal in magnitude i.e., I = I = I = I
Since all line currents are equal in magnitude i.e., I = I = I = I
Since all line currents are equal in magnitude i.e., I = I = I = I

Since all line currents are equal in magnitude i.e., I 1 = I 2 = I 3 = I L

Since all line currents are equal in magnitude i.e., I = I = I = I

From Vector diagram, it should be noted that (a) Line currents are 120 o apart. (b) Line currents are 30 o behind the respective phase currents. (c) The angle between the line current and the corresponding line voltage is

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(30 + ɸ) with the current lagging.

Since all line currents are equal in magnitude i.e., I = I = I = I

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Since all line currents are equal in magnitude i.e., I = I = I = I

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Power: P   E I 3 cos ph ph but E  V ph L
Power:
P   E I
3
cos
ph
ph
but
E  V
ph
L
I
I
L
ph
3
I
L
P
 3 
V
 cos
L
3
P 
3
V I
cos
L
L
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Measure of power in Three Phase Circuits:

Wattmeter is the instrument which is used to measure power in an electrical circuit. It consists of (i) a current coil ML’ through which the line current flows (ii) a potential coil PV, which is connected across the circuit.

The full voltage is applied across the potential coil and it carries a very small current proportional to the applied voltage.

Three single phase watt-meters may be connected in each phase

The algebraic sum of their readings gives the total power consumed by the three phase circuit.

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It can be proved that only two watt-meters are sufficient to

• • • • • • • Measure of power in Three Phase Circuits: Wattmeter is

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• • • • • • • Measure of power in Three Phase Circuits: Wattmeter is

measure power in a three phase circuit

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Two Wattmeter Method:

1. Balanced or Unbalanced Load:

The current coils of the two watt meters are inserted in any two lines The potential coils joined to the third line. Sum of the instantaneous powers indicated by W 1 and W 2 gives the instantaneous power absorbed by the three loads L 1 , L 2 and L 3 .

Instantaneous current through W 1 = I R

Instantaneous P.D. Across

Power read by

Two Wattmeter Method: 1. Balanced or Unbalanced Load: • The current coils of the two watt

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W

1

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W 1 = V RB = E R - E B

= I R (E R – E B )

Two Wattmeter Method: 1. Balanced or Unbalanced Load: • The current coils of the two watt

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Contd .. Instantaneous current through W 2 = I Y Instantaneous P.D. across W 2 = V YB = E Y - E B

Power read by

W 2 = I Y (E Y – E B )

Therefore, W 1 + W 2 = I R (E R – E B ) + I Y (E Y – E B )

= I R E R + I Y E Y – E B (I R + I Y ) I R + I Y + I B = 0 I R + I Y = -I B

= I R E R + I Y E Y – E B (-I B ) = I R E R + I Y E Y + E B I B = P 1 + P 2 + P 3 Where P 1 is the power absorbed by load L 1 , P 2 that absorbed

by L

Contd .. Instantaneous current through W = I Instantaneous P.D. across W = V = E

and P

Contd .. Instantaneous current through W = I Instantaneous P.D. across W = V = E

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that absorbed by L 3 .

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2

3

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W + W = total power absorbed

Balanced Load:

The load is said to be balanced, when the impedances of the three phases are equal

The supply is said to be balanced, if the three voltages are equal and are displaced by 120 o with respect to one another. When a balance supply is given to a balanced load, the currents flowing through the three phases will be equal in magnitude and are displaced by 120 o with respect to each other.

Two wattmeter connections to measure power in a three phase balanced circuit

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as shown above figure

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Balanced Load: • The load is said to be balanced, when the impedances of the three

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Let E R , E Y and E B be the r.m.s. values of the three-phase voltages and I R , I Y and I B be the r.m.s. values of the currents

The currents lagging behind their phase voltages by ‘ɸ’. Current through wattmeter W 1 = I R

P.D. across voltage coil of

• • Let E , E and E be the r.m.s. values of the three-phase voltages

-E B

W 1 = V RB = E R – E B

Now reading W 1 = V RB I R cos (30° - ɸ) Current through wattmeter W 2 = I Y P.D. across voltage coil of W 2 = V YB = E Y – E B

W 2 = V YB I Y cos (30° + ɸ) Since the load is balanced, V RB = V YB = line voltage, V L I R = I Y = line current, I L W 1 = V L I L cos (30° - ɸ) --------(1)

• • Let E , E and E be the r.m.s. values of the three-phase voltages

W

= V

I

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2

L

L

cos (30° + ɸ)-------(2)

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• • Let E , E and E be the r.m.s. values of the three-phase voltages

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Contd ..

W 1 + W 2 = V L I L cos (30° - ɸ) + V L I L cos (30° + ɸ) = V L I L [cos 30° cos ɸ + sin 30° sin ɸ + cos 30° cos ɸ - sin 30° sin ɸ]

= V

I

L

L

W W P

1

2

(2 cos 30° cos ɸ)

3
3
Contd .. W + W = V I cos (30° - ɸ) + V I cos

V I

L

Expression for Power Factor (p.f):

W 1 - W 2 = V L I L cos (30° - ɸ) - V L I L cos (30° + ɸ)

= V L I L [cos 30° cos ɸ + sin 30° sin ɸ - cos 30° cos ɸ + sin 30° sin ɸ] = V L I L (2 sin 30° sin ɸ)

= V L I L sin ɸ

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Contd .. W + W = V I cos (30° - ɸ) + V I cos

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Contd .. W + W = V I cos (30° - ɸ) + V I cos

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Contd ..
Contd
..
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Effect of p.f. on W 1 and W 2 :

W 1 = V L I L cos (30° - ɸ) = V L I L cos 30°

(ɸ = 0)

= (√3/2) V L I L W 2 = V L I L cos (30° + ɸ) = V L I L cos 30° (ɸ = 0) = (√3/2) V L I L

The two wattmeter readings are positive and equal.

W 1 = V L I L cos (30° - 60 o ) = V L I L cos (-30°) (ɸ = 60 o ) = (√3/2) V L I L

(ɸ = 60 o )

W 2 = V L I L cos (30° + 60 o ) = V L I L cos 90° = 0

One of the watt meters reads zero.

W 1 = V L I L cos (30° - 90 o ) = V L I L cos (-60°) (ɸ = 90 o ) = (1/2) V L I L

W 2 = V L I L cos (30° + 90 o ) = V L I L cos (120°) (ɸ = 90 o ) = - (1/2) V L I L

One of the watt-meters, reads negative (-ve).

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• Effect of p.f. on W and W : W = V I cos (30° -

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• Effect of p.f. on W and W : W = V I cos (30° -

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Observations:

One of the watt-meters reads -ve. The pointer of this watt- meter kicks back and hence the reading can not be taken.

Then, either the current coil connections or potential coil connections are interchanged, pointer moves in the forward direction and the reading can be taken.

But this reading has to be considered as -ve.

Conclusion:

For p.f. lying between 0 to 0.5, one of the watt-meters, reads negative (-ve).

When p.f. = 0.5, one wattmeter reads zero (0). When p.f. lies between 0.5 to 1.0, both watt-meter readings are positive (+). When p.f. = 1, the readings of both watt-meters are equal.

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Observations: • One of the watt-meters reads -ve. The pointer of this watt- meter kicks back

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Observations: • One of the watt-meters reads -ve. The pointer of this watt- meter kicks back

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