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1.

TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel
1.04 Copper BUILDING TECHNOLOGY I
1.05 Tin
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.01 ALUMINUM
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin
is a soft, nonmagnetic silvery metal
1.06 Zinc characterized by its light weight (1/3 that of iron, brass
1.07 Brass or copper)
1.08 Bronze low melting point
1.09 Chromium
high thermal and electrical conductivity (surpassed
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
only by silver and copper)
2. METHODS OF moderately high coefficient of expansion
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
readily combines with oxygen to form aluminum
2.02 Brazing oxide, a transparent film that makes it corrosion
2.03 Welding resistant
2.04 Rivets is readily attacked by alkalis, hydrochloric acid and
3. METALS FOR other dilute acids.
CONCRETE is subject to galvanic action and should therefore be
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars electrically insulated from direct contact with metals
3.02 Wire Fabric other than zinc, cadmium, magnesium and nonmagnetic
3.03 Expanded Mesh stainless steel.
3.04 Laths is easily worked: can be hot or cold rolled, extruded,
4. STORAGE & CARE forged, pressed, drawn, molded, stamped, bent and
FOR METAL shaped.
REINFORCEMENT
can be riveted, bolted, welded, brazed and soldered.
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.01 ALUMINUM
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin In architectural work practically all fabricated forms of
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
aluminum are used:
1.08 Bronze - rod
1.09 Chromium - bar
1.10 Nickel - extrusion
1.11 Lead - casting
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
- sheet
2.01 Soldering - strip, etc.
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.01 ALUMINUM
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin Extrusion is the process
1.06 Zinc of shaping material by
1.07 Brass
forcing it to flow through a
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
shaped opening in a die.
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead Extruded material
2. METHODS OF emerges as an elongated
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
piece with the same
2.02 Brazing profile as the die opening.
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets However, these products are not fabricated from pure
3. METALS FOR aluminum but in alloy combination with iron, silicon,
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT copper, manganese, magnesium, zinc, chromium
3.01 Steel Bars and nickel in small quantities to give strength and other
3.02 Wire Fabric desirable characteristics but often reduces its corrosion
3.03 Expanded Mesh resistance.
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.01 ALUMINUM
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin Alclad is a term applied to
1.06 Zinc certain aluminum products,
1.07 Brass
refers to the protective coating
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
(cladding) applied, primarily for
1.10 Nickel corrosion resistance, to thin
1.11 Lead sheets of an alloy whose
2. METHODS OF corrosion resistance has been
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
decreased by the constituents
2.02 Brazing added to give strength and
2.03 Welding other characteristics.
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR Cladding improves the
CONCRETE appearance of the alloy. This
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars thin, integral cladding usually
3.02 Wire Fabric consists of pure aluminum,
3.03 Expanded Mesh magnesium silicide, or zinc
3.04 Laths alloys, with or without
4. STORAGE & CARE manganese.
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.01 ALUMINUM
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin a. Types of Aluminum:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
ALUMINUM SHEET AND
1.08 Bronze STRIP, used for roofing,
1.09 Chromium flashing, gutter, etc
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
ALUMINUM FOIL - rolled to a thickness of 0.005
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
(above 0.005 it is technically considered to be
3. METALS FOR
sheet), used mainly for thermal insulation and vapor
CONCRETE barriers.
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
It may serve also as a surface finish material when
3.02 Wire Fabric laminated to various sheet and board materials. In
3.03 Expanded Mesh this form it also supplies additional insulation value
3.04 Laths to the sheet or board.
4. STORAGE & CARE
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.01 ALUMINUM
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin a. Types of Aluminum:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
CORRUGATED ALUMINUM. This is rigidized
1.08 Bronze sheet fabricated of special aluminum alloys
1.09 Chromium specifically developed for this purpose. It usually
1.10 Nickel consists of an aluminum alloy core of one type
1.11 Lead clad with another, highly corrosion-resistant
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
aluminum roofing and siding
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.01 ALUMINUM
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin a. Types of Aluminum:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass STRUCTURAL ALUMINUM.
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium When aluminum is used as a structural material,
1.10 Nickel important factors, arising from its physical and
1.11 Lead
chemical characteristics, are considered:
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
- Aluminum can be extruded; therefore a structural
2.01 Soldering shape can be produced economically to meet the
2.02 Brazing specified structural design requirements.
2.03 Welding - Very corrosion resistant aluminum alloys are
2.04 Rivets available; requiring no painting and the thickness of
3. METALS FOR sections can be reduced since a safety margin is not
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT necessary to cover loss of strength due to corrosion.
3.01 Steel Bars - Aluminum is very lightweight material, hence
3.02 Wire Fabric
aluminum girders and columns show increased
3.03 Expanded Mesh
efficiency with large bay spacing. However, because
3.04 Laths
the modulus of elasticity of aluminum alloys is lower
4. STORAGE & CARE than steel, its means that buckling is a possibility and
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT should always be checked.
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.01 ALUMINUM
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin a. Types of Aluminum:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
ALUMINUM DOORS AND WINDOWS.
1.08 Bronze These are generally fabricated from
1.09 Chromium extrusions and rolled shapes.
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.01 ALUMINUM
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin a. Types of Aluminum:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze ALUMINUM PANELS AND SANDWICH PANELS
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
are pre-fabricated units, generally manufactured:
2. METHODS OF
- using dimensions of modular and non-modular
JOINING METALS window-width for building exterior, and
2.01 Soldering - in 600mm, 900mm, and 120mm widths for interior
2.02 Brazing
partitions and dividers.
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
Panels for the exterior of buildings primarily consist of :
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE - an aluminum exterior facing which may be an
REINFORCEMENT aluminum casting
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
- an extrusion or sheet material which has been
3.03 Expanded Mesh
pressed, stamped or formed into specially design
3.04 Laths
shapes.
4. STORAGE & CARE
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.01 ALUMINUM
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin a. Types of Aluminum:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass ALUMINUM PANELS AND SANDWICH PANELS
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
A sandwich panel comprises a system of
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
construction called skin construction.
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS A cellular core of aluminum or other material has
2.01 Soldering
a skin of aluminum applied and bonded to both
2.02 Brazing
sides, thereby forming a unified whole in which all
2.03 Welding
the components work as one.
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR Floor Panel Wall Panel
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.01 ALUMINUM
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin a. Types of Aluminum:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
Ornamental aluminum. Many
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
kinds of rods, bars, pipes,
1.10 Nickel railings, fittings, and special
1.11 Lead shapes are manufactured as
2. METHODS OF stock items for use in
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
ornamental design of railings,
2.02 Brazing grilles, screens, etc.
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars Aluminum Mesh and
3.02 Wire Fabric Wire Cloth are used for
3.03 Expanded Mesh fencing, particularly
3.04 Laths
chain link fencing and
4. STORAGE & CARE insect screening.
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.01 ALUMINUM
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin b. Types of Aluminum Finishes:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass Mechanical finishes - obtained by grinding
1.08 Bronze polishing, scratching, sandblasting, embossing, or
1.09 Chromium
other treatment of the surface to achieve a desired
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
effect or to provide a base for other finishes.
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS Chemical finishes - based on chemical reactions
2.01 Soldering with the aluminum surface to achieve one of the
2.02 Brazing
following results:
2.03 Welding (a) etching, cleaning, or polishing of the surface to
2.04 Rivets
remove any oxide film or surface irregularity and
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
provide a design, a clean surface texture, or a
REINFORCEMENT polished effect; and
3.01 Steel Bars
(b) oxidizing the surface with aluminum or other
3.02 Wire Fabric
metallic oxides that protect the surface or serve as
3.03 Expanded Mesh
a base for subsequent treatment, or both. Chemical
3.04 Laths
finishes permit only limited colors that are not as
4. STORAGE & CARE
FOR METAL
satisfying as the color films obtained on
REINFORCEMENT electrolytically-applied (anodized) oxide films.
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.01 ALUMINUM
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin b. Types of Aluminum Finishes:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass Electrolytic finishes Commonly referred to as
1.08 Bronze anodized finishes, these finishes are based on
1.09 Chromium the specific ability of aluminum to develop a
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
protective coating of oxide on its surface.
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS The coating formed may be transparent or
2.01 Soldering opaque. It is hard, yet when colored finishes are
2.02 Brazing
desired, it is porous enough to absorb dyes until
2.03 Welding
the final treatment which seals the surface.
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE Of the colors used in anodic treatments,
REINFORCEMENT architectural gold has proven to be one of the
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
most stable from the standpoint of fade
3.03 Expanded Mesh
resistance. Others are blue and, more recently,
3.04 Laths
brown and black
4. STORAGE & CARE
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.01 ALUMINUM
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin b. Types of Aluminum Finishes:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass Electroplating. Aluminum can be covered with a
1.08 Bronze protective or decorative film or another metal,
1.09 Chromium
usually by electrodeposition. In the case of
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
copper and nickel, the coating should be
2. METHODS OF complete and unbroken; otherwise there will be
JOINING METALS galvanic action which is destructive to aluminum.
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
Porcelain or Vitreous Enamel. This finish forms a
2.04 Rivets
hard, resistant surface. It is available in a broad
3. METALS FOR
color range that creates a different feeling in that
CONCRETE colors are glassy, whereas anodic color is metallic
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
in nature.
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh Paint. Paint, lacquer and enamel can be applied
3.04 Laths as finishes to aluminum surfaces that have been
4. STORAGE & CARE prepared by a suitable chemical treatment finish.
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
Lead base paints must not be used on aluminum.
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.02 IRON
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin
Pure iron is
1.06 Zinc
tough,
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
malleable silvery-white
1.09 Chromium metal that is
1.10 Nickel soft and ductile as copper
1.11 Lead it is easily magnetized
2. METHODS OF is the most magnetically
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering permeable of the metals
2.02 Brazing it oxidizes rapidly in air
2.03 Welding and is readily attack by
2.04 Rivets most acids.
3. METALS FOR can be hardened by
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
heating and sudden
3.01 Steel Bars cooling
3.02 Wire Fabric and made more pliable or more workable by heating
3.03 Expanded Mesh and slow cooling.
3.04 Laths At very low temperatures is very brittle
4. STORAGE & CARE at red heat it is soft, and
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
at white heat it can be welded.
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.02 IRON
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin As pure iron passes
1.06 Zinc through these
1.07 Brass
temperature ranges, it
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
undergoes changes in its
1.10 Nickel structure and properties
1.11 Lead that are vitally important
2. METHODS OF in the preparation of
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
steel (an iron-
2.02 Brazing carbonalloy). Pig Iron
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets The commercial form in which iron is first prepared is
3. METALS FOR crude or pig iron. This impure form which contains 3% to
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT 4% carbon and varying amount of phosphorous, silicon,
3.01 Steel Bars sulfur, and manganese, is the starting point from which all
3.02 Wire Fabric other kinds of iron and iron alloys (or steel) are produced.
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths
The key to the various types of iron and steel is the
4. STORAGE & CARE carbon-iron relationship.
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.02 IRON
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin a. Cast Iron:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass is an iron-carbon alloy that contains more than
1.08 Bronze 1.7% carbon
1.09 Chromium
is poured while molten into forms
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
it can be easily cast into any shape, but it is too
2. METHODS OF
hard and brittle to be shaped by hammering,
JOINING METALS rolling, or pressing.
2.01 Soldering
Cast iron is used in the architectural field mainly
2.02 Brazing
for piping and fittings, ornamental ironwork,
2.03 Welding
hardware, as the base metal for porcelain
2.04 Rivets
enameled plumbing fixtures, and for
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE miscellaneous casting such as floor and wall
REINFORCEMENT brackets for railings, vents, circular stairs manhole
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
covers, and gratings.
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron 1.02 IRON
1.03 Steel
a. Cast Iron:
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin The types of cast iron generally used are gray cast
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
iron and malleable cast iron. Cast irons find their
1.08 Bronze largest use in heavy machinery and industry because
1.09 Chromium it has significant compressive strength and the ability
1.10 Nickel to absorb energy and stop vibration.
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron 1.02 IRON
1.03 Steel
1.04 Copper
b. Wrought Iron:
1.05 Tin
is almost pure iron with
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
less than 0.1% carbon,
1.08 Bronze usually not more than
1.09 Chromium 0.05%.
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
contains 2.5%, of slag (iron
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
silicate) in purely physical
2.01 Soldering association, not alloyed.
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding Wrought iron is soft,
2.04 Rivets malleable, tough, fatigue-
3. METALS FOR resistant, and resistant to
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT progressive corrosion.
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
It has good machinability and can be forged, bent,
3.03 Expanded Mesh
rolled, drawn, and spun. It can be welded by any of
3.04 Laths
the commonly used procedures. Wrought iron is
4. STORAGE & CARE
FOR METAL
available in the form of pipes, plates, sheets, special
REINFORCEMENT shapes, and bars.
1. TYPES OF METALS 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron 1.02 IRON
1.03 Steel
1.04 Copper
b. Wrought Iron:
1.05 Tin
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding Wrought iron is now used in the architectural filed primarily
2.04 Rivets in the form of genuine wrought iron pipe, chain, sheet, and
3. METALS FOR ornamental ironwork. Wrought iron pipe is used extensively
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT for plumbing, heating, and air conditioning where a
3.01 Steel Bars corrosion-resistant, tough, durable material is required.
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
Because it is intrinsically related to classical architecture and
3.04 Laths
requires high skilled craftsmanship, wrought ironwork today
4. STORAGE & CARE is used only in furniture, railing, fences, grilles, and small
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT decorative objects.
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.03 STEEL
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin
The word steel refers usually to plain carbon steels
1.06 Zinc which is defined as alloys of iron and carbon which
1.07 Brass do not contain more than 2% carbon and which are
1.08 Bronze made in malleable or ingot form.
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
In the plain or straight carbon steels the iron is always
2. METHODS OF in excess of 95%.
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
phosphorus, sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen are present,
2.02 Brazing
the last three as impurities.
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
Manganese, silicon, aluminum, copper and nickel may
CONCRETE also be present either as residual impurities or as
REINFORCEMENT elements deliberately added in small quantities to
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
control the properties of the steel.
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths Carbon steel can be wrought, rolled, cast, and
4. STORAGE & CARE
welded, but not extruded.
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.03 STEEL
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin a. Wrought Carbon Steels:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass Structural steel. This is a medium carbon steel
1.08 Bronze with its carbon content controlled to give both
1.09 Chromium
the strength and ductility necessary for its use.
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
Structural steel is
JOINING METALS available in angles,
2.01 Soldering
channels, I-beams, H
2.02 Brazing
columns, T shapes, Z
2.03 Welding
shapes, plates,
2.04 Rivets
round pipe columns,
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE sheet piling, open
REINFORCEMENT web joists, and light
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
steel framing shapes.
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.03 STEEL
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin a. Wrought Carbon Steels:
1.06 Zinc Reinforcement of concrete . Usually
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
deformed bars of varying grades and
1.09 Chromium diameters.
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.03 STEEL
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin a. Wrought Carbon Steels:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass Sheet and strip. Steel sheet is made from low
1.08 Bronze carbon steels generally containing about
1.09 Chromium
0.15% carbon and not exceeding 0.25%
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
carbon. Strip by definition is sheet material
2. METHODS OF
that is 12 or less wide. It is used in fabricated
JOINING METALS form as decking galvanized sheet, expanded
2.01 Soldering
metal, panels and sandwich panels, and as a
2.02 Brazing
base metal for porcelain enamel
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.03 STEEL
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin a. Wrought Carbon Steels:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass Corrugated steel. This is rigidized sheet
1.08 Bronze fabricated from low-carbon cold or hot-rolled steel
1.09 Chromium sheets which are either galvanized or covered
1.10 Nickel
with some type of bituminous coating. If
1.11 Lead
galvanized, corrugated steel is silvery in color and
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS has a glittering frosted surface. It is generally
2.01 Soldering available in 18, 20, 22. 24, and 26 gauge sheet
2.02 Brazing
and strip.
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets Steel Mesh and Wire Cloth. They are used for
3. METALS FOR concrete reinforcement, lath for plaster, stucco,
CONCRETE and cement, fencing, insect screens.
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
Steel Windows and Doors.
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths
Hardware such as nails, screws, rivets, etc
4. STORAGE & CARE
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.03 STEEL
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin b. Alloy Steels:
1.06 Zinc steels to which manganese, silicon, aluminum,
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
titanium, and molybdenum have been added
1.09 Chromium insufficient quantity to produce properties
1.10 Nickel unobtainable in carbon steels in cast, rolled or
1.11 Lead heat-treated form.
2. METHODS OF The alloying elements are added to increase the
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering following properties:
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
strength electrical conductivity or
hardness resistivity.
2.04 Rivets
ease and depth of In structural applications
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
hardenability only the properties of
REINFORCEMENT performance at high or strength
3.01 Steel Bars low temperatures expansion
3.02 Wire Fabric electromagnetic resistance to corrosion
3.03 Expanded Mesh properties ductility, and
3.04 Laths wear resistance workability
4. STORAGE & CARE
electrical conductivity or are of interest to the
FOR METAL resistivity. architect.
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.03 STEEL
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin b. Alloy Steels:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
High-strength low-alloy steels are a group of trade
1.09 Chromium name steels with improved mechanical properties
1.10 Nickel and resistance to atmospheric corrosion, They are
1.11 Lead being increasingly used as reinforcing for pre-
2. METHODS OF stressed concrete, high strength bolts, special
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering structural steels and cables for elevators, etc.
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.03 STEEL
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin b. Alloy Steels:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets Stainless steels generally used in architecture are
3. METALS FOR highly alloyed steels that contain more than 10%
CONCRETE chromium. They are characterized by their resistance
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars to heat, oxidation and corrosion. They are used
3.02 Wire Fabric where corrosion resistance, durability, and minimum
3.03 Expanded Mesh of maintenance is necessary principally for exterior
3.04 Laths and interior wall finishes, doors, windows, trims,
4. STORAGE & CARE railings, signs and letters, appliances, etc.
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.04 COPPER
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin
1.06 Zinc
is ductile, malleable, nonmagnetic metal with a
1.07 Brass characteristic bright, reddish brown color.
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium has the highest electrical and thermal
1.10 Nickel conductivity of any substances except silver.
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS Copper useful alloys have enough strength for
2.01 Soldering minor structural work
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding easily worked.
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
It is attacked by alkalis and many of the common
REINFORCEMENT acids.
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.04 COPPER
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin
It is highly resistant to corrosion by air and salt
1.06 Zinc water.
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze On exposure it soon reacts to form a surface
1.09 Chromium layer of an insoluble green slat which retards
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
further corrosion; this green color on copper is
2. METHODS OF
known as its patina.
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.04 COPPER
1.04 Copper Copper can be cast, drawn,
1.05 Tin
1.06 Zinc
extruded, hot and cold
1.07 Brass worked, spun, hammered,
1.08 Bronze punched, welded, brazed,
1.09 Chromium and soldered.
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead The galvanic action of
2. METHODS OF copper must be considered
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering when copper is used in
2.02 Brazing architecture. When in
2.03 Welding contact with many of the
2.04 Rivets common construction
3. METALS FOR materials and in the
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
presence of an electrolyte; it
3.01 Steel Bars will corrode these materials
3.02 Wire Fabric near the area of contact.
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.04 COPPER
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin
The copper itself, being cathode, will not corrode.
1.06 Zinc Therefore a careful check should be made of the
1.07 Brass methods of attachment, support and securing into
1.08 Bronze place.
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
As copper is one of
2. METHODS OF the best electrical
JOINING METALS conductors, it finds
2.01 Soldering
tremendous used in
2.02 Brazing
the entire electrical
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
field, from very fine
3. METALS FOR
wires to bus bars.
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh Copper sheet and strip is used for roofing and
3.04 Laths flashing.
4. STORAGE & CARE
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.05 TIN
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin is a soft, ductile,
1.06 Zinc malleable, bluish-white
1.07 Brass metal.
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel Because it is normally
1.11 Lead covered with a thin film of
2. METHODS OF stannic oxide, it resists
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
corrosion by air,
2.02 Brazing moisture, sulfur dioxide,
2.03 Welding hydrogen sulfide (which
2.04 Rivets usually tarnishes and
3. METALS FOR corrodes other metals).
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars will take a highly
3.02 Wire Fabric reflective polish
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.05 TIN
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin The main use of the tin is in metallic form of
1.06 Zinc
either pure tin or tin-containing alloys for
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
protective coatings on stronger metals.
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel Architectural uses of tin include bronzes,
1.11 Lead brasses, terneplate, mirrors, gilding, solders,
2. METHODS OF hardware and fusible alloys.
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.06 ZINC
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin is medium hard, bluish-white metal
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass is characterized by brittleness and low strength.
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
is readily attacked by acids and alkalis.
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF It is resistant to corrosion by water. On exposure to
JOINING METALS air, a film of zinc carbonate or oxide forms which protects
2.01 Soldering
zinc from further oxidation.
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding The most important uses of zinc are
2.04 Rivets as protective coatings (galvanizing) on iron and steel
3. METALS FOR as die-casting metal, and
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT as an alloying element in brasses.
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.06 ZINC
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin Galvanizing is the process whereby a protective
1.06 Zinc coat of zinc is applied to steel and iron to steel
1.07 Brass them against corrosion. The advantage of coating
1.08 Bronze them with zinc is that, should the iron or steel
1.09 Chromium
become exposed through wear, aging or
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead discontinuities, galvanic reaction between the
2. METHODS OF coating and the base metal causes the zinc to
JOINING METALS corrode and form compounds which cover and
2.01 Soldering
continue to protect the iron and steel for as long as
2.02 Brazing
any zinc remains.
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.06 ZINC
1.04 Copper The most common
1.05 Tin galvanized material used in
1.06 Zinc
architecture is galvanized
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
iron (steel) sheet and strip.
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel available flat or corrugated
1.11 Lead with the surface plain or
2. METHODS OF refinished with other surface
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering materials.
2.02 Brazing
Galvanized sheets become defaced and discolored
2.03 Welding
when subjected to dampness and extremes of
2.04 Rivets
temperature.
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT If the sheets are piled flat in the open or tightly
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
bundled in a warehouse, the zinc coating can also be
3.03 Expanded Mesh
damaged by the consequent absence of oxygen and
3.04 Laths
carbon dioxide between two sheets. This absence
prevents the formation of a protective film of zinc
4. STORAGE & CARE
FOR METAL carbonate; instead zinc hydroxide forms and destroys
REINFORCEMENT the galvanizing.
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.07 BRASS
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin
fundamentally an alloy of copper and zinc with
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
small quantities of other elements sometimes added
1.08 Bronze to give the special qualities.
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel The copper-zinc proportions may vary from 95%
1.11 Lead
copper and 5% to 55% copper and 45% zinc.
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering As a class, brass alloys are less hard and strong
2.02 Brazing than steels (iron-base alloys) but are superior in
2.03 Welding workability and resistance to corrosion.
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.07 BRASS
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin All brasses react with other metals.
1.06 Zinc When brass is used in direct contact with
1.07 Brass any other metal, a careful check should
1.08 Bronze be made of its position on the galvanic
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel
series.
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF Brass should not come into direct contact
JOINING METALS with iron, steel or stainless, aluminum,
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
zinc or magnesium if there is an
2.03 Welding
electrolyte present or the possibility of
2.04 Rivets
one forming at the point of contact.
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.07 BRASS
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin In architecture,
1.06 Zinc brasses are used for
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
doors, windows, door
1.09 Chromium and window frames,
1.10 Nickel and for ornamental
1.11 Lead metalwork such as
2. METHODS OF railings, trims, grilles,
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering etc.
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding They are also used
2.04 Rivets extensively for finish
3. METALS FOR hardware, plating of
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
hardware, and other
3.01 Steel Bars miscellaneous
3.02 Wire Fabric accessories such as
3.03 Expanded Mesh screws, nuts and
3.04 Laths bolts, anchors, etc.
4. STORAGE & CARE
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.08 BRONZE
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin True bronze is an alloy of copper and tin
1.06 Zinc which varies only slightly from 90% copper
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
and 10% tin composition.
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel This bronze is a rich golden-brown metal
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF originally worked by forging and particularly
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering suited for casting since it is corrosion
2.02 Brazing resistant,
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets dense and hard enough to take an
3. METALS FOR impression of a mold of any delicacy
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
whatever.
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.08 BRONZE
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin The term bronze however, is
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
no longer used in this limited
1.08 Bronze sense. In commercial practice
1.09 Chromium the terms brass and bronze
1.10 Nickel may be used without much
1.11 Lead regard for their original
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
meanings.
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing The term bronze now usually
2.03 Welding has a prefix and indicates
2.04 Rivets alloys of copper with silicon,
3. METALS FOR manganese, aluminum, and
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT other elements with or without
3.01 Steel Bars zinc, e.g. silicon bronze.
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh A few brasses are known as
3.04 Laths
bronzes because they the
4. STORAGE & CARE characteristic bronze color.
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.08 BRONZE
1.04 Copper Of the three types of so-called
1.05 Tin
1.06 Zinc
bronzes in architectural work,
1.07 Brass only one is true bronze. This is
1.08 Bronze the statuary bronze, which
1.09 Chromium consist usually of 97% copper,
1.10 Nickel 2% tin and 1% zinc.
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS As for the others, architectural
2.01 Soldering bronze is really a leaded brass,
2.02 Brazing and commercial bronze is one
2.03 Welding of the more commonly used
2.04 Rivets
brasses (90% copper and 10%
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
zinc).
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars The architectural uses of
3.02 Wire Fabric
bronze are confined to statuary
3.03 Expanded Mesh
plaques, medallions and other
3.04 Laths
ornamentation, and
4. STORAGE & CARE
FOR METAL
miscellaneous rough and finish
REINFORCEMENT hardware.
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.09 CHROMIUM
1.04 Copper
Chromium is a steel-white metal which
1.05 Tin
1.06 Zinc
takes a brilliant polish and is harder than
1.07 Brass cobalt or nickel. It is nonmagnetic at
1.08 Bronze ordinary temperatures but becomes
1.09 Chromium magnetic at 13F. It does not tarnish in
1.10 Nickel
air, resists oxidizing agents, is soluble in
1.11 Lead
acids and strong alkalis.
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS The principal use of chromium is an
2.01 Soldering alloying ingredient in ferrous and
2.02 Brazing
nonferrous metallurgy. Chromium
2.03 Welding
plating is one of the most commonly
2.04 Rivets
encountered usage of this material in
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
architecture. It gives a thin, hard, bright,
REINFORCEMENT wear resistant surface which sheds water
3.01 Steel Bars
when highly polished. The metals that can
3.02 Wire Fabric
be plated with chromium include
3.03 Expanded Mesh
aluminum, copper, iron, magnesium,
3.04 Laths
nickel, titanium, zinc and their alloys. The
4. STORAGE & CARE
FOR METAL
chromium is electro deposited as a thin
REINFORCEMENT layer of pure metal.
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.03 Steel
1.10 NICKEL
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin
1.06 Zinc
Nickel is an inert silvery metal
1.07 Brass that is resistant to strong alkalis
1.08 Bronze and to most acids. It resembles
1.09 Chromium iron in strength and toughness
1.10 Nickel
and copper in its resistance to
1.11 Lead
oxidation and corrosion. Nickel
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS takes a high polish and can be
2.01 Soldering hot and cold rolled forged, bent,
2.02 Brazing
extruded, spun, punched and
2.03 Welding
drawn.
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR When alloyed with other metals, nickel imparts its qualities of
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
strength, hardness, toughness, ductility, corrosion resistance,
3.01 Steel Bars and strength at high temperatures to the resulting material. The
3.02 Wire Fabric major use of nickel therefore is in alloys. Another important
3.03 Expanded Mesh use of nickel is as protective or decorative coating for other
3.04 Laths metals. It can be applied to the following base metals and their
4. STORAGE & CARE alloys: aluminum, brass, copper, iron, magnesium, steel, tin, and
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
zinc.
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.11 LEAD
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin Lead is a blue-gray, soft, very heavy metal (the heaviest of
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
the common metals). It is extremely workable, has a good
1.08 Bronze corrosion resistance, is easily recovered from scrap materials,
1.09 Chromium and is and is relatively impenetrable to radiation. The corrosion
1.10 Nickel resistance of lead arises from the fact that metallic lead does
1.11 Lead not react with many compounds or solutions, and with certain
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
others it forms compounds which act as protective coatings
2.01 Soldering against further corrosion.
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 1. TYPES OF METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 1.11 LEAD
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin Lead is available
1.06 Zinc (1) extruded in the forms of pipe, rod, wire, ribbon, etc.
1.07 Brass
(2) rolled into sheet, foil, strip,
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
(3) cast.
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead There are several grades of lea metal which corroding lead,
2. METHODS OF chemical lead and common desilverized lead are of interest
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
to the architect.
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding Corroding lead is used for fine white lead paints, red lead,
2.04 Rivets litharge (see PAINT).
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE Chemical lead and common desilverized are used for sheet,
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars pipe, powdered lead, ribbon lead and alloys.
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh Lead also finds many uses in rough hardware items such as
3.04 Laths expansion shields for securing bolts, screws, and other
4. STORAGE & CARE accessories in masonry, washers, lead-headed nails,etc.
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron
2. METHODS OF JOINING METALS
1.03 Steel
2.01 SOLDERING
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin Soldering is a method to join metals, to
1.06 Zinc make electrical connections, to seal
1.07 Brass joints hermetically them in with another,
1.08 Bronze lower melting metal or alloy called the
1.09 Chromium
solder. Since the temperatures used are
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead comparatively low, there is no alloying
2. METHODS OF action between the solder and the
JOINING METALS metals being joined, which are usually
2.01 Soldering
stronger than the solder itself. Soldered
2.02 Brazing
joints have very little tensile, shear or
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
impact strength; therefore this method
3. METALS FOR
should not be used where a strong joint
CONCRETE is required.
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
Solders are mostly alloys of tin and lead in various proportions
3.02 Wire Fabric with small percentages of other elements added to give special
3.03 Expanded Mesh characteristics. They can be divided into the following major
3.04 Laths types: tin-lead, tin-lead-antimony, silver-lead. Tin-lead solder of
4. STORAGE & CARE
the 50% tin, 50% lead variety is the most commonly used general
FOR METAL purpose of solder. Some tin-lead are used for coating the metals
REINFORCEMENT
before soldering. This is known as pre-tinning.
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 2. METHODS OF JOINING METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 2.01 SOLDERING
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin a. Metal Bath Dip Solder:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass Metal bath dip soldering is defined as a metal-joining
1.08 Bronze process where the workpieces to be joined are
1.09 Chromium immersed in a pot of molten solder. Because of the
1.10 Nickel relatively low melting temperature of the solder
1.11 Lead
(between 350 and 600 degrees F), only adhesion
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS between the solder and the workpieces results. A flux
2.01 Soldering or metal cleaner is used to prepare the workpiece for
2.02 Brazing bonding with the solder. Typically, dip soldering is an
2.03 Welding automated process used extensively in the
2.04 Rivets
electronics assembly industry.
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 2. METHODS OF JOINING METALS
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 2.01 SOLDERING
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin b. Soldering Iron:
1.06 Zinc In this method the iron piece is preheated and
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
applied to the joint along with the solder and the
1.09 Chromium flux (the flux is a substance used in soldering to
1.10 Nickel clean the surfaces of the metals to be joined and to
1.11 Lead aid fluidity); the heat from the iron forms the
2. METHODS OF soldered joint.
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering c. Torch:
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding The parts to be soldered are heated by the torch flame
2.04 Rivets and then the solder and flux are applied. This method
3. METALS FOR is limited to metals which can be heated without
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
altering their characteristics.
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
2. METHODS OF JOINING METALS
1.02 Iron
2.01 SOLDERING
1.03 Steel
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin d. Sweat Method:
1.06 Zinc The heating of the metals to be joined causes the
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
solder to run into the joint. This is the method used for
1.09 Chromium joining copper tubing and fittings.
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead Fluxes for soldering are generally of three types:
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS Corrosive fluxes are known as acid type and salt
2.01 Soldering
type fluxes and include chlorides of zinc, ammonium,
2.02 Brazing
calcium, magnesium, aluminum and other metal.
2.03 Welding
Care should always be taken with the corrosive
2.04 Rivets
fluxes. The residue must be quickly removed, as it is
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE not only corrosive to the metal being jointed, bit it is
REINFORCEMENT also electrically conductive as a rule and therefore
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
cannot be used for most electrical work.
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
2. METHODS OF JOINING METALS
1.02 Iron
2.01 SOLDERING
1.03 Steel
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin
d. Sweat Method:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
Fluxes:
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium Neutral fluxes are mild in type and are used for
1.10 Nickel easily soldered metals such as copper, brass, lead,
1.11 Lead
and tin plate. Stearic acid is a typical neutral flux.
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing Noncorrosive fluxes leaves residues which are
2.03 Welding noncorrosive and nonconductive and therefore need
2.04 Rivets not removed. Rosin is the principal flux of this type.
3. METALS FOR Noncorrosive fluxes are weak their fluxing action and
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT their use is limited to the easily soldered base
3.01 Steel Bars metals.
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
2. METHODS OF JOINING METALS
1.02 Iron
2.01 SOLDERING
1.03 Steel
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin
d. Sweat Method:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron 2. METHODS OF JOINING METALS
1.03 Steel
1.04 Copper
2.02 BRAZING
1.05 Tin Brazing is a type of soldering in which the operating
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
temperatures are higher (but lower than in welding)
1.08 Bronze and in which stronger and higher-melting alloys are
1.09 Chromium used to fill the joints, which consequently are stronger
1.10 Nickel than ordinary soldered joints. The bond is obtained by
1.11 Lead allying between the brazing material and the surface of
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
the joined metals.
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron 2. METHODS OF JOINING METALS
1.03 Steel
1.04 Copper
2.02 BRAZING
1.05 Tin
1.06 Zinc
Brazing is generally used where the shape and position
1.07 Brass of the joint or the composition of the metal or metals are
1.08 Bronze not adaptable to welding. In brazing the type of metal to
1.09 Chromium be joined, the brazing material, and their color are
1.10 Nickel
equally important because galvanic action, strength of
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
the joint, matching of colors play a significant part in the
JOINING METALS finished product.
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
Brazing materials fall into six major types:
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets aluminum-silicon Each type is particularly suited
3. METALS FOR copper-phosphorous to a certain group of metals.
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
Silver The brazing materials are
3.01 Steel Bars copper, and prepared by melting and
3.02 Wire Fabric copper-zinc, mixing together the metallic
3.03 Expanded Mesh magnesium, and ingredients to fixed and
3.04 Laths heat-resistant alloys. controlled proportions.
4. STORAGE & CARE
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron
2. METHODS OF JOINING METALS
1.03 Steel
2.03 WELDING
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin Welding is the process by which two metals are so
1.06 Zinc joined that there is an actual union of the interatomic
1.07 Brass bonds. This may be brought about by close contact,
1.08 Bronze
heating, pressure, adding molten metal, or
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel
combinations of these methods. The resulting are as
1.11 Lead strong or stronger than the metals joined.
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron
2. METHODS OF JOINING METALS
1.03 Steel
2.03 WELDING
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin
Welding may be divided into two general types:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze pressure welding in which pressure and heat make the
1.09 Chromium weld; and
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead fusion welding, in which the heat and added metal make
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
the weld. In fusion welding the methods of heating are
2.01 Soldering gas flame and electric arc.
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron
2. METHODS OF JOINING METALS
1.03 Steel
2.03 WELDING
1.04 Copper
1.05 Tin Two types of fusion welding:
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass The gas flame now generally used is acetylene mixed
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
with oxygen. It will deliver about 5500F of heat which
1.10 Nickel is sufficient to melt the welding rod and the
1.11 Lead surrounding metal and then fuse them together.
2. METHODS OF In electric-arc method, when the welding rod (or
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
electrode) is brought near the joint of the metals to be
2.02 Brazing welded, an electric arc is to be formed which melts
2.03 Welding and fuses the metal and the welding rod.
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
2. METHODS OF JOINING METALS
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron
2.04 RIVETS
1.03 Steel
1.04 Copper Rivets are devices used to join or fasten the metals. The
1.05 Tin rivet, a metal cylinder or rod which has a head at one end,
1.06 Zinc is inserted through holes in the materials being joined, and
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
then the protruding end is flattened to tie the two pieces of
1.09 Chromium material together.
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum
3. METALS FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT
1.02 Iron
3.01 STEEL BARS
1.03 Steel
1.04 Copper Reinforcement for
1.05 Tin concrete construction is
1.06 Zinc
mostly in the form of
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
steel bars and rods of
1.09 Chromium round or square cross
1.10 Nickel section. The bars may
1.11 Lead be plain or deformed
2. METHODS OF (with lugs or projections
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering for better bonding to
2.02 Brazing the concrete). They are
2.03 Welding called billet-steel bars
2.04 Rivets or rail-steel bars.
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE Billet-steel bars are made by the open hearth furnace by the acid
REINFORCEMENT Bessemer furnace and meet fixed chemical compositions. They
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
are rolled from billets directly reduced from ingots and come in
3.03 Expanded Mesh
three grades: structural, intermediate, and hard. For architectural
3.04 Laths
purposes the intermediate grade is the most generally used. Rail-
steel bars are rolled from standard T-rails and come only in one
4. STORAGE & CARE
FOR METAL grade. Steel bars vary in size from to 1-1/4 and in lengths of
REINFORCEMENT 20 or 30 feet.
1. TYPES OF METALS
1.01 Aluminum 3. METALS FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT
1.02 Iron
1.03 Steel 3.02 WIRE FABRIC
1.04 Copper Wire fabric made of cold-drawn steel wire is
1.05 Tin
1.06 Zinc
widely used for the reinforcement of concrete
1.07 Brass slabs and floors, as well as for stuccoed work.
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS 3. METALS FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron 3.02 WIRE FABRIC
1.03 Steel
1.04 Copper a. Welded Wire Fabric:
1.05 Tin
Welded-wire mesh, also
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
called welded-wire fabric,
1.08 Bronze used to reinforce concrete
1.09 Chromium slabs used in light
1.10 Nickel construction., consists of a
1.11 Lead
series wires welded
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
together to form a grid
2.01 Soldering pattern. It comes in various
2.02 Brazing sizes and spacings and
2.03 Welding gauges, e.g. 4 x 4 6/6, 6 x 6 8/8, etc. The first
2.04 Rivets pair of numbers refer to the spacing of the wires: the
3. METALS FOR second pair refers to the gauge of the longitudinal and
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT transverse wires respectively. Thus, for example, a 6x
3.01 Steel Bars 6 10/10 mesh (read it six six ten ten) will be both
3.02 Wire Fabric
No. 10 gauge wires spaced 6 apart bothways (the
3.03 Expanded Mesh
smaller the gauge number the heavier the wire).
3.04 Laths
Welded wire fabric is available in rolls 5 or 6 ft. wide,
4. STORAGE & CARE 150, 200, and 300 ft. long.
FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS 3. METALS FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron 3.02 WIRE FABRIC
1.03 Steel
1.04 Copper b. Triangle-mesh Wire Fabric:
1.05 Tin is built up of either single or stranded longitudinal
1.06 Zinc
1.07 Brass
wires with cross wires or bond-wires running
1.08 Bronze diagonally across the fabric. The longitudinal
1.09 Chromium wires are spaced at 4 on centers and the cross
1.10 Nickel wires 4 or 8 apart.
1.11 Lead
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS 3. METALS FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron 3.03 EXPANDED MESH
1.03 Steel
1.04 Copper This is manufactured from solid steel sheets. To form the
1.05 Tin expanded mesh, the sheet is first cut or pierced in
1.06 Zinc
staggered slots or patterns; then the sheet is held by the
1.07 Brass
1.08 Bronze
two sides parallel to the slots and stretched by pressure
1.09 Chromium until the desired openings or forms are obtained. Sheets
1.10 Nickel may also be stamped, perforated or deformed into an
1.11 Lead open mesh. The forms into which sheet can be shaped
2. METHODS OF include diamond, crimp, herringbone and Z-rib, to name
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering only a few. Expanded mesh is therefore free from
2.02 Brazing mechanical and welded joints., e.g. STEELCRETE.
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS 3. METALS FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron 3.04 LATHS
1.03 Steel
1.04 Copper In addition to the various meshes mentioned above,
1.05 Tin permanent centering or self-centering laths are produced
1.06 Zinc in many forms. These laths are furnished either in flat or
1.07 Brass
segmental sheets, pressed into a series of solid ribs,
1.08 Bronze
1.09 Chromium
between which the metal is stamped, perforated or
1.10 Nickel deformed into an open mesh-work. These laths are
1.11 Lead furnished painted or galvanized, and in open-hearth mild
2. METHODS OF steel or in special copper-bearing or alloy steels, e.g.
JOINING METALS
2.01 Soldering
RIBPLEX, HYRIB.
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
2.04 Rivets
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
REINFORCEMENT
3.01 Steel Bars
3.02 Wire Fabric
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT
1. TYPES OF METALS 4. STORAGE & CARE FOR METAL
1.01 Aluminum
1.02 Iron
REINFORCEMENT
1.03 Steel Metal reinforcement shall be stored in racks above the
1.04 Copper
ground and away from moisture and vegetation. If a
1.05 Tin
1.06 Zinc
large quantity of reinforcement is stored at the site for an
1.07 Brass extended period, it is well to build shed over the storage
1.08 Bronze racks.
1.09 Chromium
1.10 Nickel
A bright-red rust, such as forms in a few days on
1.11 Lead
reinforcement exposed to rain, is not in any way
2. METHODS OF
JOINING METALS detrimental. Actual rust scales, however, may indicate a
2.01 Soldering reduction in the effective cross section of the bar.
2.02 Brazing
2.03 Welding
Deep scaling should be considered a sufficient reason
2.04 Rivets
for condemning the use of reinforce unless it is first
3. METALS FOR
CONCRETE
cleaned of mill and rust scale and used as the equivalent
REINFORCEMENT of a smaller size. All reinforcement should be kept free
3.01 Steel Bars
from oil which will tend to reduce the bond between
3.02 Wire Fabric
concrete and steel.
3.03 Expanded Mesh
3.04 Laths

4. STORAGE & CARE


FOR METAL
REINFORCEMENT