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THE BASICS OF LUBRICANTS

AND LUBRICATION

MALIK ABID HUSSAIN REGIONAL SALES MANAGER


LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Meaning of lubrication
Friction - is created when there is relative
motion between two surfaces.
Resistance to motion is defined as friction.
Lubrication is use of a material between
surfaces to reduce friction.
Any material used is called a lubricant.
Function of a lubricant

Lubricate - Reduce friction


Cooling - Heat transfer
Cleaning - Detergency
Noise pollution - dampening
Sealing prevent leakage
Protection prevent wear
Purpose of Lubrication
System

Lubricate
Reduces Friction by creating a thin
film(Clearance) between moving parts
(Bearings and journals)
Purpose of Lubrication System

Cools
Picks up heat when moving through the engine and then
drops into the cooler oil pan, giving up some of this heat.
Purpose of Lubrication
System

Cleans
As it circulates through the engine, the oil picks up metal
particles and carbon, and brings them back down to the pan.
Purpose of Lubrication
System

Noise reduction

Reduce noise
By preventing metal to metal contact
Dampens noise
As between camshaft and tappet
Purpose of Lubrication
System

Seals
The oil helps form a gastight
seal between piston rings
and cylinder walls
(Reduces Blow-By)

Internal oil leak (blow-by) will


result in BLUE SMOKE at the
tale pipe.
Purpose of Lubrication
System

Protection
Protection against acids and
moisture

Very important to increase


life of component and
equipment
The Importance Of An Oil Filter

Because engine oil is in constant contact with the


many moving parts it can start to collect minor
pieces of debris. An oil filter will sift these fine
particles of debris out and collect them in its catch.
If debris is left to build up the filter can become
clogged and the entire system can suffer. Changing
the engine oil filter at least every other oil change
is recommended to ensure safe operation.
Protection against acids and moisture
Very important to increase life of component
and equipment
Benefits of Air Filter Replacement

There are several benefits to replacing your cars air filter:

Increased engine performance As the engine struggles to pull air


past a clogged air filter, it works harder and uses a richer fuel mixture
in the combustion chamber. This can foul spark plugs and increase
engine deposits, both which adversely affect fuel economy.

Improved fuel economy A dirty air filter causes the engine to work
harder to pull air from the outside. If the engine works harder, it will
use more fuel in the process. Many studies show that replacing the dirty
air filter on a fuel injected vehicle can help increase its fuel economy
by up to 10-percent.
Benefits of Air Filter Replacement

Reduced vehicle emissions Clogged air filters reduce engine air


flow, providing an air/fuel mixture imbalance. This causes the vehicle to
produce more exhaust emissions than normal, contributing to the
pollution of the surrounding environment.

Increases engine life It only takes a speck of debris no smaller


than a grain of salt to do expensive damage to an engines cylinders
and pistons. A clean air filter catches dirt and debris from outside air,
preventing them from reaching the combustion chamber.
Types of Lubricant - Physical

Liquid
Typical lubricants are liquid/fluids

Mineral oil or synthetic oils

Solid
Graphite, MoS2

Semi solid
Greases

Gases
Atomised 2 stroke oils
Typical lubricants - Application

Engine oils
Gear Oils
Turbine Oils
Hydraulic Oils
Metal working oils
Cutting oils
Forming Oils
Rust preventives
Typical lubricants - Application

Heat Transfer Oils


Heat Treatment Oils
Quenching Oils
Tempering Oils
Refrigeration Oils
Rubber Process Oils
Ink process Oils
Lubricant - Components

Base Oils
Mineral by-products of crude oil refining
process.
Base oils are polymerized or synthesized
further and called synthetic
Additives
Natural
Synthetic
Lubricant - Components

Base Oils
Mineral by-products of crude oil refining
process.
Base oils are polymerized or synthesized
further and called synthetic
Additives
Natural
Synthetic
Properties of lubricants

Kinematic viscosity
Viscosity index
Pour Point
Flash Point
Total Base Number (TBN)
Oil Condition Monitoring (OCM)
Properties of lubricants

Kinematic viscosity
Measure of internal resistance to flow

Thickness of fluid (in laymen terms)

Decreases with increase in temperature

Important in lubricant selection

Increase in used oil indicates oxidation

Specified at 40C and 100C

Measured in Centi Stokes (CSt)


Properties of lubricants

Kinematic Viscosity Recommendations


Low Viscosity oils used
High speeds
Low pressure
Low temperature
High Viscosity oils used
Low speeds
High pressure
High temperature
Properties of lubricants

Viscosity index
Measure of fluids change of viscosity with
temperature.
Empirical number
Higher the VI lower will be the change of
viscosity with temperature
Indicator of temperature range of operations
Properties of lubricants

Pour Point
Lowest temperature at which the fluid will
flow
Indicates lowest operating temperature
Measured in C
Properties of lubricants

Flash Point
Lowest temperature at which the vapor
above the liquid will ignite under flame
Indicated safe maximum temperature of
operation.
Indicator of volatility
Test method - COC and PMCC
Measured in C
Properties of lubricants

Total Base Number (TBN)


Measured the acid neutralizing reserve in oil.
Important for deciding discard of oil
Decreases due to
Oxidation of oil
Water contamination
Fuel contamination

Measured in Mg KOH/gm of oil


Properties of lubricants

Oil Condition Monitoring (OCM)


Oil condition monitoring (OCM) testing predictive
maintenance programs help clients avoid costly
machinery, engine and power-train failures.
Intertek OCM tests measure engine oils,
lubricating oils, and other fluids for the detection of
lubricant engine wear, lubricant quality
degradation, and other problems. Oil condition
monitoring by Intertek laboratories protect our
client's high-value machines, engines, and other systems,
reducing expensive downtime.
Properties of lubricants

Oil condition monitoring tests offer early detection


for:
Oil Wear Contamination Testing
Water content
Engine wear debris, Insoluble's content
Additive elements
Wear Metals Testing
and other factors which can cause premature
machinery damage or failure
What are additives

Lubricant additives
classified on their functional capability
Enhance existing property
Suppress undesirable property
Impart new property
What are additives

What they do in Engine Oils


Protect metal surfaces
(rings, bearings, gears, etc.)
Extend the range of lubricant applicability
Extend lubricant life
Surface Protective additives

Anti wear and EP Agent


Corrosion & Rust inhibitor
Detergent
Dispersant
Friction modifier
Viscosity Grade Classification
Systems
2000
1500
ISO VG AGMA SAE SAE
1500 Engine Gear
ISO Industrial Oils 1000 8A Oils Oils
10000
5000

cSt @ 40C
1000
800 680 8 140
3000
5000

AGMA Industrial Gear Oils 600


460 7 3000
500 2000
cSt @ 40C 400 2000
320 6 90

SAE Engine Oils 300


220 5
50

200 1000

cSt @100C, cP
150 4 40 1000
150
@150C 30
85W
100 3 500
80W 500
100 400
80 400
20

cP @ -10C to -40C 68 2
300
300
60
46 1 75W
50 200
200
SAE Gear Oils 40
32 15W

30
cSt @100C
10W 8 100
22 5W&0W 100
20 15
15 60
cP @ -12C to -55C 10 10 60

cSt @ 40C
SUS @ 100F
Major specifying organizations

SAE Society of Automotive Engineers (USA)


API - American Petroleum Institute
US Military Specs US - MIL 2104 -
CCMC European Specification
ISO International Standard Organization
NLGI National Lubricating Grease Institute
SAE viscosity grades for
engine oils

Designated
With corresponding viscosity
For high temperature application
Warmer areas/regions
SAE 20
SAE 30
SAE 40
SAE 10
SAE 50
SAE 60
SAE viscosity grades for
engine oils

Designated
With corresponding viscosity
For low temperature application
Colder areas/regions
SAE 0 W
SAE 5 W
SAE 10 W
SAE 15 W
SAE 20 W
SAE 25 W
SAE viscosity grades for
Mono grades - Engine Oils

Mono grades are designated


with single SAE number
SAE 10, 20, 30, 40, 50
SAE 5W,10W, 15W,20W,25W
Can be used either in summer season or in
winter seasons.
Gradual shift to multi grades.
Shift also due to lower oil consumption by multigrades.
Available as Engine oil and Gear Oils
SAE viscosity grades for
Multi grades - Engine Oils

Multi grades are designated


with two SAE number
Widely in use today
SAE 10w/30, 15w/30, 25w/50
SAE 5W/30, 20W/50
Suitable for use in winter and summer months or seasons
Available in Engine oils & Gear oil
COMPANY
INTRODUCTION
COMPANY INTRODUCTION

Introduction.
OIL INDUSTRIES PAKISTAN (PVT) LTD (OIP) is a Private
Limited Company registered with Securities Exchange
Commission of Pakistan (S.E.C.P.) under the Companies
Ordinance. The Company started its business in 1976
with the brand name TARGET. Oil Industries Pakistan
(Pvt) Ltd has one of the latest blending plant in Pakistan.
OIP has got an experience of over 3 (three) decades in
the field of lubricating oil and has been able to develop
expertise to undertake all sorts of jobs in the oil business
with accuracy.
COMPANY INTRODUCTION

Introduction.
Such as the one OIP has at Korangi Industrial Area,
Karachi, built over 150,000 sq ft and equipped with the
latest in precision control equipment, allowing close
online monitoring and instant modification. An
independent QC Department that allows no slacks and
an R&D lab ever striving to keep abreast of the latest
technological developments reported anywhere in the
world, ever ready to incorporate these into our product
lines. OIP has one of the best lube oil blending plants in
Pakistan.
COMPANY INTRODUCTION

Our Mission
To be a dynamic, profitable, growth
oriented Company, with marked
leadership in national lube industry. This
aim will be achieved through
excellence in quality, advanced
technology, innovation and continuous
improvement by establishing, reviewing &
updating quality management system
including quality objectives and ensuring
attractive returns to business association
and rewarding employees according to
their ability and performance.
COMPANY INTRODUCTION

Quality Policy
O.I.P. has got an independent fully equipped Quality Control
Department and modern Research & Development (R&D)
Laboratory managed by highly trained, professional and technical
personnel. Oil Industries Pakistan (Pvt) Ltd has adopted & following
the I.S.O. Quality Management System (Q.M.S.). O.I.P. is duly
certified by I.S.O. 9001:2008. O.I.P. properly responds to the need
& requirement of Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Resources, Oil &
Gas Development Corporation, Oil & Gas Regulatory Authority and
Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan.

Independent Quality Watchdogs


To check every ingredient before it enters the production, and each
batch of finished products about to leave the facilities, against
stringent quality standards. Nothing gets shipped out without the
QCs approval.
CUSTOMERS
INFORMATION
Customer Information

We have a wide range of clients to whom we provide our products.

M/s. Al Karam Textile Mills


M/s. Admore Gas (Pvt) Ltd.
(Pvt) Ltd

M/s. Dawlance (Pvt) Ltd.


M/s. Agri Autos (Pvt) Ltd.
M/s. Pakistan Ordnance Factories

M/s. International Industries Limited

M/s. Siemens Pakistan


Engineering Co. Ltd.

M/s. Pak Elektron Ltd


M/s. Al Haseeb Electric
Engineering Works M/s. Pakistan Rangers
Customer Information

These are our clients whom we provide Transformer Oils.

M/s. Karachi Electric


M/s. Quetta Electric M/s. Peshawar Electric
Supply Company
Supply Company Supply Company

M/s. Hyderabad Electric


M/s. Faisalabad
Supply Company Ltd
Electric Supply Company
M/s. Azad Jammu & Kashmir
Electricity

M/s. Sukkur Electric


M/s. Lahore Electric
Power Company
Supply Company

M/s. The Multan Electric M/s. Gujranwala Electric


Power Company Supply Company
PRODUCTS
Target 5000 CH - 4 / SJ:
Target Super 5000 CH-4/SJ engine oils are blended from
highly refined base stocks and selected Additives to provide
excellent detergency, dispersancy, and anti-wear properties.
The High Base Number provides superior level of reserve
alkalinity to protect vital engine parts against corrosion and
premature engine wear. They offer longer drain capabilities
in high output turbo-charged Diesel engines operating under
severe service conditions.

Performance Features:
Target Super 5000 CH-4/SJ oils exceed the performance of
API Service Categories CH-4/SJ. Also meet CCMC D4.
Benefits:
Target Super 5000 CH-4/SJ engine oils reduce piston
deposits, provide protection against cylinder bore
polishing, reduce oil consumption, reduce filter
plugging, offer very low oxidation and consequent
thickening due to high TBN levels present which
neutralize corrosive acids resulting from oxidation.

Packing:

4 L, 8 L, 10 L and 208 L
Target 4500 CF -4 SG:
Target 4500 CF-4/SG are high quality lubricating oils
specially formulated to meet the requirements of medium to
high-speed Diesel engines and gasoline engines. These are
lended from highly refined base stocks and selected
Additives to provide excellent detergency, dispersion and
anti-wear properties. The high base number provides the
necessary reserve alkalinity to protect vital engine parts
against corrosion and premature engine wear.

Performance features:
Target 4500 meets API Service Categories CF-4/SG. Also
meet former US Military Specification MIL-L-2104E level.
Applications:
Engine oils for naturally aspirated engines, Turbo Charged
engines, all medium to high-speed engines, Four-stroke cycle
Gas engines, engines operating under severe conditions,
engines of ships and marine engines, etc.
Benefits:
Target 4500 CF-4/SG engine oils reduce piston deposits,
provide protection against cylinder bore polishing, reduce oil
consumption, reduce filter plugging, offer very low oxidation
and consequent thickening due to high TBN levels present
which neutralize corrosive acids resulting from oxidation.
Packing:
Gasoline Petrol & CNG ( SG): 0.7 L, 0.8 L, 1 L, 3 L, 4 L.
Diesel (CF-4): 4 L, 6 L, 8 L, 10 L and 208 L.
Marshal 4000 CF SF:
Marshal 4000 Formula are premium multi-grade API CF/SF
universal type crankcase oils specifically designed for use in
a wide range of Diesel and gasoline engines. They are
formulated with highly refined base stocks and a Package
Additive System of anti-wear, anti-oxidant, rust-preventive,
detergent, dispersant and defoaming agents. Marshal 4000
engine oils offer remarkable tolerance towards the sulphur
content in the fuels.
Performance Features:
Meet API service classification CF and SF. Also meet the
requirements of former US Military Specifications MIL-L-
2104 can also be recommended where CD and SF grades
are specified. Controlled engine deposits, dependability
and excellent engine protection are the hall marks of
Marshal 4000.
Applications:
Ideal for naturally aspirated and some moderately turbo-
charged Diesel engines operating on fuels with sulphur
contents as high as 1.5 mass per cent without the need to
adjust drain intervals to ensure optimum engine life and
performance. Suitable also for Caterpillar pre-combustion
type engine. Also recommended for use in many non-engine
applications in highway, construction and agricultural
equipments such as transmission, final drives and hydraulic
system of Caterpillar tractors

Packing:
Gasoline & Diesel ( CF/SF): 3 L, 4 L, 5 L, 6 L, 8 L, 10 L ,
20 L and 208 L.
Super Duty SD CC:
Target Super Duty is a high performance more economical
option of engine oil for both Diesel as well as petrol engines
operating under less severe conditions. Blended from good
quality base oils with a balanced Additive package is ideal
for engines working where extreme climatic conditions and
speeds are not a problem.
Applications:
Light Duty Diesel as well as petrol engines working under
moderate conditions.
Performance Features:
API SC/CC, US MIL 2104A
Benefits:
Target Super Duty provides efficient lubrication over a wide
range of except extreme temperatures. Cost effective, oil of
choice for tractors.
Target 1500 CD:
A series of mono grade crankcase oils for earlier four-stroke cycle
automotive as well as industrial Diesel engines operating in mild
service conditions, Diesel 1500 oils are formulated from high quality
base stocks and a balanced Additive System of anti-wear, anti-
oxidant, rust preventive, detergent, dispersant and anti-foam agents.
Performance Features:
Meet API service classification CC and SD; also meet the former US
Military specifications MIL-L-2104B.
Applications :
Recommended for use in the earliest four-stroke cycle Diesel engines
on trucks, vans, pick-ups and buses, as well as for stationary
machines where API service category CC/SD is required. These are
also recommended for use as hydraulic fluids in construction
equipment in the appropriate viscosity grades.
Target EP Gear Oil GL-4:
Gear Oil GL-4 are high quality gear lubricants for automotive as
well as industrial use where Extreme Pressure type gear lubes are
required. Target Gear Oils are mild EP lubricants for manual
transmission, steering gears and other gearing systems of
automotive equipment. These are formulated with solvent-
extraction refined mineral base oils and selected chemical
Additives. Thanks to their high shear stability, they provide excellent
protection against wear, scouring and rusting of gears and prevent
foaming of oil.
Performance Features:
Meet API service category GL-4 and the performance
requirements of the former US Military specifications MIL-L-2105B.
Applications:
Ideal for manual transmission systems and transaxles in automotive
gears particularly hypoid gears in passenger cars and other
automotive type equipments operated under high speed/low
torque or low speed/high torque conditions. Also recommended for
many tractor and agricultural equipment gear sets, oil lubricated
track rollers of Crawler Tractors, and many industrial applications.

Packing:
API GL-4: 1 L and 4 L

API GL-5: 12 L and 205 L


INCENTIVE
MACHANIC INCENTIVE

Incevtive.
Announced Shortly

Mode of Payment.
Bill To Bill.
Quality in every drop of oil

T: TANMGIBLE.

A: ASSURED.

R: RELIABILE.

G: GRARENTED.

E: EMINENT.

T: TRUSTED.
Thank you

Any Questions?