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TOPIC 1

SAFETY and
HEALTH
MOVEMENT,
THEN and
NOW

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TOPIC OVERVIEW

1. Developments Before the Industrial Revolution


2. Milestones in the Safety Movement
3. Tragedies That Changed the Safety Movement
4. Role of Organized Labor
5. Role of Specific Health Problems
6. Development of Accident Prevention Programs
7. Development of Safety Organizations
8. Safety and Health Movement Today

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Developments Before the Industrial Revolution
1. Code of Hammurabi-2000 s.m.
Clauses dealing with injuries, allowable fees for
physicians, and monetary damages assessed
against those who injured others.
Concern for proper handling of injuries.
If a man has caused the loss of the gentlemans
eye, his own eye shall be shall be caused to be
lost
2. King Rameses II
Major construction of Ramesseum.
Workers were required to bathe daily in the Nile.
Regular medical examinations.
Sick workers were isolated.

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Developments Before
Developments Beforethe
theIndustrial
IndustrialRevolution
Revolution
3. Philip Aureolus ( 1567 )
On the Mines Sickness and other Miners Diseases
Covering on the diseases of smelter workers and metallurgists
and diseases associated with the handling of and exposure to
mecury.
4. Georgius Agricola
De Re Metallica
Emphasizing the need for ventilation in mines and illustrating
various devices that could be used to introduce fresh air into
mines.
5. Bernardino Ramazzini
Discourse on the Diseases of Workers
Drew relationship between diseases suffered by workers and
their occupation.
Much of it still relevant till today

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DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION
Islamic perspective
The concept of Taharah- is about hygiene in Islam.
Islamic studies means Purity (Arabic: ,) is an essential
aspect of Islam.
The Qur'an says: In it there are men who love to observe
purity and Allah loves those who maintain
purity.[Qur'an 9:108]
Halal and Haram
High morale in work, reduce an accident at workplace
Higher discipline among the workers higher safety
performance to the organization.
DEVELOPMENTS BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

The Industrial Revolution changed forever the


methods of producing goods, summarized as:
Introduction of inanimate power (i.e., steam
power) to replace people and animal power.
Substitution of machines for people.
Introduction of new methods for converting raw
materials.
Organization/specialization of work, resulting in a
division of labor.
Industrial Revolution : Europe & United States

v Industrial Revolution
Labor young
Work related risk increased
Human and Machine interaction
Low Safety and Health Standards

v Health and Morals of Apprentices Act 1802 ( UK)


Marked the beginning of governmental involvement in
workplace safety.
Factory inspection (Massachusetts 1867)
First barrier safeguard was patented (1868).
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Industrial Revolution : Europe & United States continue

1. 1867 Massachusetts ( US)


First Factory inspection
2. 1868
First barrier safeguard was patented
3. 1869 Bureau of Labour Statistic ( BLS)
To study industrial accidents and report pertinent information about
those accidents.
4. 1892
First recorded safety program Joliet, Illinois, a steel plant in response to
a scare caused when a flywheel exploded.
5. 1900 Frederick Taylor
Studying the efficiency in manufacturing.
Draw a connection between lost personnel time and management
policies and procedures.

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Industrial Revolution : Europe & United States continue

6. U.S Department of the Interior 1907


Created Bureau of Mines to investigate accidents, examine health hazards,
and make recommendations for improvement.
7. Workers Compensation 1908
Common thread was that all employees were provided with some amount
of compensation for the on the job injuries regardless of who was at fault.
8. National Council of Industrial Safety (NCIS)
Changed the name to National Safety Council (NSC) and is the premier
safety organization in the U.S.
9. Occupational safety and Health Act 1970
Represents the most significant legislation to date in the history of the
safety movement.

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TRAGEDIES THAT
TRAGEDIES HAVE
THAT CHANGED
HAVE THE
CHANGED SAFETY
THE
MOVEMENT
SAFETY MOVEMENT
1.Hawks Nest Tragedy
Unemployed miners and foundry workers experienced problems
finding new jobs, physical examinations shows lung damage from
breathing silica. Silicosis is known as King of occupational
diseases.
A company had to drill a passageway through a mountainand this
mountain had an unusual high silica content. Workers spend 10
hours per day breathing the dust caused by drilling and blasting.
Silicosis is a disease that normally takes 10 to 30 years to show up
in exposed workers.
Hawks Nest Tragedy that solidified public opinion in favor of
protecting workers from silicosis. Gauley Bridge disaster entitled
Hawks Nest by Hubert Skidmore created public outcry which led to
the U.S Department of Labor to make silicosis compensable disease
under workers compensation.
Till today silicosis is still a problem.
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TRAGEDIES THAT
TRAGEDIES HAVE
THAT CHANGED
HAVE THE
CHANGED SAFETY
THE
MOVEMENT
SAFETY MOVEMENT
2.Asbestos Menace
Dr. Irving J. Selikoff 1964 told the biological effects of
asbestos that this widely used material was killing workers.
First to link asbestos to lung cancer and respiratory
diseases.
At the time of Selikoffs findings asbestos was used in
homes, schools, offices, factories, ships, and even in the
filters af cigarettes.
In the 1970s and 1980s, asbestos became a controlled
material.
Regulation governing the use of asbestos were developed.

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TRAGEDIES THAT HAVE CHANGED THE SAFETY
MOVEMENT
3. Bhopal Tradegy
3rd December 1984, over 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) including
hydrogen cyanide, leaked killing 3,000 people in its aftermath.
The protective equipment was not in full working order.
The refrigeration system that could have cooled the storage tank was
shut down, the scrubbing system that could have absorbed the vapor
was not immediately available and the flare system that would have
burned any vapor that got past the scrubbing system was out of order.
Union Carbide, the owner of the chemical plant was accused of many
things, including
Criminal Negligence
Corporate Prejudice location of factory as a poverty stricken area
and safety was not taken into consideration.
Avoidance putting the plant in India to avoid stricker safety and
health standards in U.S and OSHA
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Role of Organized Labor

1. The Fellow Servant Rule


Employers were not liable workplace injuries that resulted
from negligence of other employees
2. The Doctrine of Contributory Negligence
If the actions of employees contributed to their own
injuries, the employer was absolved of any liability
3. The Concept of Assumption of Risk
Was based on the theory that people who accept a job
assume the risks that go with it.
Employee who work voluntarily should accept the
consequences of their actions on the job rather than blame
the employer.

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Role of Organized Labor

Create public awareness of dangerous and unhealthy


working conditions
Legislation
Regulation
Better work procedures
Better working conditions
E.g. Frequent contact of with coal dust led to
anthrocosis also known as black spit.
Eliminated through ventilation and decreased work hours.
E.g. Coal-miners pnuemoconiosis (CWP )
Coal Miners Pnuemoconiosis and Compensable Disease -
1934
Coal Miners Act passed US pada 1969
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Role of Specific Health Problems

1. The Gauley Bridge Disaster


Silicosis
2. Asbestos Usage
Training and Personal Protective Equipment
3. Mercury Poisoning
Minamata

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Development of Accident Prevention Program

3 Es of Safety
1.engineering ( kejuruteraan)
2.education ( pendidikan )
3.enforcement ( penguatkuasaan )

Enforcement

Education

Engineering

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Safety and Health Movement Today

Comprehensive
- engineering
- chemical
- management etc

Development
- raw materials and equipments
- technological process

Rapid growth in the profession


- roles & responsibilities

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Safety and Health Evolution in Malaysia

Previously no comprehensive
system/act/regulation
Factory and Machinery Act 1967
Boiler Enactment
1. Selangor 1896
2. Perak 1903
3. Johor 1937

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Safety and Health Evolution in Malaysia

Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 Act


514
Department of Occupational Safety and Health
(DOSH)
National Institute of Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH)
Malaysian Society of Occupational Safety and
Health (MSOSH)
National Security Council (BKN)

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