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# PHY11 Lesson 9

Fluid Mechanics
Fluids in Motion
Ideal Fluids in Motion

nonviscous flow.

## flow line path of an

individual particle in a
moving fluid.

pattern that does not
change with time.

## streamline a curve whose tangent at any point is in the

direction of fluid at that point.

## flow tube flow lines passing through the edge of an imaginary

element of area.
The Equation of Continuity

## Consider an element of fluid in a flow

tube.

dm1 dm2

dV1 dV2

A1v1dt A2 v2 dt

A1v1 A2 v2
The Equation of Continuity
volume flow rate - the rate at which a volume of fluid crosses
a section of the tube.

dV
Av
dt
mass flow rate - the rate at
which a mass of fluid crosses a
section of the tube.

dm dV
Av
dt dt
Example 1

(a)

dm
dt

850 mkg3 9.5 x10 3 m3
s
8.1 kg
s

## (b) The volume flow rate does not change.

Bernoullis Equation
Consider a volume element dV of a flowing
ideal fluid.
At time dt, the fluid in section 1 travels a
distance ds1 and ds2 at section 2.

## work done on the fluid:

dW p1 A1ds1 p2 A2 ds2

dW p1 p2 dV
change in kinetic energy
of the fluid:

dK 12 dmv2 12 dmv1
2 2

dK 12 dV v2 v1
2 2

Bernoullis Equation
change in potential energy of the fluid:

dU dm g y2 dm g y1

dU dVg y2 y1

Work-Energy Theorem: dW dU dK

p1 p2 dV 12 dV v2 2 v12 dV y2 y1

p1 p2 1
2 v 2
2 2

v1 g y2 y1

p1 12 v1 gy1 p2 12 v2 gy2
2 2
Bernoullis Equation

p1 v1 gy1 p2 v2 gy2
1 2 1 2
2 2

p 12 v 2 gy cons tan t

## If the fluid is at rest:

p1 gy1 p2 gy2
For a horizontal flow tube:

p1 12 v1 p2 12 v2
2 2
Example 2

flow speed:

pressure: p2 3.3x105 Pa

## volume flow rate:

Torricellis Theorem: Speed of Efflux
Consider a tank of cross-
section A1 filled with a liquid to
a height h.
Consider a hole (of cross-
section A2) at the side of the
tank where the liquid escapes
with a speed of v2. v2
If A1 >> A2, then v10.

p1 12 v1 gy1 p2 12 v2 gy2
2 2

patm 0 gh patm 12 v2 0
2

v2 2 gh
Torricellis Theorem:
The speed of efflux from an
opening a distance h below the
top surface of the liquid is the
same as the speed a body
would acquire in falling freely
through height h.
v2

v2 2 gh

## volume flow rate:

dV
A2 2 gh
dt
Example 3: The Venturi meter
A Venturi meter is a device used to measure the flow speed
in a pipe.
Derive an expression for the
flow speed v1 in terms of the
cross-sectional areas A1 and A2
and the difference in height h of
the liquid levels in the two
vertical tubes.

p1 12 v1 p2 12 v2
2 2

p1 p2 12 v2 v1
2 2

A
2
2

p1 p2 2 2 v1 v1
1 1 2

A2
A
2
2 gh

p1 p2 2 v1 2 1
2

v1
1 1

1

A
2
A2

gh 2 v1 2 1
2
1

1
A1 2
A2
A2
Example 4

(a) 3
0.750 ms
dV v
Av
m
472
dt (0.045m) 2 s

(b) 3
0.750 ms
v 52.4 m
(0.135m) 2 s

4
Example 5

p1 12 v1 gy1 p2 12 v2 gy2
2 2

p2 p1 12 v1 v2
2 2

p2 p1 12 1.2 mkg3 70 ms 60 ms 780 Pa
2 2

F p2 p1 A 780 Pa 16.2m 2 12600 N , upward
Example 6

(a) y1 v1
p1

4 3
dm kg 220(3.55 x10 m )
1000 m3 1.30 kgs
dt 60 s y2 v2
p2
(b)
dV 220(3.55 x10 4 m 3 )
1.30 x10 3 m3
s
dt 60 s
Example 6

y1 v1
(c) 4
(2 x10 m )v1 1.30 x10
2 3 m 3
s p1
y2 v2
v1 6.50 m
s v2 1.63 m
s p2

(d)

p1 152kPa 12 (1000 mkg3 ) 1.63 ms 6.50 ms (1000 mkg3 )(9.8 sm2 )(0 1.35m)
2 2

p1 119kPa
Example 6

(a)
Example 6

(b)