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PHY11 Lesson 9

Fluid Mechanics
Fluids in Motion
Ideal Fluids in Motion

ideal fluid an incompressible fluid that has a steady and


nonviscous flow.

flow line path of an


individual particle in a
moving fluid.

steady flow flow


pattern that does not
change with time.

streamline a curve whose tangent at any point is in the


direction of fluid at that point.

flow tube flow lines passing through the edge of an imaginary


element of area.
The Equation of Continuity

The mass of a moving fluid does not change as it flows.

Consider an element of fluid in a flow


tube.

dm1 dm2

dV1 dV2

A1v1dt A2 v2 dt

A1v1 A2 v2
The Equation of Continuity
volume flow rate - the rate at which a volume of fluid crosses
a section of the tube.

dV
Av
dt
mass flow rate - the rate at
which a mass of fluid crosses a
section of the tube.

dm dV
Av
dt dt
Example 1

(a)

dm
dt

850 mkg3 9.5 x10 3 m3
s
8.1 kg
s

(b) The volume flow rate does not change.


Bernoullis Equation
Consider a volume element dV of a flowing
ideal fluid.
At time dt, the fluid in section 1 travels a
distance ds1 and ds2 at section 2.

work done on the fluid:

dW p1 A1ds1 p2 A2 ds2

dW p1 p2 dV
change in kinetic energy
of the fluid:

dK 12 dmv2 12 dmv1
2 2


dK 12 dV v2 v1
2 2

Bernoullis Equation
change in potential energy of the fluid:

dU dm g y2 dm g y1

dU dVg y2 y1

Work-Energy Theorem: dW dU dK

p1 p2 dV 12 dV v2 2 v12 dV y2 y1

p1 p2 1
2 v 2
2 2

v1 g y2 y1

p1 12 v1 gy1 p2 12 v2 gy2
2 2
Bernoullis Equation

p1 v1 gy1 p2 v2 gy2
1 2 1 2
2 2

p 12 v 2 gy cons tan t

If the fluid is at rest:

p1 gy1 p2 gy2
For a horizontal flow tube:

p1 12 v1 p2 12 v2
2 2
Example 2

flow speed:

pressure: p2 3.3x105 Pa

volume flow rate:


Torricellis Theorem: Speed of Efflux
Consider a tank of cross-
section A1 filled with a liquid to
a height h.
Consider a hole (of cross-
section A2) at the side of the
tank where the liquid escapes
with a speed of v2. v2
If A1 >> A2, then v10.

p1 12 v1 gy1 p2 12 v2 gy2
2 2

patm 0 gh patm 12 v2 0
2

v2 2 gh
Torricellis Theorem:
The speed of efflux from an
opening a distance h below the
top surface of the liquid is the
same as the speed a body
would acquire in falling freely
through height h.
v2

v2 2 gh

volume flow rate:

dV
A2 2 gh
dt
Example 3: The Venturi meter
A Venturi meter is a device used to measure the flow speed
in a pipe.
Derive an expression for the
flow speed v1 in terms of the
cross-sectional areas A1 and A2
and the difference in height h of
the liquid levels in the two
vertical tubes.

p1 12 v1 p2 12 v2
2 2


p1 p2 12 v2 v1
2 2

A
2
2

p1 p2 2 2 v1 v1
1 1 2

A2
A
2
2 gh

p1 p2 2 v1 2 1
2

v1
1 1

1


A
2
A2

gh 2 v1 2 1
2
1

1
A1 2
A2
A2
Example 4

(a) 3
0.750 ms
dV v
Av
m
472
dt (0.045m) 2 s

(b) 3
0.750 ms
v 52.4 m
(0.135m) 2 s

4
Example 5

p1 12 v1 gy1 p2 12 v2 gy2
2 2


p2 p1 12 v1 v2
2 2


p2 p1 12 1.2 mkg3 70 ms 60 ms 780 Pa
2 2


F p2 p1 A 780 Pa 16.2m 2 12600 N , upward
Example 6

(a) y1 v1
p1

4 3
dm kg 220(3.55 x10 m )
1000 m3 1.30 kgs
dt 60 s y2 v2
p2
(b)
dV 220(3.55 x10 4 m 3 )
1.30 x10 3 m3
s
dt 60 s
Example 6

y1 v1
(c) 4
(2 x10 m )v1 1.30 x10
2 3 m 3
s p1
y2 v2
v1 6.50 m
s v2 1.63 m
s p2

(d)

p1 152kPa 12 (1000 mkg3 ) 1.63 ms 6.50 ms (1000 mkg3 )(9.8 sm2 )(0 1.35m)
2 2

p1 119kPa
Example 6

(a)
Example 6

(b)