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- Comparision of Flow Analysis Through a Different Geometry of Flowmeters Using Fluent Software
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Fluid Mechanics

Fluids in Motion

Ideal Fluids in Motion

nonviscous flow.

individual particle in a

moving fluid.

pattern that does not

change with time.

direction of fluid at that point.

element of area.

The Equation of Continuity

tube.

dm1 dm2

dV1 dV2

A1v1dt A2 v2 dt

A1v1 A2 v2

The Equation of Continuity

volume flow rate - the rate at which a volume of fluid crosses

a section of the tube.

dV

Av

dt

mass flow rate - the rate at

which a mass of fluid crosses a

section of the tube.

dm dV

Av

dt dt

Example 1

(a)

dm

dt

850 mkg3 9.5 x10 3 m3

s

8.1 kg

s

Bernoullis Equation

Consider a volume element dV of a flowing

ideal fluid.

At time dt, the fluid in section 1 travels a

distance ds1 and ds2 at section 2.

dW p1 A1ds1 p2 A2 ds2

dW p1 p2 dV

change in kinetic energy

of the fluid:

dK 12 dmv2 12 dmv1

2 2

dK 12 dV v2 v1

2 2

Bernoullis Equation

change in potential energy of the fluid:

dU dm g y2 dm g y1

dU dVg y2 y1

Work-Energy Theorem: dW dU dK

p1 p2 dV 12 dV v2 2 v12 dV y2 y1

p1 p2 1

2 v 2

2 2

v1 g y2 y1

p1 12 v1 gy1 p2 12 v2 gy2

2 2

Bernoullis Equation

p1 v1 gy1 p2 v2 gy2

1 2 1 2

2 2

p 12 v 2 gy cons tan t

p1 gy1 p2 gy2

For a horizontal flow tube:

p1 12 v1 p2 12 v2

2 2

Example 2

flow speed:

pressure: p2 3.3x105 Pa

Torricellis Theorem: Speed of Efflux

Consider a tank of cross-

section A1 filled with a liquid to

a height h.

Consider a hole (of cross-

section A2) at the side of the

tank where the liquid escapes

with a speed of v2. v2

If A1 >> A2, then v10.

p1 12 v1 gy1 p2 12 v2 gy2

2 2

patm 0 gh patm 12 v2 0

2

v2 2 gh

Torricellis Theorem:

The speed of efflux from an

opening a distance h below the

top surface of the liquid is the

same as the speed a body

would acquire in falling freely

through height h.

v2

v2 2 gh

dV

A2 2 gh

dt

Example 3: The Venturi meter

A Venturi meter is a device used to measure the flow speed

in a pipe.

Derive an expression for the

flow speed v1 in terms of the

cross-sectional areas A1 and A2

and the difference in height h of

the liquid levels in the two

vertical tubes.

p1 12 v1 p2 12 v2

2 2

p1 p2 12 v2 v1

2 2

A

2

2

p1 p2 2 2 v1 v1

1 1 2

A2

A

2

2 gh

p1 p2 2 v1 2 1

2

v1

1 1

1

A

2

A2

gh 2 v1 2 1

2

1

1

A1 2

A2

A2

Example 4

(a) 3

0.750 ms

dV v

Av

m

472

dt (0.045m) 2 s

(b) 3

0.750 ms

v 52.4 m

(0.135m) 2 s

4

Example 5

p1 12 v1 gy1 p2 12 v2 gy2

2 2

p2 p1 12 v1 v2

2 2

p2 p1 12 1.2 mkg3 70 ms 60 ms 780 Pa

2 2

F p2 p1 A 780 Pa 16.2m 2 12600 N , upward

Example 6

(a) y1 v1

p1

4 3

dm kg 220(3.55 x10 m )

1000 m3 1.30 kgs

dt 60 s y2 v2

p2

(b)

dV 220(3.55 x10 4 m 3 )

1.30 x10 3 m3

s

dt 60 s

Example 6

y1 v1

(c) 4

(2 x10 m )v1 1.30 x10

2 3 m 3

s p1

y2 v2

v1 6.50 m

s v2 1.63 m

s p2

(d)

p1 152kPa 12 (1000 mkg3 ) 1.63 ms 6.50 ms (1000 mkg3 )(9.8 sm2 )(0 1.35m)

2 2

p1 119kPa

Example 6

(a)

Example 6

(b)

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