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FASIL P A

ROLL NO:7

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A Weld:* A union between materials caused by heat,
and or pressure

A Joint:* A configuration of members


Welding Joint Terminology

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STRENGTH OF WELD

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Types of Common Welded Joints

Single V Butt Joint


Fillet Joint
Spot Welded Joint
Plug Welded Joint
Edge Joint

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Types of Common Welded Joints (Contd.)

Butt Joint
Fillet Joint
Lap Joint
Open Corner Joint
Closed Corner Joint

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Types of Fillet Welds

Mitre Fillet
Convex Fillet
Concave Fillet

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Remember, the purposes of a weld preparation is to allow access
for the welding process, penetration and fusion through the area
of the joint and its faces*

The basic rule is this:


The more you take out, then the more you must put back in*

This has major effects on economics and distortion control etc


The root face, root gap and angle of bevel values, the choice of
single, or double sided preparations, are dictated only by the type
of welding process, the position and accessibility of the joint*
Angle of bevel*
Root face*

Included angle*

Root radius* Root gap*

Root landing*
Single bevel

Single V

Single J

Single U*
Double bevel

Double V

Double J

Double U*
A butt welded butt joint*

A fillet welded butt joint*

A compound welded butt joint*


A fillet welded T joint*

A butt welded T joint*

A compound welded T joint*


A fillet welded Lap joint*

A spot welded Lap joint*

A compound welded Lap joint*


A fillet welded Closed Corner joint*

A butt welded Closed Corner joint*

A compound welded Closed Corner joint*


An inside fillet welded Open Corner joint*

An outside fillet welded Open Corner joint*

A double fillet welded Open Corner joint*


Weld Face*
Actual Throat Thickness*
Weld Width*
1.2.3.4. Weld Toes* Design Throat Thickness*

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A

B 3 4

HAZ* Fusion Boundary*


Weld Root* Fusion Zone*
A + B = Excess Weld Metal**
Leg Height

Face

Leg length
Reinforcement
Designed throat
Actual Throat

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JOINT DESIGN
Use larger sections to reduce the number of weld joints.
Select joint design requiring the least amount of weld or
filler metal
Make use of deep penetrating arc welding electrode or
process
Ensure minimum root opening and groove angle to reduce
the weld metal deposit
Use double V or double U groove weld design on heavier
sections if accessible to weld from both side
Avoid excessive weld deposit and convexity in butt and
fillet weld joints
Design weld joints for easy accessibility for welding
Utilize down hand welding, if possible
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Welding Symbols
Most weld symbols contain 5 elements, which are:

1) The arrow line* a. 7 b. 10 5 x 100 (100)


111*
2) The reference line*

3) The symbol*

4) The dimensions*

5) The supplementary information*


1) Convention of the arrow line:
BS. BSEn & AWS
a) Shall touch the joint intersection
b) Shall not be parallel to the drawing
c) Shall point towards a single plate preparation*

*
2) Convention of The reference line:
BS 499 (UK) & AWS A 2.4 (US)
a) Shall touch the arrow line
b) Shall be parallel to the bottom of the drawing*

*
Symbols: BS 499 (UK) & AWS A2.4 (US)
a) Welds this side of joint, go underneath the reference line
b) Welds the other side of the joint, go on top of the reference line
c) Symbols with a vertical line component must be drawn with the
vertical line to the left side of the symbol
d) All CSA dimensions are shown to the left of the symbol

e) All linear dimensions are shown on the right of the symbol


i.e. Number of welds, length of welds, length of any (spaces)*

10 4 x 50 (50)*
Representation of welds done from both sides of
the joint intersection, touched by the arrow head

Fillet weld Double bevel Double J*

Double V Double U
Supplementary Weld Symbols
Toes to be ground
smoothly. (BSEn only)
Site Weld

Ground flush

Concave or Convex
111
Weld all round Welding process.
Numerical BS En & BS
Further supplementary information, such as WPS
number, or NDT may be placed in the fish tail*
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CLASSIFICATION OF DEFECTS

PLANER DEFECTS (TWO DIMENSIONAL DEFECTS)

Defects such as Crack, lack of fusion, lack of penetration, severe


undercuts.

VOLUMINAR DEFECTS (THREE DIMENSIONAL DEFECTS)

Defects such as slag inclusion, cavities, pores etc.

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TYPES OF DEFECTS

I. DEFECTS INVOLVING INADEQUATE BONDING


LACK OF FUSION
INCOMPLETE PENETRATION

II. FOREIGN INCLUSIONS


SLAG.
OXIDE FILMS
TUNGSTEN.

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III. GEOMETRIC DEFECTS
UNDERCUT
EXECESSIVE REINFORCEMENT
BURN THROUGH OR EXECESSIVE PENETRATION
DISTORTION
IMPROPER WELD PROFILE.
IV. METALLURGICAL DEFECTS
CRACKS
GAS POROSITY
ARC STRIKES
EMBRITTLEMENT
STRUCTURAL NOTCHES
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WELD PROFILES

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Contd.
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Slide 4 of 81

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COMMON WELDING DEFECTS

1. High rate of weld freezing


2. Excessive moisture in electrode

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As per ISO 6520-1987 Welding discontinuities
are divided in following six groups
Group Designated Defect
1 Cracks
2 Cavities
3 Solid Inclusions
4 Lack of Fusion &
penetration
5 Imperfect Shape
6 1 Miscellaneous defects
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COMMONLY OBSERVED DISCONTINUITIES
IN FUSION WELDING
TYPE EXISTS REMARKS

Lamination Pm Base metal, genarally near mid thickness of section.


Delamination Pm ,,

Seams & laps Pm Base metal surface, often at all times longitudinal.

Lamellar tears Pm Invariably near the HAZ in flange plate of T-butt joint.

Cracks Pm, Wm Restraint, Hot, Brittle & Under bead cold cracks; which may be
Wm/Pm either in longitudinal or transvers direction.
Crater cracks Wm Usually with multi axial cracks at the point of termination.

Fissures Wm Micro cracks generally in fully austenitic stainless steel & less
ductile metal.
Stray flash Pm Appears away from the weld seam as a trail of arc spots with
micro fissures, excesively brittle & hard character.
Spatters Pm Globular weld particles ejected out of an arc zone & scattered
shabbily around over the base metal.
Pm = Parent metal; Wm = Weld metal; Pm/Wm = Junction of weld & base metal
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Continued...
Pm = Parent metal; Wm = Weld metal; Pm/Wm = Junction of weld & base metal
Weld decay & Pm Precipitation of chromium carbide in austenitic stainless steels &
stress corros- severely degrading the corrosion resistance property in HAZ; which
ion cracks may also be associated with the stress corrosion cracks.
Oxidation Wm Inadequacy in gas shield or gas purge from the root side causes a
heavy black scale or an extremely rough crinkled appearance.
Craters Wm An unfilled concave crater causes a point of stress raiser.
Underfill Wm Inadequate weld metal filling and causing weakness.
Undercut Wm/Pm Groove made by the arc force & left unfilled, causes severe stress
concentration.
Overlap Wm/Pm Accumulation of weld, without fusion, causes an extremely voilent
point of sstress raiser.
Lack of fusion Wm, Lack of union between the two weld beads or weld & base metal
Wm/Pm causes stress concentration.
Lack of Pm Inadequacy of through thickness fusion depth.
penetration
Solid particle Wm Trapped slag particle, tungsten or oxide (Al2O3) in weld.
inclusion
Gas inclusion Wm Gas voids contained within the weld causes: Blow hole, Gas pore,
Piping, Worm holes, Linear, Clustered or Scattered porasity.
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- due to segregation

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Lamellar Tearing:

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Cracks is detected in a radiograph, only when it produces a
change in thickness that is parallel to the x-ray beam. It appears
often zig-jagged with faint irregular line. Cracks can also appear
sometime as "tail" to an inclusion or porosity.

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Undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the toe of the weld
face. It appears in radiograph as a dark irregular line on outer edge
of the weld.

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Root undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the root of the
weld. It appears in radiographic images as a dark irregular line offset
from the centerline of the weldment. Undercutting is not as straight
edged as LOP because it does not follow the straight edge

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Root concavity or suck back is a condition where the weld metal
has contracted as it cools down & has been drawn up into the root of
the weld. On a film it appears similar to the lack of root penetration
but the line has irregular wide edges and placed in the middle.

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Cold lap is a condition where the weld metal does not fuse with the
base metal or the previous weld bead (interpass cold lap). The arc
does not melt the base metal and causes the molten puddle to flow
into the base metl without the proper bonding.

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Incomplete fusion is a condition where the weld metal does not
fuse with the base metal. Appearance on radiograph is usually a
darker line or lines oriented in the direction of the weld seam along
the weld joining area.

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Whiskers are the short lengths of electrode wire, visible on
the top or bottom surfaces of the weld or contained within the
weld. On radiograph they appear as light, "wire like" indications.
Burn through (icicles) results when too much heat causes weld to
pierce through. Lumps of weld metal sag through the seam creating
a thick globular condition on the root face. On a radiograph, burn
through appears as dark spots surrounded by light globular areas.

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Lack of penetration occurs when the weld metal fails to penetrate
through the joint. Allows a linear stress riser like discontinuity from
which a crack may initiate. The appearance on a radiograph is a dark
well-defined straight edges that follows the land or root face down the
center of a joint.

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Gas inclusion
Gas pore _ singular.
Blowhole _ singular.
Scattered Porosity.
Fine Severe
Cluster Porosity.
Linear Porosity.
Piping.
Worm holes.

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Porosity appears often as dark round irregular spots in clusters or
rows. Sometimes it is elongated and may have an appearance of a
tail. This is the result of gas attempting to escape while the metal is
still in a liquid state & is called wormhole porosity. All porosity is
indeed a void will have a darker density than the surrounding.

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Cluster porosity is caused when electrodes are contaminated with
moisture or hydrocarbon. It appears like regular porosity in a film
but the indications will be grouped close together.

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Oxide inclusion/ Puckering

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Slag inclusions are the nonmetallic solid materials trapped in weld
or between the weld and base metal. In a radiograph, dark, jagged
asymmetrical shapes within the weld or along the weld joint areas
are indicative of slag inclusions.

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Tungsten inclusions. Tungsten is a brittle and dense material used
as an electrode in tungsten inert gas welding. If an incorrect welding
procedures & skill is performed, then only the tungsten gets trapped.
Radiographically, tungsten is more dense than aluminum or steel;
therefore, it shows as a lighter area with a distinct outline on the
radiograph

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The radiographic image is a noticeable difference in density between
the two mismatched pieces. The difference in density is caused by the
difference in material thickness. The dark, straight line is caused by
failure of the weld metal to fuse with the land area.

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Excessive reinforcement is an area of a weld added in excess of
that specified by the drawings and codes. The appearance on a rad-
iograph is a localized & less darker area. A visual examination will
easily determine if the weld reinforcement is in excess.

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Underfilling is an area where the deposited weld metal is less than
the required thickness. It is easy to determine by RT films, because
the image density in the area of inadequacy will be darker than the
surrounding image density.

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Mechanical Testing

Mechanical Testing of welded joints may be carried out fo the


Following reasons
Welding Procedure approval
Welder Approval
Production Quality Approval

Welding consumables manufacturers will carry out all weld metal


tests for each consumable type
Parent Material is normally subjected to extensive testing prier to
Its acceptance

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Mechanical Testing
In mechanical Testing representative test samples produced under
similar conditions to the in service components are normally used
and comparison is made

The main purpose of mechanical Testing is to asses the properties


of welded Joints
The most frequently used mechanical tests are
Tensile
Bend
Nick Break
Fracture
Impact
Hardness
Macroscopic / Microscopic
CTOD
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Why ?* To establish the level of mechanical properties*

Which properties ?*
1) Hardness*
2) Toughness*
3) Tensile strength*
4) Ductility*
We test welds to establish minimum levels of mechanical
properties, and soundness of the welded joint*

We divide tests into Quantitative & Qualitative methods:*

1) Quantitative tests: (Have units)*

2) Qualitative tests: (Have no units)*


Types of tests include:

1) Quantitative tests:
Hardness tests
Toughness tests
Tensile strength tests*

2) Qualitative tests:
Macro tests
Bend tests
Fracture tests*
The test weld is usually cut into sections as follows:
The location of specimens will depend upon the standard

Charpy V test Bend test*

Tensile test Macro/Hardness test


Start/ Stop
Tensile Test

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Tensile Test

In tensile test stress is applied in opposite direction to pull the


two ends apart

Tensile test is used to asses the following


Yield point of the specimen
The ultimate tensile strength
Ductility of the specimen, expressed as % elongation

The different types of tensile test are


Transverse tensile test
All weld tensile test
Cruciform Test

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Tensile Test

The reduction in the cross sectional area indicates the ductile fracture

Steel specimen which do not exhibit any necking usually rejected

U.T.S = Maximum Load Applied / least cross sectional area

% elongation( strain ) = Increase of gauge length x 100 / original length

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A Section of weld is cut, or machined out across the test piece
and tested in tension to failure. The units are usually in N/mm

Transverse reduced test piece*


Radius
(For radius reduced test specimens only)

Weld
Test gripping area HAZ

Direction of test

Plate material Reduced Section

Used to assess the tensile strength of the weld metal


BS 709 / BS En 10002
All Weld Metal Tensile Testing

Direction of the test *

Tensile test piece cut


along weld specimen.
Firstly, before the tensile test 2 marks are made 50mm apart

50 mm

During the test, Yield point & Tensile strength are measured
The specimen is put together and the marks are re-measured

75 mm

A new measurement of 75mm will indicate Elongation E50 %*


Bend Test

The bend test is carried out to determine the soundness of the


weld zone

The commonly applied bend test is the transverse bend test


There are three ways to perform this type of bend test
The root bend test
Face bend test
Side bend test

The specimen width of bend test is usually at least 1.5 times


the thickness and the weld reinforcement is usually dressed flushed
On both sides

The specimen are usually bent through 90o,120o , 135o and , 180o 90o,
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Bend Test

The diameter of the Firmer is typically four times the specimen thickness

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Bend tests are used to establish fusion in the area under test
Guide A Guided root bend test*
Lack of root fusion shown here*

Former
Test Piece
Force

Further tests include face, side and longitudinal bend tests*


For material over 12 mm thickness, side bend test may be used*
1) Charpy V test: 10 x 10 (Specimen horizontal) Joules*

2) Izod test: 10 x 10 (Specimen vertical) Ft.lbs*

3) CTOD test: Specimen used is actual design size.


Detailed fracture report. mm*
Impact Test

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Impact Test

Impact test is performed to


Asses notch toughness by
measuring the energy absorbed
During the impact

Two main impact tests are


Charpy v-notch
Izod Test

Both tests use a swinging Pendulum


The pendulum hits the notched Specimen positioned in the Machine
The specimen immediately fractures in the notch
More energy is absorbed by tougher specimen during the fracture

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Machined notch 10 x 10 mm

The specimen may be tested from different areas of the weld.*

Graduated scale Pendulum Hammer


of absorbed
energy in Joules*

Location of specimen
Hardness Test

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Harness Test

This test is used to know the hardness gradient across the


weld zone and parent material for comparison purpose

Hardness of the weld and HAZ will give an indication of the


Weldability of the material

Hardness also gives the idea about the correct selection of


welding Parameters

Two common hardness tests are


Vickers Pyramid Hardness Test
Brinnell Hardness Test

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Generally we use a diamond or steel ball to form an indentation

We measure the width of the indentation to gauge the hardness*


1) Vickers Diamond Pyramid: Always uses a diamond*

2) Brinell hardness test: Always uses a steel ball*

3) Rockwell hardness test: Uses a ball, or diamond


depending on the scale*
Hardness Test
Vickers Hardness Test:

The test uses small pyramid shaped diamond indenter with an


angle of 136o

A force is applied to press the indenter into the surface for


10-15 seconds

The force applied is variable from 1-120 kg

The diamond indenter leaves a pin tip sized square indentation


on the surface

The size of this indentation is the indication of hardness of the


specimen
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Hardness Test

Brinell Hardness Test

The test is carried out by forcing the hardened 10 mm dia


steel ball into the surface of the specimen

The force used is 500,1500,or 3000 kg for 15 seconds

An in built microscope with a calibrated lens is used to


Measure the width of indentation.

The size of this indentation is the indication of hardness of


the specimen

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Saw Cuts Hammer blow

A
Fracture line

B Inspect both surfaces

Lack of root penetration Inclusions on fracture line*


or fusion
Nick break test

Nick break test is used to evaluate the presence of


weld defects across the fractured surface

Two nicks are cut each on either side of the of the weld

The test specimen are broken by bending or striking with hammer

This causes the weld to fracture along the weakest setion

The fractured faces are then examined visualy

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Saw cut 1 2 3

Hammer blow
X Line of fusion
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Fracture line

Full fracture
X
2 3

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Y Any strait line indicates a
Inspect both surfaces
Lack of root fusion*
Fillet Weld Fracture Test

To evaluate the presence of weld defects across the fractured


surface
A saw cut is made along the center line of the weld face on a fillet
weld
The specimen is broken by hammer strikes

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CTOD(Crack Tip opening Displacement)

This test is to determine metals resistance to initiate the crack


from any notch
A notch is cut in the specimen, The specimen is subjected to high
speed cyclic load to induce a crack at the root of the notch
Then study three point bending force is applied to open this crack
A clip gauge is fixed to the mouth of the notch to accurately measure
the rate of crack opening
A load sensing device shows the load applied for this crack opening

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1) Excess Weld Metal Height 8) Poor Toe Blend*
7) Laminations

6)Porosity

2) Lack of Sidewall Fusion


5) Root Penetration
3) Lack of Root Fusion

4) Slag inclusion & Lack of inter-run fusion


We use Non Destructive Testing (NDT) when we wish to
assess the integrity of a structure without destroying it
The 4 of the common types of NDT used when assessing
weldments are:
Procedure

First the work must be cleaned thoroughly, then a


penetrant is applied for a specified time*
Once the contact time has elapsed, the penetrant is
removed and a developer is then applied*
Any penetrant that has been drawn into a crack by
capillary action will be drawn out into the developer*
Two types of penetrants are:
1) Colour contrast 2) Fluorescent Penetrant*
Method

Apply Penetrant Clean then apply Developer Result*


Advantages Disadvantages

1) Low operator skill level 1) Highly clean metal

2) All materials (Non Porous) 2) Surface flaws only

3) Low cost method 3) Extremely messy

4) Simple equipment 4) No permanent record*


Procedure

First the work must be cleaned and a whitener applied for


contrast. A magnetic flux is then applied by permanent magnet,
electro magnet, or straight current*

A magnetic ink is applied which will concentrate in areas of


flux leakage, as those caused by flaws*

The weld length must be crossed at 90 by the magnetic field*

The types of magnetic media used are:


1) Wet ink 2) Dry powder 3) Fluorescent ink*
Method

Contrast paint Magnet & Ink Result*


Advantages Disadvantages

1) Low operator skill level 1) Fe Magnetic metal only

2) Sub surface flaws 2) De-magnetize after use

3) Relatively cheap 3) Can cause arc strikes #

4) Simple equipment 4) No permanent record*

# When using the straight current prod technique


Procedure

First the work must be cleaned thoroughly, then a couplant is


applied to increase sound transmission*

A probe is then applied with the correct angle for the weld
preparation and sound waves are transmitted*

Any imperfections will rebound the sound waves causing a


signal to occur on the cathode ray tube*
Method

Apply Couplant Sound wave Result*

CRT display

Signal rebounded
from Lack of fusion
Advantages Disadvantages

1) Can find lack of fusion 1) High operator skill

2) Most materials 2) Difficult to interpret

3) No safety requirements 3) Requires calibration

4) Portable/instant results 4) No permanent record*


Procedure

A film is placed inside a cassette between lead screens.


It is then placed to the rear of the object to be radiographed
A radiographic source, is exposed to the work and film for a
pre-calculated time*

Any imperfections in line with the beam of radiation will be


shown on the film after exposure and development*

The 2 types of radiation used in industrial radiography:


1) X rays (from Cathode Ray Tube)
2) Gamma rays (from a Radioactive Isotope)*
Method

Load film Exposure to Radiation Interpret Graph

Radioactive source Developed


Graph
IQI

Film cassette Latent image on the film


Advantages Disadvantages

1) A permanent record ? 1) High operator skill

2) Most materials 2) Difficult interpretation

3) Assess root pen in pipe 3) Lack of sidewall fusion

4) Gamma ray is portable 4) Safety requirements*