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Metals for Biomedical

Applications
1. Introduction

Table 1. Implants division and type of metals used


Disadvantages:
Not possess bio-functionalities, bio-compatibility, bioactivity
Surface modification required:
Coating bioactive ceramics
2. Common metals used for
biomedical devices
For cardio-vescular to otorhinology
S.S 316L
CoCr alloy
Ti ,Ta
For dentistry:
Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, AuAgCu alloy
Bio-degradable metal:
Fe based alloy
Mg based alloy
3. Structure and property of metals
3.1 Microstructure of metal and its alloys

Crystaline structure of metal


body centered cubic
body face cubic
Hexagonal close packed
Defects in metals:
Dislocation
Grain boundary
Pure metal
3.2 Physical and mechanical
properties of metals
Physical properties:
Density, melting point, specific heat, thermal conductivity, corrosion,
thermal expention
mechanical properties:
Tention test
Hardness
Metallurgical properties:
Annealing ,forging
Fatigue failure test
3.3 Biocompatibility of metals

Properties of biocompatible metallic implants:


do not irritate the surrounding structures
do not encourage inflammatory response
do not stimulate allergic and immunologic reactions
Do not cause cancer
Do not cause corrosion
Functional Properties of biocompatible metallic implants:
Strength, stiffness, fatigue and density
4. Processing of metals
4.1 Primary processes
Forging
TMP
Mill products
HIP
Primary fabrication process
Mixing and blending of material
Compacting
HIP process
4.2 Advanced processes

Super-plastic deformation (SPD)


Iso-thermal forging
Direct-metal deposition
SPD requirement:
Dual phase material
Ultra-fine grain structure
4.3 Surface treatment

Surface morphological modification


chemical modification biomoleculer
S.S Hard N-Enriched layer
Hard C-Enriched layer
Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization
4.4 Coating

HAP
CAP
Plasma spray
Sol-gel
Sand blasting process
Continuous processing
4.5 Sterilization and cleaning

Descaling:
Mechanically, Chemically
Sterlization:
Autoclave
Glow discharge and Ar plasma treatment
Bio mineralization of Ti alloys
5. Failure of metals for biomedical devices
5.1 Corrosion

Types of corrosion:
Fretting
Pitting
Fatigue
Corrosion resistance:
Electro polishing
Sand blast
Short peening method
5.2 Fatigue and fracture

Factors that cause fatigue and fracture:


Microstructure
Frequency of cyclic load
Design of implant
Implant fatigue observation:
Beach mark
Fatigue striation
5.3 Wear

Performance of wear test:


contact stresses,
lubricants and clearance,
surface hardness and roughness,
type of articulation due to motion,
Number of cycles,
oxidation of materials,
surface abrasions
5.4 Metal ions release

Alloys Released ions

Ti V
CoCrMo Co,Cr,Mo
Factors effecting the metal ion release
Passive oxide film
PH factor
Coating
6. Recent developments in metals for
biomedical devices
Avoid Ni due to its toxic effect
Due to leaching , wear and corrosion
6.1 New generation of metallic
biomaterials
Ni free S.S
Alternate of Ni free biomaterials
FeCrN, FeCrMoN, FeCr, Mn, MoN
Ni free Zr based bulk material glasses
High tensile strength
Low elastic modulus
High corrosion resistance
Processing technique:
Laser melting, sintering, space holder method
6.2 Biodegradable metals

Mg-Ir alloy
Fe-Mn alloy (stent)
7. Conclusion

Ceramic and polymer


Biocompatible
bio functionality
Metals:
Strength
Ductility
toughness