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Quality Function Deployment

QFD
Six Sigma COPIS Model

Outputs Process Inputs

Customers Suppliers

Steps How does Six Sigma Work?


The Voice of the Customer (VOC) is aggressively sought and rigorously
evaluated and used to determine needed outputs and hence the optimal
process configuration needed to yield those outputs and their necessary
inputs for which the best suppliers are identified and allied with.

From Concept to Market: the Voice of the Customer


Kano Customer Need Model

Delighted
Degree of
Execution

Fully
Absent
Implemented

Disgusted
Stakeholder Satisfaction
Kano Customer Need Model

Those needs that are EXPECTED in a product


Dissatisfiers or service. These are generally not stated by
customers but are assumed as given. If they
are not present, the customer is dissatisfied.

Needs that customers SAY THEY WANT.


Satisfiers Fulfilling these needs creates satisfaction.

New or Innovative features that customers do


Exciters / not expect. The presence of such unexpected
Delighters features leads to high perceptions of quality.
Eight Dimension of Product Quality

Performance Reliability
Features Durability
Conformance Serviceability
Aesthetics Perceived
Quality
Dimensions of Service Quality

RELIABILITY: consistency, error-free dependability


RESPONSIVENESS: willingness to help the customer
TANGIBLES: environment for the service presented
COMPETENCE: the right skills and knowledge required

COURTESY: suppliers behavior


SECURITY: freedom from danger or risk
ACCESS: ease of making contact
COMMUNICATION: understandable to the customer
EMPATHY: adopting the customers viewpoint
Six Sigma Innovation & the DMAIC Algorithm

Define
Define the problem and customer
requirements.

Control Measure M easure defect rates and document


the process in its current incarnation.

Analyze process data and determine


the capability of the process.

Improve the process and remove


defect causes.

Control process performance and


ensure that defects do not recur.
Improve Analyze
QFD Can Reduce Both Costs and Start-Up Time
Innovation & QFD
Introduction of

Design Changes
Japanese/US Engineering First Product
Change Comparison
Japanese
(Using QFD) United States
(Not Using QFD)

out 1-3
out 20-24

3 months
months

months
out 14-17
months

in production
market
introduction

Time
Quality Function Deployment
Hin
Shitsu
Ki
No
Ten
Kai
"A group of courageous people working in harmony pursuing the finest
detail to unlock the organization and roll out products that the multitudes
in the marketplace will value." Glenn Mazur
Quality Function Deployment

Is a structured method that is intended to transmit and


translate customer requirements, that is, the
Voice of the Customer
through each stage of the product development and
production process, that is, through the product
realization cycle.
These requirements are the collection of customer needs,
including all satisfiers, exciters/delighters, and
dissatisfiers.
What Does QFD Do?
CONCEPT CUSTOMER

Better Designs in Half the Time!

Plan Design Redesign Manufacture

Traditional Timeline
Plan Design Redesign Manufacture Benefits

QFD Is a Productivity Enhancer


PRODUCT
DESIGN PROCESS Why Does QFD Work?
DESIGN
PRODUCTION IMPROVE
10:1 PRODUCT

LOW VISIBILITY TIME HIGH VISIBILITY


LOW REWARD HIGH REWARD

The Quality Lever


When is QFD Appropriate?

Poor communications and expectations get lost in the


complexity of product development.
Lack of structure or logic to the allocation of product
development resources.
Lack of efficient and / or effective product / process
development teamwork.
Extended development time caused by excessive
redesign, problem solving, or fire fighting.
Brief History of QFD
Origin - Mitsubishi Kobe Shipyard 1972

Developed By Toyota and Its Suppliers


Expanded To Other Japanese Manufacturers
Consumer Electronics, Home Appliances, Clothing, Integrated
Circuits, Apartment Layout Planning
Adopted By Ford and GM in 1980s
Digital Equipment, Hewlett-Packard, AT&T, ITT

Yoji Akao is considered as Father of QFD

Yoji Akao
Foundation - Belief That Products Should Be Designed
To Reflect Customer Desires and Tastes
House Of Quality
Quality Function Deployments
House of Quality Correlation 6
Matrix

3
Design
Attributes
The House

Importance Rankings
2 5
1
Relationships Customer
of Quality Customer
Needs
4
between
Customer Needs
Perceptions

and
Design Attributes

7
Costs/Feasibility
Establishes the Flowdown
Relates WHAT'S & HOW'S 8
Ranks The Importance Engineering Measures
Two Types of Elements in Each House
The House of Quality

Key Elements
Informational Elements
Manufacturing Software Service
QFD Flowdown
Environment Environment Environment
Levels Of Granularity
Customer Wants Customer Wants Customer Wants

Technical Requirements Product Functionality Service Requirements

Part Characteristics System Characteristics Service Processes

Manufacturing Process Design Alternatives Process Controls

Production Requirements
Flowdown Relates The
Houses To Each Other
Building the House of Quality
1. Identify Customer Attributes
2. Identify Design Attributes / Requirements
3. Relate the customer attributes to the design attributes.
4. Conduct an Evaluation of Competing Products.
5. Evaluate Design Attributes and Develop Targets.
6. Determine which Design Attributes to Deploy in the
Remainder of the Process.
1. Identify Customer Attributes
These are product or service requirements IN THE CUSTOMERS TERMS.
Market Research;
Surveys;
Focus Groups.
What does the customer expect from the product?
Why does the customer buy the product?
Salespeople and Technicians can be important sources of information
both in terms of these two questions and in terms of product failure and
repair.
OFTEN THESE ARE EXPANDED INTO Secondary and Tertiary Needs /
Requirements.
- Whats

What Does The Customer Want


Customer Needs
CTQs
Need 1
Ys Need 2
Need 3
Key Elements

Need 4
Need 5
Need 6
Need 7

Voice of the Customer


Customer Requirements
Key Elements:

How Important Are The


Whats TO THE CUSTOMER
Customer Ranking of their
Needs Need 1 5
Need 2 5
Need 3 3
Need 4 4
Need 5 2
Need 6 4
Need 7 1

Voice of the Customer


2. Identify Design Attributes.
Design Attributes are Expressed in the Language of the
Designer / Engineer and Represent the TECHNICAL
Characteristics (Attributes) that must be Deployed
throughout the DESIGN, MANUFACTURING, and
SERVICE PROCESSES.
These must be MEASURABLE since the Output will be
Controlled and Compared to Objective Targets.
The ROOF of the HOUSE OF QUALITY shows,
symbolically, the Interrelationships between Design
Attributes.
How Do You Satisfy the Customer Whats
-

Product Requirements

HOW 1
HOW 2
HOW 3
HOW 4
HOW 5
HOW 6
HOW 7
Key Elements

Translation For Action Hows



Hows

Xs
Need 1 5
Need 2 5
Need 3 3
WHAT'S HOW'S Need 4 4
Need 5 2
Need 6 4
Need 7 1

Satisfy the Customer Needs


Correlation
Impact Of The Hows On Each Other
Matrix

Correlation Matrix
Strong Positive
Positive

Information
Negative

HOW 5
HOW 1
HOW 2
HOW 3
HOW 4

HOW 6
HOW 7
Strong Negative

Need 1 5 H L L M 65
Need 2 5 H 45
Need 3 3 M M L 21
Need 4 4 H 36
Need 5 2 L M 8
Need 6 4 M L H 52
Need 7 1 L M 4

40 psi
3 mils

1 mm
8 atm
12 in.
3 lbs

3
57 41 48 13 50 6 21
Conflict Resolution
3.Relating Customer & Design Attributes

Symbolically we determine whether there is NO relationship, a WEAK


one, MODERATE one, or STRONG relationship between each Customer
Attribute and each Design Attribute.
The PURPOSE it to determine whether the final Design Attributes
adequately cover Customer Attributes.
LACK of a strong relationship between A customer attribute and any
design attribute shows that the attribute is not adequately addressed or
that the final product will have difficulty in meeting the expressed
customer need.
Similarly, if a design attribute DOES NOT affect any customer attribute,
then it may be redundant or the designers may have missed some
important customer attribute.
Strength of the Interrelation
Relationship
Key Elements:

Between the Whats and the


Hows
H Strong 9
M Medium 3

HOW 3
HOW 1
HOW 2

HOW 4
HOW 5
HOW 6
HOW 7
L Weak 1
Transfer Function
Y = f(X) Need 1 5 H L L M
Need 2 5 H
Need 3 3 M M L
Need 4 4 H
Need 5 2 L M
Need 6 4 M L H
Need 7 1 L M

Untangling The Web


4. Add Market Evaluation & Key Selling Points

This step includes identifying importance ratings for each customer


attribute AND evaluating existing products / services for each of the
attributes.
Customer importance ratings represent the areas of greatest interest
and highest expectations AS EXPRESSED BY THE CUSTOMER.
Competitive evaluation helps to highlight the absolute strengths and
weaknesses in competing products.
This step enables designers to seek opportunities for improvement
and links QFD to a companys strategic vision and allows priorities
to be set in the design process.
5. Evaluate Design Attributes of
Competitive Products & Set Targets.

This is USUALLY accomplished through in-house testing and then


translated into MEASURABLE TERMS.
The evaluations are compared with the competitive evaluation of
customer attributes to determine inconsistency between customer
evaluations and technical evaluations.
For example, if a competing product is found to best satisfy a customer
attribute, but the evaluation of the related design attribute indicates
otherwise, then EITHER the measures used are faulty, OR else the
product has an image difference that is affecting customer perceptions.
On the basis of customer importance ratings and existing product
strengths and weaknesses, TARGETS and DIRECTIONS for each design
attribute are set.
Information: How Much

Target Values for the


Hows

HOW 1
HOW 2
HOW 3
HOW 4
HOW 5
HOW 6
HOW 7
Note the Units

Need 1 5 H L L M 65
Need 2 5 H 45
Need 3 3 M M L 21
Need 4 4 H 36
Need 5 2 L M 8
Need 6 4 M L H 52
Need 7 1 L M 4

40 psi
3 mils

1 mm
8 atm
12 in.
3 lbs How Much

3
57 41 48 13 50 6 21

Consistent Comparison
Information On The HOW'S
Target Direction
More Is Better
Less Is Better

HOW 6
HOW 1
HOW 2
HOW 3
HOW 4
HOW 5

HOW 7
Information :

Specific Amount
Need 1 5 H L L M 65
Need 2 5 H 45
Need 3 3 M M L 21
Need 4 4 H 36
Need 5 2 L M 8
Need 6 4 M L H 52
Need 7 1 L M 4

57 41 48 13 50 6 21

The Best Direction


6. Select Design Attributes to be Deployed in the
Remainder of the Process
This means identifying the design attributes that:
have a strong relationship to customer needs,
have poor competitive performance,
or are strong selling points.
These attributes will need to be DEPLOYED or TRANSLATED
into the language of each function in the design and
production process so that proper actions and controls are
taken to ensure that the voice of the customer is maintained.
Those attributes not identified as critical do not need such
rigorous attention.
Technical Importance
Which Hows are Key
Where Should The Focus Lie

HOW 4
HOW 1
HOW 2
HOW 3

HOW 5
HOW 6
HOW 7
CI = Customer Importance
Key Elements:

Strength is measured on a 9, 3, 1, 0
Scale
Need 1 CI 45 5 5 15
Need 2 5 45
Need 3 3 9 9 3
Need 4 4 36
Need 5 2 2 6
Need 6 4 12 4 36
Need 7 1 1 M

TI = Scolumn
(CI *Strength) 57 41 48 13 50 6 21

Ranking The HOW'S


Are All The Hows
Key Elements :
Completeness
Captured

HOW 6
HOW 1
HOW 2
HOW 3
HOW 4
HOW 5

HOW 7
Is A What Really A How

Need 1 CI H L L M 65
Need 2 5 H 45
Need 3 3 M M L 21
Need 4 4 H 36
Need 5 2 L M 8
Need 6 4 M L H 52
Need 7 1 L M 4

CC = S(CI
row
*Strength)
57 41 48 13 50 6 21

Have We Captured the HOW'S


Using the House of Quality

The voice of the customer MUST be carried THROUGHOUT the


production process.
Three other houses of quality are used to do this and, together
with the first, these carry the customers voice from its initial
expression, through design attributes, on to component
attributes, to process operations, and eventually to a quality
control and improvement plans.
In Japan, all four are used.
The tendency in the West is to use only the first one or two.
1 Design Attributes
Attributes
Customer

2 Component Attributes
Attributes
Design

3 Process Operations
Component
Attributes

4 Quality Control Plan

The Hows at One Level Become the


Whats at the Next Level
The Cascading Voice of the Customer

HOWS NOTES:
Design Attributes are also called Functional Requirements
Component Attributes are also called Part Characteristics
Process Operations are also called Manufacturing
Processes and the Quality Control Plan refers to Key
Process Variables.

Y
Critical to Quality
Characteristics
(CTQs)

Key Manufacturing
Processes

X
Key Process Variables

Common QFD Pitfalls
QFD On Everything
Set the Right Granularity
Dont Apply To Every Last Project
Inadequate Priorities
Lack of Teamwork
Wrong Participants
Lack of Team Skills
Lack of Support or Commitment
Too Much Chart Focus
Hurry up and Get Done
Failure to Integrate and Implement QFD
Review Current Status
At Least Quarterly
Monthly on 1 Yr Project
Weekly on Small Projects
HOW 1
HOW 2
HOW 3
HOW 4
HOW 5
HOW 6
HOW 7

65
Need 1 5 H L L M
Need 2 5 H 45
Need 3 3 M M L 21
Need 4 4 H 36
Need 5
Need 6
2
4 M
L
L H
M 8
52
The Static QFD
Need 7 1 L M 4
40 psi
3 mils

1 mm
8 atm
12 in.
3 lbs

57 41 48 13 50 6 21
Points to Remember
The process may look simple, but requires effort.
Many entries look obviousafter theyre written down.
If there are NO tough spots the first time: It Probably Isnt
Being Done Right!!!!
Focus on the end-user customer.
Charts are not the objective. Charts are the means for
achieving the objective.
Find reasons to succeed, not excuses for failure.
Remember to follow-up afterward