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Engineering Mechanics Lab

Instructor: Dr. S. V. Bakre


List of Practical
Experiment
Name of Experiment
No.

1 Determination of the Support Reactions of a Simply Supported Beam

2 Proving the Law of Polygon of Forces using a Force Table

3 Verification of Lamis Theorem using Jib Crane

4 Analysis of a Shear Leg Structure


Determination of the Coefficient of Static and Rolling Friction for an
5
Inclined Plane

6 Analysis of Truss using Structural Mechanics Apparatus

7 Tension Test on a Mild Steel Specimen

8 Torsion Test on a Mild Steel Specimen

9 Determination of Maximum Bending Strength of a Wooden Block

Dr. SV Bakre
Schedule/Conduct of Practicals

Form 6 group
Group 1: Roll # 1-4
Group 2: Roll # 5-8
Group 3: Roll # 9-12
Group 4: Roll # 13-15
Group 5: Roll # 16-18

Dr. SV Bakre
Schedule/Conduct of Practicals

This Week Next Week


Group 1 Pract # 1 Pract # 2
Group 2 Pract # 2 Pract # 3
Group 3 Pract # 3 Pract # 4
Group 4 Pract # 4 Pract # 5
Group 5 Pract # 5 Pract # 6
Group 6 Pract # 6 Pract # 1

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam

Aim: To determine reactions at


supports of Simply Supported Beam
Apparatus: Simply Supported Beam
Set-up, Weights and Measuring
Scale
Theory: Types of Support, Types of
Loads, Types of Beam and
Conditions of Equilibrium

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam

Types of Support

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam

Types of Support: Pin/Hinge

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam

Types of Support: Fixed

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam

Types of Loads:

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam

Types of Loads:

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam

Types of Beams: Simply Supported

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam

Types of Beams: Cantilever

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam

Types of Beams: SSB + Overhang

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam

Types of Beams: Fixed and


Continuous

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam

Apparatus

Wooden Beam

Spring
Spring
Balance
Balance

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam

Theoretical Determination of
Reactions
Fy = 0, RA + RB - W1 - W2 = 0 ------------------ (1)
W1 W2
A B
MA = 0, RB . L W1. a W2 . b = 0 --------------(2)

a
Solving (1) and (2),
b
RA RB
W a W2 b
RB 1 L
L

and RA = W1 + W2 RB

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam
Procedure
Record the beam length L in centimeters
Place the beam gently on the two dual spring
balances and record the initial readings at
both the balances in kg
Apply the loads W1 and W2 at distance a &
b from end A
Take final readings of spring balances
The difference of initial and final readings
gives the experimental values of reactions RA
and RB; while their theoretical values are
calculated as derived
Repeat the procedure by changing the values
of W1 & W2 and a & b
Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam

Precautions
Before taking the readings
compress the beam and release
it for 1-2 minutes
Apparatus should be well-
lubricated

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 1
Determination of Support Reactions of
a Simply Supported Beam

Observation Table

Theortical Re action Experiment al Re action


%Deviation x100
Theortical Re action

Average % derivation for RA = ____________ %, for RB = ____________ %

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 2

Proving the Law of Polygon of Forces

Aim: To prove Law of Polygon of


Forces using Force Table
Apparatus: Universal Force Table,
Weights, Pans and Thread
Theory: Law of Polygon of Forces,
Proof and Analytical Solution

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 2

Proving the Law of Polygon of Forces

Law of Polygon of Forces


If any number of forces acting on a particle
can be represented in magnitude and
direction by the sides of a closed polygon
taken in order, then the particle will be in
equilibrium. Conversely, if any number of
forces acting on a particle keep it in
equilibrium, then a closed polygon can be
drawn whose sides represent these forces
both in magnitude and direction.

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 2

Proving the Law of Polygon of Forces

Proof
Suppose forces P, Q, R and S act on a
body keeping it in equilibrium. Take a
point O as origin and draw OA parallel
and equal to P to some scale. From A
draw AB parallel and equal to Q to the
same scale. The resultant of these two
forces will be represented by OB
according to law of triangle of forces.
From B draw BC parallel and equal to
R. Then OC will represent the resultant
of OB and R. From C draw CD parallel
and equal to S. Then OD will represent
the resultant of all the forces. If the
body is in equilibrium, this resultant
OD must be zero; i.e. O & D must
coincide or it must be a closed
polygon; as shown by the force or
vector diagram.
Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 2

Proving the Law of Polygon of Forces

Analytical Solution
H = P + Q cos + R cos + S cos
V = Q sin + R sin + S sin
and resultant of all the forces will be

R H 2 V 2
at an angle,

V
tan 1
H
with the horizontal.

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 2

Proving the Law of Polygon of Forces

Apparatus

Pulleys

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 2

Proving the Law of Polygon of Forces

Procedure
1. Fix a pulley with its index y
R
mark on zero angle and Q

the other three with the
index marks making any
set of known angles , x P
and with the first one.
2. Adjust the weights in the S
pan / hangers to bring the
y
ring exactly at the center
(Concentric with the
central pivot).

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 2

Proving the Law of Polygon of Forces

Precautions
1. The directions , and of the forces as observed are
correct only if the threads connecting the force to the
ring pass through centre of the table. For this the ring
should be exactly concentric with the central pivot.

2. Pulleys should be friction less and the knots in the


threads if any should be fine.

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 2

Proving the Law of Polygon of Forces

Observation Table

Graph paper has to be used to draw the vector diagram

Dr. SV Bakre
Drawing Vector Diagram
b Scale:
1cm = 1N
Q
P
c
a
R
P S
S
a d
Closed Polygon,
b Particle is in
d Equillibrium Resultant

c Q
R
Force Diagram Vector Diagram
Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 3

Verification of Lamis Theorem

Aim: To verify Lamis theorem using


Jib Crane
Apparatus: Jib Crane, Weights,
Measuring Scale
Theory: Lamis theorem, Proof of
Lamis theorem

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 3

Verification of Lamis Theorem

Lamis theorem
If three Coplanar forces acting on a
particle, keep it in equilibrium, then each
force is proportional to the sine of the angle
between the other two forces.
F3

F1 F2 F3
F1

sin sin sin

F2
Force Diagram
Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 3

Verification of Lamis Theorem

Set-up

Spring Balance

Spring
Balance

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 3

Verification of Lamis Theorem

Procedure
1. Measure length of the post (Lv). Note initial readings
of the forces in the jib and the tie without loading.
2. Place a load (W) on the pan and note final readings
of the jib and tie forces.
3. Measure the lengths (Lt) and (Lj).
4. Complete the space and the force diagrams.
5. Measure angles , and from the diagram.
6. Measure ac and bc to get Pt and Pj graphically and
calculate the same by Lamis Theorem.
7. Repeat above procedure with different weights.

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 3

Verification of Lamis Theorem

Precautions

1. Weights should be added gently


2. Apparatus should be well lubricated
3. Note the initial readings in Jib crane and
spring balance carefully.

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 3

Verification of Lamis Theorem

Observation Table

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 3

Verification of Lamis Theorem

Analytical Calculations
L2j L2v L2t
Cos 1
2 L j Lv

L2t L2j L2v


Cos 1

2 Lt L j

L2
L2
L2

Cos 1 v t j

2L L
v t

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 3

Verification of Lamis Theorem

Graphical Solution


Scale:
1cm = 1/30 Units

b c
Lt

Lv
Lj

a

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 4

Analysis of Shear Leg Structure

Aim: To determine the forces in the


members of loaded shear-legs
space frame
Apparatus: Shear-Legs apparatus,
Weights, Measuring Scale
Theory: Background Information
about the experiment

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 4

Analysis of Shear Leg Structure

Background Information

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 4

Analysis of Shear Leg Structure

Apparatus
A

F
3
F2
B W
D O F
1
C

Spring Balance Spring


Balance

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 4

Analysis of Shear Leg Structure


Procedure
1. Note initial readings of the forces in the Shear Legs
and the Tie without loading, if any.
2. Note the lengths OD, OB and OC using Meter Rod.
3. Place a load (W) on the pan and note final readings
of the Shear Legs and Tie forces.
4. Measure the lengths AB, AC, AD and AO.
5. Repeat above procedure with different weights.
6. Complete the Force and the Space Diagrams.
7. Obtain the forces in the Shear Legs and Tie
graphically.

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 4

Analysis of Shear Leg Structure


Precautions

1. Weights should be added gently


2. Apparatus should be well lubricated
3. Note the initial readings in Shear Legs and
Tie carefully.

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 4

Analysis of Shear Leg Structure


Observation Table

Dr. SV Bakre
A
Practical # 4 F
3
F2
B W
D O F

Graphical Solution C
1

1 Scale: 1cm = 1/30 Units 2 Scale: 1cm = 10 N


A
F3 c
a

LDA F12
LOA W
Direction of F12

D LDO O b
3 A Scale: 4 Scale: 1cm = 10 N
1cm =
1/30
Units F1 b F2
1 2
1 2
a 1 c
2 F12
LBA LCA F2 d F1
B LBC C
Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 5

Determination of Coefficient of Friction


between a Box and Inclined Plane

Aim: To determine the coefficient of


friction using inclined plane set-up
Apparatus: Inclined Plane Set-up,
Wooden, Glass and Steel Box, Cord,
Pan and Weights
Theory: What is Friction? Laws of
Friction, Formula

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 5

Determination of Coefficient of Friction


between a Box and Inclined Plane
What is Friction?

When one body slides or tends to do so, on


the surface of another body, the opposing
force that is produced between the surfaces
of contact is Friction
Box
Force, P
Inclined Plane

Friction

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 5

Determination of Coefficient of Friction


between a Box and Inclined Plane
Coefficient of Friction
Frictional resistance along the Surface of contact is
proportional to the normal reaction on the Surface
FN
Or F = . N
Where, is Coefficient of Friction.

Box
Force, P
Inclined Plane
Normal
Frictional
Reaction (N)
Force (F)

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 5

Determination of Coefficient of Friction


between a Box and Inclined Plane
Laws of Friction
1. Frictional force value varies from zero to maximum value
and adjusts itself to resultant force tending to cause
motion.

2. The frictional force acting when the body tends to move is


called the static friction and when the motion occurs, the
frictional force is called kinetic friction.

3. Frictional force does not depend upon area of contact.

4. Frictional force acts tangentially to the surface of contact.

5. The angle between the resultant of the frictional force and


the normal reaction, with the normal reaction is called the
angle of friction.
Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 5

Determination of Coefficient of Friction


between a Box and Inclined Plane
Apparatus

Angle Measurement
Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 5

Determination of Coefficient of Friction


between a Box and Inclined Plane
Apparatus

Pan Glass Wood Steel

Base of the Box

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 5

Determination of Coefficient of Friction


between a Box and Inclined Plane
Apparatus
The sliding body is a Box of Glass / Wood / Steel kept on a
glass plate.

The inclination can be adjusted to different values.

The weight (W) includes weight of the box and additional


weight kept in it.

The force (P) is applied through a string attached to the box,


passing over a pulley at top of the plane and carrying a
hanger / pan at its end; so that P = Weight of the pan plus
weights kept on it.

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 5

Determination of Coefficient of Friction


between a Box and Inclined Plane
Procedure
1. Adjust the inclined plane at some suitable angle. Record
it as .

2. Record the weights of the box and the pan.

3. Put some weight in the box and record it as W (inclusive


of weight of box)

4. Add some weights to the pan till the box just starts
moving up. Record P (Inclusive of weight of pan )

5. Change the angle and repeat steps.

6. Repeat the procedure for the remaining boxes.

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 5

Determination of Coefficient of Friction


between a Box and Inclined Plane
Precautions

1. Place the weights gently in the pan


2. Check the surface for horizontal level with spirit level and
apply correction to the inclination of the plane, if any.

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 5

Determination of Coefficient of Friction


between a Box and Inclined Plane
Observations

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 5

Determination of Coefficient of Friction


between a Box and Inclined Plane
Theoretical value of
Forces parallel to plane = 0, i.e. Fx = 0
-W Sin + P - N = 0 (1)

Forces perpendicular to plane = 0, i.e. Fy = 0


-W Cos + N = 0 (2)

Putting for N from (2) in Eqn (1) and solving,

P W sin
y x
W cos
F= .N

P N
FW

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 6

Graphical Analysis of a Truss


Aim: To graphically determine
forces in various members of a
truss
Apparatus: Graph Paper, Colored
Pens/Pencils and drawing
instruments
Theory: Trusses, Applications,
Analysis Methods, Modeling of
Trusses, Graphical Method of
Analysis
Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 6

Graphical Analysis of a Truss

What are Trusses?


Trusses are structural systems composed of individual
linear members, connected at their ends to other
members to form an assembly of triangles enclosed on
three sides by members. When load is applied to a
truss the joints (i.e., the vertices of the triangular
areas), each member within the truss is placed into a
state of pure tension or pure compression.

Compression

Tension
Truss

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 6

Graphical Analysis of a Truss

Applications

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 6

Graphical Analysis of a Truss

Analysis Methods
Analytical:
1) Method of Joints & 2) Method of Sections

Graphical:
Method of Joints

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 6

Graphical Analysis of a Truss

Graphical Method of Analysis


Similar to solving Concurrent Force System
E.g.: Law of Polygon of Forces, Lamis
Theorem
F3
b c
Lt

F1
Lv
Lj
a
F2
Force Diagram Vector Diagram
Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 6

Graphical Analysis of a Truss

Given Truss
40 kN

60 kN 20 kN

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 6

Graphical Analysis of a Truss

Notations
B C
40 kN

3
60 kN 20 kN

2 4
H I

F G J K
1
5
8 7 6
R1 R2
A E D
Determine Unknown Reactions: R1 & R2
Space Diagram
Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 6

Graphical Analysis of a Truss

Notations
B C
40 kN

3
60 kN 20 kN

2 4
H I

F G J K
1
5
8 7 6
R1 R2
A E D
Determine Unknown Reactions: R1 & R2
Space Diagram
Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 6

Graphical Analysis of a Truss


Reactions
B C
40 kN

60 kN 3
20 kN Scale: 1cm = 10 kN
2 4
H I
a
F G J K
1
5
8 7 6
A
R1
E
R2
D R1
O
Space Diagram
b
e

R2c
d

Funnicular Polygon
Vector Diagram

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 6

Graphical Analysis of a Truss


Truss in Equillibrium

B C
40 kN

3
60 kN 20 kN

2 4
H I

F G J K
1
5
8 7 6
70 kN 50 kN
A E D

Space Diagram

Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 6

Graphical Analysis of a Truss


Determining Forces at Joint 1
F12

F Scale:
1 1cm = 10 kN
F18
A E
70 kN
e
Space Diagram F18 f

R1
B
40 kN
C
F12
60 kN
3
20 kN a
2 4
H I

F G J K
1
5
8 7 6
R1 R2
A E D

Space Diagram
Dr. SV Bakre
Practical # 6

Graphical Analysis of a Truss


Completed Example

Dr. SV Bakre