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EAG 345 GEOTECHNICAL

ANALYSIS

(ii) Typical response of soils to


shearing forces

By: Dr Mohd Ashraf Mohamad Ismail


Shear strength

Shear strength of a soil is its resistance to shearing force

When a soil is sheared the particles move relative to each other.

If the soil is not constrained, then it can either compress or


expand in volume as shown in the figure below.
Responses of soils to shearing forces
Behavior of two group of soils when subjected to shearing forces:

Type I:
Type II:
Loose sands, normally
Dense sands and heavily over
consolidated and lightly over
consolidated clays (OCR >2)
consolidated clays (OCR 2)

Uncemented soils; very weak Cemented soils; strong interparticle


interparticle bonds and comprises bonds through ion exchange or
most soils substitution
Revision: Consolidation

1. The container is completely filled with water, and the hole is closed. (Fully saturated soil)
2. A load is applied onto the cover, while the hole is still unopened. At this stage, only the
water resists the applied load. (Development of excess pore water pressure)
3. As soon as the hole is opened, water starts to drain out through the hole and the spring
shortens. (Drainage of excess pore water pressure)
4. After some time, the drainage of water no longer occurs. Now, the spring alone resists the
applied load. (Full dissipation of excess pore water pressure. End of consolidation)
Revision: Overconsolidated Ratio
OCR = The over consolidation ratio or OCR is defined as the highest stress
experienced divided by the current stress.

' zc
OCR '
zo
' zc = past maximum vertical stress or preconsolidation stress

' zo = Current vertical stress or overburden effective stress

OCR = 1, the soil is normally consolidated soil


Simple shear deformation of Type I soil
Type I:
Loose sands, normally consolidated and lightly over consolidated clays (OCR 2)
Constant vertical
effective stress + ve
z
Shearing under
constant volume

H o initial sample height


z vertical displacement
x horizontal displacement
z volumetric strain Shear stress vs. shear strain
zx shear strain Volumetric strain vs. shear strain
Void ratio vs. shear strain
Simple shear deformation of Type I soil
Type II:
Dense sands and heavily over consolidated clays (OCR >2)
- ve
Constant vertical
effective stress

z
Shearing under
constant volume

H o initial sample height


z vertical displacement
x horizontal displacement
z volumetric strain Shear stress vs. shear strain
zx shear strain Volumetric strain vs. shear strain
Void ratio vs. shear strain
Simple shear deformation of soil
Shear stress vs. shear strain


Peak
p
Type II dense sands and
overconsolidated clays

cs Critical state

r Type II A soils

Type I loose sands,


normally consolidated and
lightly overconsolidated clays

zx
Simple shear deformation of soil
Volumetric strain vs. shear strain Void ratio vs. shear strain

z
e
Compression

Type I loose sands,


normally consolidated and Type I loose sands,
lightly overconsolidated clays normally consolidated and
lightly overconsolidated clays

zx ecs
Critical void ratio
Expansion

Type II dense sands and


overconsolidated clays

Type II dense sands and zx


overconsolidated clays
Effect of increasing the normal effective stress
Shear stress vs. shear strain Volumetric strain vs. shear strain
Effect of increasing the normal effective stress
Shear stress vs. normal effective stress Void ratio vs. shear strain

The critical void ratio is dependent on the magnitude of the normal


effective stress
Effect of overconsolidation ratio
Volumetrric strain vs. shear strain Shear stress vs. shear strain

Higher overconsolidated soil gives a higher peak shear strength and


greater volume expansion
Homework

Read Soil mechanics and foundations


(Muni Budhu) page 223 227 to
understand this topic clearly

Refer the multimedia resources provided


with this book chapter 7; sections 7.3