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POROSITY OF CEMENT

PASTE & CONCRETE

By:
DIVIN. M. V
Roll No : 03
POROSITY - DEFINITION

It is defined as the ratio of volume of voids to the


total volume.

()
Porosity (n) =
()
POROSITY OF CEMENT PASTE
Pores are developed in the cement paste as a
result of the hydration reactions which occur
when cement is mixed with water.
Spherical pores originate from residual air
bubbles or from imperfect cement packing.
Cement paste consists of C-S-H gel, Ca(OH)2 and
water filled or empty cappillary cavities or pores.
Porosity of cement paste will reduce the strength
of Bogues compounds present in the cement.
PORE SYSTEM IN HYDRATED
CEMENT PASTE
BOGUES COMPOUNDS

C3S - Tri - Calcium Silicate

C2S - Di - Calcium Silicate

C3A - Tri Calcium Aluminate

C4AF - Tetra - Calcium Alumino Ferrite


EFFECTS OF POROSITY ON
BOGUES COMPOUNDS
POROSITY & PERMEABILITY
Permeability It is the ease with which a fluid
can pass through a substance.
Permeability Porosity.
POROSITY OF CONCRETE
There exists a fundamental inverse relationship
between porosity and strength of concrete
Voids present in the concrete may be of the
following forms.
Entrapped air
Cappillary pores
Gel pores
Entrained air

Strength of concrete is adversely influenced by the


volume of all voids in it.
Shape and size of the pores are the other factors
that influence the strength of concrete.
The effects of pores smaller than 20 nm in
diameter is found negligible.
EFFECTS OF POROSITY ON CONCRETE
Porosity will decrease the compressive strength of
concrete.
TRANSITION ZONE
TRANSITION ZONE IN CONCRETE

The concrete mass consists of a three phase


composite structure
A coherent mortar phase

Aggregate phase

The Transition Zone represents the interfacial


region between the particles of coarse aggregate and
the hydrated cement paste
TRANSITION ZONE IN CONCRETE
TRANSITION ZONE IN CONCRETE

Cement

Aggregate
CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSITION ZONE
Large crystals of Ettringite and CH with
preferred orientation

Porous structure

Transition zone exist on a thin shell, typically 10


15 m around large aggregates

It is generally weaker than mortar phase and


aggregate phase

It is considered as the strength limiting phase in


concrete.
EFFECTS OF TRANSITION ZONE
Concrete is brittle in tension, but relatively tough
in compression

At a given w/c ratio, mortar is stronger than the


corresponding concrete.

Cement paste and aggregate are elastic, concrete


is not.

Co-efficient of permeability of mortar is much


lower than typical concrete of the same w/c ratio.
IMPROVEMENT OF TRANSITION ZONE

We can improve the transition zone by using

Lower w/c ratio.

Different types of aggregates..


CONCLUSION
Pores are formed in a cement paste as a result of the
hydration reaction occurring when cement is mixed with
water.
Porosity will reduce the strength of cement and concrete
Transition zone is the interfacial region between the
particles of coarse aggregate and the hydrated cement paste.
TZ is the strength limiting phase in concrete.
TZ makes the hardened concrete brittle.
We can improve the transition zone using lower w/c ratio and
different types of aggregate.