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GEO-LISTRIK

Why?
What?
When?
Who?
How?
Archaeological Investigations at a Central Place of the Early Bronze
Age on the Fringes of the Western Carpathians in Slovakia
RESISTIVITY SURVEY AT ADRIA
( VENETO REGION )
Prior to a building construction, an area
of the Hospital of Adria (a town of archaeological interest) suspected to
hide archaeological structures was explored. The resitivity
method with the Wenner electrode configuration was chosen. In the 3-
D electrical resistivity map the anomaly produced by remains of a
building is clearly visible.
RESISTIVITY SURVEY AT
VENETO VILLA GRITTI AT
THE TOWN OF TREVISO
(VENETO REGION)

The survey was carried out to


verify the underground presence
of the fondations of a rustic
building.
Due to the impossibility of
digging, the resistivity and radar
methods were used. The
anomalies (pointed out by
arrows)
produced by foundations are
clearly visible in the 2-
D and 3-D electrical
resistivity maps. The
results obtained using radar
method are also valid, as
shown in the section dedicated
to radar survey.
RESISTIVITY SURVEY AT
CAMPAGNA LUPIA (VENICE)
With the aim to improve the knowledge about the structures already localized
with the magnetic survey, a campaign of resistivity measurements was
planned. The need to employ another geophysical method was justified
by the fact that not all the materials usually used to erect
buildings can be detected by the
magnetometer. In the resistivity map
the small cell on the western side of the building is clearly visible; the walls
are less visible and there is no indication of the presence of inner walls.
An inversion model (apparent resistivities converted to a layered depth image) for
a section of a profile from Assawoman Canal to White's Creek, Indian River Bay,
MA. Throughout this segment, ambient waters were salty. The figure shows
shallowing high-resistivity layers, denoting fresh water within the subsea
sediments upon entering the canal area. Short cores and interstitial water analysis
confirmed the presence of fresh water at shallow levels in the subsea strata.
Landfill.
Klasifikasi Geo-electricity
(berdasar source)
Active (artificial energy)
IP (berbagai konfigurasi)
Geolistrik Sounding (1D)
Geolistrik Mapping (1D/2D)
Geoelectric Borehole Tomography (2D/3D)
Mise Ala Masse

Passive (natural energy)


Self Potential (SP)
Potensial Listrik
Partly constant, partly
fluctuating

?
Region Region
A B
Jenis Potensial
Potensial elektrokinetik (streaming potential) -
electrofiltration
Terjadi ketika cairan dg tahanan jenis dan viskositas
tertekan pada suatu medium berpori. adalah
potensial zeta (absorpsi), P adalah beda tekanan, dan
k adalah konstanta dielektrik

Pk
Ek
4
Thermo electric potential

Karena perubahan gradien suhu. Dihitung


dengan TEC (Thermoelectric Coupling coeff)

TEC = dV / dT

Smaller amplitude than usually seen in


gethermal areas. Usually seen on near surface
high dT.
Potensial difusi (liquid junction)
Terjadi karena perbedaan gerakan ion pada fluida
berkonsentrasi beda

Potensial Nerst (lempung)


Terjadi saat 2 logam identik dibenamkan dalam cairan
elektrolit.

Gabungan keduanya: Potensial Natural, electrokimia, static, self,


dll.

Contoh Elektrolit alami : NaCl. Utk dua larutan NaCl


berkonsentrasi C1 dan C2 pada suhu yg sama T, maka:
(terford, 1990)

Ec = -70.7 Ln(C1/C2) * (T+273) / 273

Misal rasio C = 5:1 pada Ec = 25mV pada 25 derajat C.


Potensial Mineralisasi
Terjadi saat 2 metal berbeda dimasukkan dalam
cairan yang sama
Nilai 100-1000mV, terutama pada pyrite,
chalcopyrit, pirhotit, magnetit dan grafit.
Umumnya berpotensial negatif

Potensial Lainnya
Cenderung tetap fungsi space,t (potensial
lokal dan globar ledakan nuklir, induksi
ionosfer, kilat)
Cenderung periodik - telurik
Cara Arus Mengalir di Bumi
Elektronik (ohmik)
Arus mengalir lewat media padat (logam,
batuan, dll)
Elektrolitik
Arus mengalir lewat cairan yang mengisi pori-
pori batuan
Konduksi Dielektrik
Arusterbentuk akibat gangguan osilasi medan
magnet dari luar
Konduksi Ohmik

R RA

A

L
L
I
V IR
Konduksi Elektrolitik
Hukum Archie
e a S w
m n
w

Adalah porositas, Sw perbandingan pori berisi


fluida, w resistivitas fluida, n a m konstanta.
Konduksi Dielektrik
Berkaitan dengan medan luar yang
berubah fungsi waktu (periodik)
Parameter terpenting adalah konstanta
dielektrik (pada analisis DC =
konduktivitas)
Potensial Polarisasi
Ketika arus tunak dialirkan ke medium
dapat dihitung arus efektifnya.
Namun ketika arus dimatikan, maka arus
terukur tidak langsung seketika menjadi =
0
Efek ini disebut potensial polarisasi (efek
IP) yang dianalisis dalam metode IP
Pengukuran Tahanan Jenis di Lab

A Power
Supply

L V

I
AV

LI
Tahanan jenis batuan dan mineral
Jangkauan sangat lebar dari perak murni (1.6 x
10-8 m) hingga sulfur murni (1016 m)
Konduktor memiliki banyak elektron bebas dg
mobilitas yang baik
Isolator memiliki ikatan ion shg elektron
valensinya tidak mudah untuk bergerak

10-5 107
Semikonduktor

isolator konduktor
Tahanan jenis batuan