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HOT AND HUMID

CLIMATE
SYNOPSIS
FACTORS INFLUENCING CLIMATE
TROPICAL CLIMATE
CHARACTERISTICS OF HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE
AREAS INFLUENCED BY HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE
TEMPERATURE VARIATION THROUGHOUT INDIA
ELUCIDATION OF HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE IN SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE COUNTRY
THERMAL COMFORT
BIOCLIMATIC CHART
APPLICATION OF CLIMATOLOGY AND CLIMATIC DESIGN PROCESS IN ARCHITECTURE

FACTORS INFLUENCING CLIMATE


AIR TEMPERATURE
WIND (VELOCITY & DIRECTION)
HUMIDITY
PRECIPITATION (AS RAIN,FROST HAIL, SNOW, FOG)
SOLAR RADIATION
EQUATOR TROPIC OF CANC
TROPIC OF HUMID SEMI HUMID
CAPRICON

MAP SHOWING PRINCIPLE CLIMATES OF


THE WORLD
CHARACTERISTICS OF HOT AND HUMID
CLIMATE
TEMPERATURE RANGES FROM
MAXIMUM TEMP. 27C 32C
MINIMUM TEMP. 21C 27C
IN SUMMERS
IN WINTERS,
LITTLE SEASONAL VARIATIONS BOTH ANNUAL AND DIURNAL RANGES OF TEMPERATURE IS
VERY NARROW.
HUMIDITY REMAINS HIGH AROUND 75% BUT VARIES FROM 55% - 100%.
PRECIPITATION
2000 TO 5000 mm OF RAINFALL
WIND
TYPICALLY LOW WIND VELOCITIES.
STRONG WIND WITH TORRENTIAL RAINS.
SOLAR RADIATION
THE INTENSITY OF SOLAR RADIATION IS HIGH DURING SUMMERS AND MODERATE DURING
WINTERS.
AREAS INFLUENCED BY THIS
CLIMATE
COASTAL PLAINS OF PENINSULAR INDIA

GOA
MUMBAI (MAHARASHTRA)
VISHAKHAPATNAM (AP)
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM (KERALA)
CHENNAI (TAMIL NADU)
KOLKATA (WEST BENGAL)
PURI (ORISSA)
TRIPURA
KOZHIKODE
GULF OF KUTCHH
THIS TYPE OF CLIMATE IS ALMOST PERENNIAL AND DOMINANT IN THESE REGIONS.

TEMP. VARIATIONS THROUGHOUT


INDIA

CITY SUMMER SUMMER WINTER WINTER


DAY NIGHT DAY NIGHT

CHENNAI 37.3 27.6 28.2 21

KOLKATA 34.1 26.7 27 14

MUMBAI 31.9 26.3 30.9 20.8

PURI 31.7 27.4 27.2 17.7

TRIVANDRUM 29.4 23.6 30.9 22.5

TRIPURA 36.2 20.5 27.1 7

GOA 30 20 25 15
GOA
The climate of Goa is equable and humid throughout the year. It is very pleasant and
temperate from October to May. It is wet only during the monsoon or rainy season,
from June to September.

Rainfall-

The monsoon bursts over the territory in the beginning of June and withdraws from it
by early October. The annual rainfall is 350 cm.

Temperature-

Temperature variations through the seasons are mild. May is the warmest month
when the temperature is around 30 deg. Celsius and January the coolest with a mean
daily temperature of 25 deg. Celsius.

Humidity-

Due to the proximity of the sea, the territory is generally humid. Even during the
summer months it is generally above 60 %.

Cloudiness-

Skies are clear to lightly clouded from November to May. There is a sharp increase in
cloudiness with the advance and onset of the monsoons
GOA
MUMBAI
MONTH MAX .TEMP. MIN. TEMP. HUMIDITY PRECIPITATION

JANUARY 27 15 61-73 FOG

FEBRUARY 29-30 17 SMOG

MARCH 30 33 18 22 95 SMOG AFFECTS CITY

APRIL 35 24

MAY 37 27 67 - 77

JUNE 32 27 PRE MONSOON

JULY 30 25 MAX. RAINFALL OF 944


mm.

AUGUST 30 25-24 LESSER RAIN

SEPTEMBER & 30 25 NON-CONTINUOUS


OCTOBER

NOVEMBER & 28 18-12 LOW NO PRECIPITATION


DECEMBER
COLABA
SANTACRUZ
THERMAL
COMFORT
Comfort has been defined as the condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the
environment.
BIOCLIMATIC CHART
Bioclimatic charts facilitate the analysis of the climate characteristics of a given location from the
viewpoint of human comfort, as they present, on a psychrometric chart, the concurrent
combination of temperature and humidity at any given time.
They can also specify building design guidelines to maximize indoor comfort conditions when the
buildings interior is not mechanically conditioned.
CLIMATE AND ARCHITECTURE
Since beginning, climate has its effects on man,
surroundings and architecture
Weather elements forced man to look for shelters
A climate responsive architecture takes advantage of
the free energy in the form of heat and light.
An adaptive thermal comfort design is essential.

REQUIREMENTS IN A HOT AND


HUMID CLIMATE
Minimization of the high day temp.
Avoidance of direct exposure of facades to solar radiations
Reduction in the humidity levels
Continuous air circulation to reduce heat and relief from stickiness!
To create a temp. difference between the inside and outside
environments to facilitate evaporation and heat dissipation.

CLIMATIC DESIGN PROCEDURE


To define climatic design process according to comfort zone, it could be divided to four main
parts:

A. Study of the design subject (climate-activities-clothing-etc.)


Designer should be able to fully understand the climate and comfort needs as well as all
architectural issues related to the project.

B. Defining the comfort zone (monthly-daily)


The monthly or daily comfort zone should be defined

C. Gathering the climatic design advices (shading-thermal mass-evaporative cooling-thermal


insulation- suitable orientation.)
Clear design advices could be derived from previous studies to give directions for each
issue in building such as site design, form, ventilation, solar gains, window sizing, thermal mass,
passive heating and cooling, materials

D. Designing the project (a climatic building)


Architect is able to form a climatic building.
INFLUENCE ON ARCHITECTURE
FENESTRATION

Semi open spaces for light and air


movement

Larger windows for ventilation.

FACADE
ARTICULATION
Max. ventilation
Orientation of smaller side of structur
west
North-south orientation for max. air m
High density of faade that is open an
Faint/pale colours on outer surfaces
Building materials with insulating/refl
properties that resist heat transfer.
ROOFING PATTERN

Voids in roof and courtyards provide max. light and cross ventilation
Houses are tall with large openings to catch breeze
Light colors and reflective surfaces on roofs will deflect solar radiations and keep the building
cool.
Light materials such as timber are used in construction

Sloping roof is a characteristic of these regions as it drains off rain water. Barrel-vaulted roof can
also be seen.
Dense growth of plantations in the outdoors
KERALA: ANALYSIS OF CLIMATE
AND ARCHITECTURE
WIND:
In most parts of the State flow of wind is mainly
governed by differential heating of land and water
mass together with mountain winds.
Winds have westerly component during the day
and easterly components during the night
throughout the year.
In general, winds are quite strong during daytime
when thermal circulation is best developed and
weak during night.

HUMIDITY:
Relative humidity ranges from 53% to 72%
during the hot weather season.
It is about 85% or above during the monsoon
season.

AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL:


Receives an average annual rainfall of 3300mm.
KERALA
MEAN MINIMUM TEMPERATURE

Stations 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Trivandrum city 23.5 23.4 23.3 23.5 24.1 23.4 23.5 23.5 23.5 23.1

Kozhikode city 24.0 24.3 24.2 24.5 24.9 24.2 24.2 24.4 24.5 24.7

Punalur dna 22.2 22.1 22.1 23.0 22.3 21.9 22.0 22.1 22.1

Trivandrum (AP) 23.8 23.9 23.7 24.0 24.1 23.9 24.2 23.8 23.4 24.1

Kottayam 22.9 23.6 23.3 23.5 23.6 22.8 21.4 22.7 22.8 22.9

Kannur 23.4 23.5 23.4 23.7 24.1 23.5 23.5 23.4 23.7 23.7

Palakkad 22.7 23.4 23.6 23.6 24.1 23.4 dna dna dna dna

Kochi (AP) 24.2 24.4 24.4 24.3 24.7 24.4 24.1 24.5 24.7 24.1

Alappuzha 24.1 24.3 24.1 24.3 24.6 23.9 23.9 23.6 23.3 22.6

Karipur 23.4 23.6 23.4 23.7 24.2 23.6 23.4 23.5 23.3 23.5

Vellanikkara dna 22.5 23.2 33.7 23.1 23 23.1 23.4 23.3 23.5
Presentation on

ARCHITECTURE
IN
WARM
AND
HUMID CLIMATE
AR. GEOFFREY BAWA
Deshmanya Geoffrey Manning BAWA(23 July 1919
27 May 2003) was a Sri Lankan architect.
Geoffrey Bawa's work range mainly in Sri Lanka,
however he has worked in several other countries as
well: nine times in India, three times in Indonesia, twice
in Mauritius and once
in Japan, Pakistan, Fiji, Egypt and Singapore. His works
include houses, hotels, schools, clubs, offices and
government buildings, most notably the Sri Lankan
Parliament Building.

BAWAS
ARCHITECTURAL
CAREER
Bawas architectural career began at the end of 1957 when, at the age of thirty-eight, he returned
to Ceylon after completing his studies at the Architectural Association (the A.A.) in London and
became a partner in the near moribund firm of Edwards Reid and Begg.
Latitude: +6.93 (655'48"N)
Longitude: +79.85 (7951'00"E)
Time zone: UTC+5:30 hours
Country: Sri Lanka
Continent: Asia
Sub-region: Southern Asia

OREINTATION

Orientation
to minimize
sun
radiation
impact.
STONE PILLARS

CENTRAL
COURTYARDS
The advantage of courtyard
and veranda is proper
ventilation and controlled
humidity.
Cross ventilation is done
properly.
Movement of air is perfect
in the building by central
courtyard.

Orientation to
maximize natural
ventilation by
winds.
MAINLY USE OF
STONE

Sill
leve WINDOWS SILL LEVEL SHOULD BE FITTED
ABOVE THE EYE LEVEL.
l at TO PROTECT THE INTERIOR THE REFLECTED
eye SUNLIGHT FROM GROUND.

leve
l
Exterior detail showing lattice
windows

Exterior view of entrance Exterior detail of carved


to foyer wood pillar
Topographical
location with
maximum air
velocity and shade.
PLINTH LEVEL OF
BUILDING
GENERALLY 5-7
FEeT FROM G.L.