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Ahmed Abdel-Naby
Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulic Machines
Mech. Eng. Dept.
Faculty of Engineering
Alexandria Univ.

Table of Contents
Chapter One:
Fluid Properties
Vapor pressure
##Governing equations
Continuity equation
Bernoullis equation
Energy per unit weight
Friction Head Losses
Minor Losses
Loss coefficients for pipe components
Chapter Two:

Classification of pumps
Pump terminology
System Characteristics and Pump Head
Total dynamic head
Pump Performance curves
Net positive suction head (NPSH)
Affinity laws
Effect of fluid viscosity
Flow, head and power coefficients
Understanding the System Head Curves
Variants in Pumping Systems
Chapter Three:
Centrifugal Pump Construction
Radial Thrust
Impeller Mechanical Types
Wearing Rings
Axial Thrust
Axial Thrust in Multi-Stage Pumps
Shafts and Shaft Sleeves
Mechanical Seals
Chapter Four:
Centrifugal Pump Performance
Characteristic Curves (Pump Theory)
Real & Ideal Fluid
Performance parameters (Affinity Laws)
Specific Speed
Modifications to Impeller and Casing
Reduction of Cavitation Damage
Pump Selection
Capacity Regulation
Parallel and series Operation
Operation at Other than Normal Capacity
Pump Cavitation:
Pump Cavitation
Concept of Cavitation
Mechanism of Cavitation
General Symptoms of Cavitation
Chapter Five:

## Installation and Operation:


## Piping:
Suction Piping
Discharge Piping
Piping Strains
Expansion Joints

## Operation:
Pre-Operational Checks
Starting and Stopping Procedures
The pump in operation
Diagnosing pump and Seal Problems in Field
Pump Preventive maintenance
Chapter Six:
Daily observation of pump operation
Semi-annual inspection
Annual Inspection
Spare and repair parts
Diagnosis of Pump Problems
Centrifugal Pump Hydraulic performance Diagnostics
Suction and Discharge Recirculation
Axial Thrust
Radial Thrust
Chapter Seven (Applications)
Pumps in Petroleum Industry
Refinery Pumps
Pipeline Pumps
Special services: Water-flood
Reactor Feed Pumps
Pumping of Viscous Liquid
Chapter Eight

Positive-Displacement Pumps
Vane Pumps
Gear Pumps
Piston pumps
Radial piston pumps
Axial piston pumps
Screw Pumps

Pump Efficiencies
Trouble shooting
Chapter One
Fluid Properties
Density(): it is the mass per unit volume
= mass/volume = M/v (Kg/m3)
for water (w = 1000 kg/m3) at 4o c
Specific Weight(): defined as Weigh per unit volume
= weight/ volume = W/V ( N/m3 )
for water (w = 9800 N/m3 )

Specific Gravity (S.G.):

defined as the ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of

water at some specified temperature

S.G. = f / w

Viscosity (): Fluid ability to resist motion


Dynamic viscosity ,, in:
N.s/ m2 or Pa.s or Kg/m.s
or poise ( dyne.s/cm2 )

Kinematic viscosity , , in:

m2/s or stokes or centi-stokes

Vapor Pressure ( Pvap ):

It is the pressure at which liquid starts to evaporate

at working temperature.

Pour Point

It is the temperature at which the fluid (petroleum

product or crude) seems to be freeze.
Governing equations of compressible &
incompressible flow

1. Continuity equation.

Where G is the mass flow rate

Q is the volume flow rate or discharge

For steady flow:

G1 G2 1 A1V1 2 A2V2
Q1 Q2 A1V1 A2V2

V Q/ A
2. Bernoulli's Equation.

E = P/g + Z + V2/2g

E=Total energy/unit weight

Z= Potential energy/unit weight
P/g= pressure energy/ unit weight
v2/2g = kinetic energy/unit weight
For ideal fluid:
E1 =E2
+ g + 2
z p / V / 2g z + p / g + V 2 / 2g
1 1 1 2 2 2

For real fluid:

E1 = E2 + losses
+ g + 2
z p / V / 2g z + p / g + V 2 / 2g + h
1 1 1 2 2 2 L
Losses in pipes

Major loss Minor loss

( Friction loss) ( Eddy loss )
Due to friction
( along the pipe-straight pipes )
i- Friction between fluid layers
( laminar flow )

ii- Friction between fluid and pipe

walls ( turbulent flow )
Reynolds number ( RN )

RN = vd/

RN < 2000 Laminar Flow

RN > 4000 Turbulent Flow
2000 < RN < 4000 Transition Flow
The completely general functional

w= fn (V, D, , , e)

where: The wall shear stress w

The mean velocity V,
Pipe diameter D,
Fluid density ,
Fluid viscosity ,
Pipe roughness e or
2 2
hf f f 2
D 2g D 2 gA
f = 64/RN for Laminar flow

f from Moddy Chart for Tur. flow

II-Minor Losses

Due to change in velocity vector

(at certain section)
i- change in velocity magnitude
( due to area change )
ii- change in velocity direction
( bends)
iii- change in velocity magnitude &
direction ( see examples )
i- change in velocity magnitude
( due to area change )
Sudden enlargement
hL1-2 =kL ( v1-v2)2/2g
Gradual enlargement
hL1-2 =kL v12/2g
Sudden contraction
hL1-2 =kL v22/2g
Entrance flow conditions and loss coefficient
(a) Reentrant, KL= 0.8,
(b) sharp-edged, KL= 0.5,
(c) Slightly rounded, KL=0.2
(d) well-rounded, KL= 0.04
Flow pattern and pressure distribution
for a sharp-edged entrance
Exit flow conditions and loss coefficient

(a) Reentrant, KL= 1.0,

(b) sharp-edged, KL= 1.0
(c) Slightly rounded, KL= 1.0
(d) well-rounded, KL= 1.0
ii- change in velocity direction
( bends )
hLb =kb v2/2g
kb depends on R,D,
Loss in valves
hLv =kv v2/2g
kv depends on valve type
valve opening
Valve Types:
(a) Globe valve,
(b) Gate valve,
(c) swing check valve,
(d) Stop check valve.
Valve opening:
Loss Coefficients for Pipe Components a hL = KL V2/2g
Transmission Lines For Petroleum Engineering

Transmission Lines
Petroleum Engineering
Petroleum Engineering
Transmission Lines
Transmission Lines
Transmission Lines
Transmission Lines Transmission Lines
Side boom Side boom
Transmission Lines
Industrial Applications
Gate Valves
Check Valves
Butter Fly Valve
Piping & Valves

Pump is a hydraulic machine

used to convert mechanical
power into hydraulic power
( Mech. Energy ) ( Hyd. Energy )
Hyd. Power = P x Q = x Q x Hm

P is the pump pressure
Q is he pump flow rate
liquid specific weight
Hm is the pump head
Pump applications

Lifting pump.
Circulating pump.
Boosting pump.
Lifting Pump

Hst ( +ve )

+ ve

P - ve

suction (s) delivery (d)

Circulating Pump

Hst ( 0 )

Boosting Pump

Hst ( -ve )
Piping System Calculations:
Static suction head (hs.s): The static suction
head is the difference in elevation between the
wet well liquid level and the datum elevation of
the pump impeller. If the wet well liquid level is
below the pump datum, so hs is negative.

Static discharge head (hs.d): The static

discharge head is the difference in elevation
between the discharge liquid level and the pump
datum elevation.

Total static head (Hst): The total static head is

the difference in elevation between the water
level in the wet well and the water level at
discharge (hd -hs).
Friction head loss (hfs, hfd): This is the head
of fluid that must be supplied to overcome the
frictional loss in the pipe.

Velocity head (v2/2g): The velocity head is

the kinetic energy in the liquid being pumped at
a point in the system.

Total energy line (T.E.L.): Shows the energy

distribution along the piping system.

Hydraulic gradient line ( H.G.L.): Shows the

pressure distribution along he piping system.
Manometric suction head (Hm.s):
The suction gauge reading is expressed in meters
measured at the suction nozzle of the pump and
referenced to the pump datum elevation.

Manometric discharge head (Hm.d,): The discharge

gauge reading is expressed in meters measured at the
discharge nozzle of the pump and referenced to the
centerline of the pump impeller. It is also the distance to
the hydraulic grade line and pressure reference.

Manometric head (Hm): This is the increase of

pressure head, expressed in meters generated
by the pump (Hm.d-Hm.s).
Hm.s = Hs.s hls - vs2/2g

Hm.d = Hs.d +hld

Hm = Hm.d - Hm.s
Hm = (Hs.d +hld ) ( Hs.s hls - vs2/2g )

Hm = (Hs.d - Hs.s ) + (hld + hls ) + vs2/2g

Hm = Hs.t + hlt + vs2/2g

Piping system curve:
Hm = Hs.t + hlt + vs2/2g
Hm = Hs.t + KQ2
Output Power
The power output of a pump is the energy delivered by the pump to
the fluid.

In SI units, P = g Q Hm/c

Where P is the water power in kW,

g is the specific weight of the fluid in N/m3,
Q is the flowrate in m3/s,
Hm is the total dynamic head in m,
C is the unit constant ( 1000 )
Input Power
Pump performance is measured in terms of the flow
rate that a pump can discharge against a given head at
a given efficiency.

The pump capacity depends on the design, and

design information of the pump manufacturer in a
series of curves for a given pump.

Pump efficiency, , is the ratio of the useful power

output (water kilowatts [kW] or water horsepower
[hp]) to the power input to the pump shaft.

The brake power (bkW) or the shaft power that

must be supplied by the drive is,

Psh= g QHm/C
Pump efficiency
Pump efficiency is defined as the ratio between the
output power and input power which is usually range
from 20 to 85%.

Pump efficiency increases with the size of the


Energy losses in a pump are: Volumetric,

Mechanical, and
Volumetric losses are those of leakage
through the small clearances between
wearing rings in the pump casing and the
rotating element.

Mechanical losses are caused by mechanical

friction in the stuffing boxes and bearings,
by internal disc friction, and by fluid shear.

Frictional and eddy losses within the flow

passages account for the hydraulic losses.
Pump Types

Positive Pumps
Roto-dynamic Non-Mech. Pumps
Pumps Reciprocating P.P. Rotary P.P. 1. Jet pump
1. Centrifugal pump 2. Air lift pump
2. Propeller pump 1. Piston Pump 1. Gear Pump
2. Diaphragm Pump 2. Screw Pump
3. Vane Pump
4. Parallel cylinder
piston pump
1- Roto-dynamic Pressure
Pumps are divided into three groups:
Radial-flow pumps
Mixed-flow pumps
Axial-flow or propeller pumps.

These classifications are derived from

the manner in which the fluid moves
through the pump (see Fig.).
(a) Radial flow, Vertical (b) Mixed flow
(c) Radial flow, Horizontal (d) Axial flow
Centrifugal pump (end suction)
Centrifugal pump
Axial Flow Pump
Pump Performance Curves

The performance of a centrifugal pump can

be shown graphically on characteristic
A typical characteristic curve shows the:
Total dynamic head,
Brake horsepower,
Efficiency, and
Net Positive Suction head
All plotted over the capacity range of the pump
( Q ).
Understanding the Pipe system curve
Positive static head
Zero static head, all friction
Negative (Gravity) head
Most lift Little friction head
Importance of Pipe system curve

Every pump manufacturer would like to recommend

the perfect pump for any application.

To do this he would like the contracting company to

provide him with an accurate system curve that
would describe the capacity and head needed for
various operating conditions.

Once he has the system curve, he can plot his pump

curves on top of the system curve and hopefully
select something that will come close to the line needs.
Without this system curve, neither one of
them have much of a chance of coming up with
the right pump.

To create a system curve we plot the desired

capacities against the required head over the
total operating range of the pump.
In practice, conditions in a system vary as a result of either
controllable or uncontrollable changes.

Examples of either controllable or uncontrollable system

changes in:

Valve opening in the pump discharge or bypass line,

Suction or discharge liquid level,

Pressures at these levels,

Aging of pipes,

Process, Number of pumps pumping into

common header, Size, length, or number of pipes
These changes in system conditions:
Alter the shape of the system-head
curve and, in turn, Affect pump flow.
Variable Static Head

In a system where a pump is taking

suction from one reservoir and filling
another, the capacity of a centrifugal
pump will decrease with an increase in
static head.
If it is desired to maintain a constant
pump flow for different static head
conditions, the pump speed can be
varied to adjust for an increase or
decrease in the total system head.
Variable System Resistance
A valve or valves in the discharge line of a centrifugal pump alter the
variable frictional head portion of the total system-head curve and
consequently the pump flow.

For example, the use of a discharge valve to change the system head for
the purpose of varying pump flow during a shop performance test.

The maximum flow is obtained with a completely open valve, and the
only resistance to flow is the friction in the piping, fittings, and flow meter.

A closed valve results in:

# The pumps operating at shutoff conditions and Produces
maximum head.

# Any flow between maximum and shutoff can be

obtained by proper adjustment of the valve opening.
It is important to select a pump that will
have Its best efficiency within the
operating range of the system

And preferably at the condition at

which the pump will operate most
When the pressure of the liquid is reduced to a value
equal to or below its vapor pressure the liquid begins
to boil and small vapor bubbles or pockets begin to

As these vapor bubbles move along the impeller vanes to

a higher pressure area above the vapor pressure, they
rapidly collapse.

The collapse is so rapid that it may be heard as a

noise, as if you were pumping gravel.
In high suction energy pumps, the collapses are
generally high enough to cause pockets of fatigue
failure on the impeller vane surfaces. This action may
be progressive, and under severe (very high suction
energy), conditions can cause serious pitting damage
to the impeller.

The accompanying noise is the easiest way to recognize


Excessive cavitation results in reduced capacity due to

the vapor present.

In addition, the head may be reduced and/or be

unstable and the power consumption also affected.
Vibration and mechanical damage
such as bearing failure can also occur
because of operating in excessive
Cavitation causes :
1. Drop in Q
2. Drop in Hm
3. Drop in eff.
4. power consumption may be affected.
5. Pitting
6. Noise
7. Vibrations
Impeller damaged by cavitation
How to prevent pump from cavitation?
To prevent the undesirable effects of cavitation i
to insure that the minimum available pressure in
the system is greater than the vapor pressure.
P min > P vap. P atm.
H min > h vap. h atm.
H ss - h ls- Vs2 / 2g Hm > h vap. h atm
h atm- h vap+H ss- h ls > Hm+ Vs2 / 2g


Net Positive Suction Head
( NPSH )
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) NPSH
Available is a function of the system in which
the pump operates.

High suction energy pumps Require an

additional NPSH margin, above the NPSH
NPSHA > NPSHR + ( 1.2m to 2.5m )
Affinity Laws
The affinity laws express the mathematical relationship between
the several variables involved in pump performance.

They apply to all types of centrifugal and axial flow pumps.

## They are as follows:

1- With impeller diameter D held constant

2- with rotational speed N held constant

Q = Capacity, Cubic Meter Per Second

H = Total Head, Meter
BHP = Brake Horsepower
N = Pump Speed, RPM
D is constant N is constant

Q1 N1 Q1 D1

Q2 N2 Q2 D2
H1 N1
2 H1 D1

H2 N2 H 2 D2
BHP2 D 2
BHP2 N 2
Effect of Fluid Viscosity

The performance of centrifugal pumps is

affected when pumping viscous liquids.

A dramatic increase in Brake

Horsepower and A reduction of Flow ,
Head and pump efficiency occurs.
Centrifugal Pump Construction

Radial Thrust
Impeller Mechanical Types
Wearing Rings
Axial Thrust
Axial Thrust in Multi-Stage Pumps
Shafts and Shaft Sleeves
Mechanical Seals

Mech . Power Hyd. Power ( Himp & V2/2g )

Impellers are classified according to the major

direction of flow
Centrifugal pumps may have:
Radial-flow impellers
Axial-flow impellers
Mixed-flow impellers, which combine
radial- and axial-flow principles
radial single-suction closed radial double-suction closed
impeller impeller

Open mixed-flow impeller Axial-Flow impeller

Impellers are further classified as:

Single-suction, with a single inlet on one side

Double-suction, with water flowing to the impeller
from both sides

The mechanical construction of the impellers gives

a subdivision into:

1. Enclosed, with shrouds or side walls enclosing

the waterways
2. Open, with no shrouds
3. Semi-open or semi-enclosed
radial double-suction closed impeller.
The hydraulic characteristics of an inducer are such
that it requires considerably less NPSH than a
conventional impeller.

An inducer is a low-head axial-flow impeller with

few blades which is placed in front of a conventional
Variation in impeller profiles with specific speed

U2/2g Hyd. Power ( Hcasing & Vd2/2g )

The Volute Casing Pump

This pump derives its name from the spiral-shaped casing surrounding the

This casing section collects the liquid discharged by the impeller and converts
velocity energy to pressure energy.

A centrifugal pump volute increases in area from its initial point until it
encompasses the full 360 around the impeller and then flares out to the final
discharge opening.

In propeller and other pumps in which axial-flow impellers are used, it is not
practical to use a volute casing; instead, the impeller is enclosed in a pipe-like
A pump in which the head is developed by
a single impeller is called a single-
stage pump.
Often the total head to be developed
requires the use of two or more
impellers operating in series,or multi-
stage, each taking its suction from the
discharge of the preceding impeller.
Horizontal Multi-
stage pump
Submersible pumps
Radial Thrust
Arrangement of multi-stage volute pump for radial-thrust balance

Axial Thrust in Single-Stage Pumps with Closed


The pressures generated by a centrifugal pump exert

forces on both stationary and rotating parts.

Axial hydraulic thrust on an impeller is the sum of

the unbalanced forces acting in the axial

As reliable large-capacity thrust bearings are now

readily available, axial thrust in single-stage pumps
remains a problem only in larger units.
Pressure distribution on:
Front and Back shrouds of single-suction impeller
With shaft through impeller eye
Theoretically, a double-suction impeller is in hydraulic
axial balance, with the pressures on one side equal to and
counterbalancing the pressures on the other.
Balancing axial thrust of single-suction impeller by
means of wearing ring on back side and balancing holes
Pump-out vanes used in a single-suction impeller to

reduce axial thrust

Multistage pump with single-suction impellers
facing in one direction and hydraulic balancing
Multi-stage pump with back to back impellers.
Balancing drum
Simple balancing disk
Combination balancing disk and drum
Specific applications

radial-vane non-clogging impeller

used for solid handling
Paper pulp impeller
Open impellers
Open impeller with partial shroud
Semi-open impeller

Wearing rings provide an easily and

economically renewable leakage joint
between the impeller and the casing.
Plain flat leakage joint Single flat-casing-ring Double flat-ring
with no rings. construction construction

An L-type nozzle Double rings, both of L

Step-type leakage joint
casing ring. type.
with double rings
Single labyrinth inter- Labyrinth-type rings in double-
meshing type. Double-ring ring construction
const. with nozzle-type
casing ring
Wearing-ring clearances for single-stage pumps
Shaft Sleeves

Pump shafts are usually protected by renewable

sleeves from:

Eerosion, corrosion, and wear at stuffing boxes

Leakage joints

Internal bearings

In the waterways
Sleeve with External locknut Sleeve with internal impeller
And Impeller key extending into nut, external shaft-sleeve nut,
sleeve to prevent slip And separate key for sleeve
Seal arrangement for shaft sleeve
to prevent leakage along the shaft
Sealing Liquid Arrangements
Water seal unit
Lantern Ring
Lantern ring (also called seal cage)
Weighted grease sealer. (Worthington Pump)
automatic grease sealer mounted on a vertical sewage pump
The conventional stuffing box design and
composition packing are impractical to use for sealing
a rotating shaft for many conditions of service.

In the ordinary stuffing box, the sealing between

the moving shaft or shaft sleeve and the stationary
portion of the box is accomplished by means of rings
of packing forced between the two surfaces and held
tightly in place by a stuffing box gland.

The leakage around the shaft is controlled merely by

tightening up or loosening the gland studs.
The actual sealing surfaces consist of the axial
rotating surfaces of the shaft or shaft sleeve and the
stationary packing.

Attempts to reduce or eliminate all leakage from a

conventional stuffing box increase the gland

The packing, being semi-plastic, forms more closely

to the shaft and tends to cut down the leakage.

After a certain point, however, the leakage

continues no matter how tightly the gland studs are
brought up.
The frictional horsepower increases rapidly
at this point, the heat generated cannot be
properly dissipated, and the stuffing box fails to

Even before this condition is reached, the shaft

sleeves may be severely worn and scored,
so that it becomes impossible to pack the
stuffing box satisfactorily.

These undesirable characteristics of using

packing as the sealing medium between
rotating surfaces if the leakage is to be held to
an absolute minimum under severe pressure
The condition, in turn, automatically eliminates
use of the axial surfaces as the sealing
surfaces, for a non-plastic packing is the only
material that can always be made to form about
the shaft and compensate for the wear.

Another factor that makes stuffing boxes

unsatisfactory for certain applications is the
relatively small lubricating value of many
liquids frequently handled by centrifugal pumps,
such as propane or butane.
These liquids actually dissolve the
lubricants normally used to impregnate the

Seal oil must therefore be introduced into the

lantern gland or a packed box to lubricate
the packing and give it reasonable life.

With these facts in mind, designers have

attempted to produce an entirely different type
of seal with wearing surfaces other than
the axial surfaces of the shaft and packing.
The mechanical seal, is a later development
than regular stuffing boxes but has found
general acceptance in those pumping
applications in which the shortcomings of
packed stuffing boxes have proved excessive.

Fields in which the packed boxes gave good

service, however, have shown little tendency
to replace them with mechanical seals.

The most common method of sealing

centrifugal pumps today uses the mechanical
seal (Fig.).
The three basic parts of a mechanical seal are as

Primary seal components:

These consist of an axially adjustable sealing ring
and an axially fixed mating ring against which it slides,
forming a seal. Depending on the seal
configuration, either the sealing or the mating ring
may be the rotating or stationary element.

Secondary seals:
These consist of O-rings or other suitable gasket

This consists mainly of the spring(s) and a retainer,
normally made of a series 300 stainless steel.
Basic components of a mechanical seal..
Comparison of packing and mechanical seals

Advantages Disadvantages
1. Lower initial cost
2. Easily installed as rings and glands
are split
3. Good reliability to medium pressures 1. Relatively high leakage
and shaft speeds
4. Can handle large axial movements 2. Requires regular maintenance
(thermal expansion of stuffing box
versus shaft) 3. Wear of shaft and shaft sleeve
5. Can be used in rotating or can be relatively high
reciprocating applications 4. Power losses may be high
6. Leakage tends to increase gradually,
giving warning of impending
Advantages Disadvantages
Mechanical seals
1. Very low leakage/no leakage

2. Require no maintenance

3. Eliminate sleeve wear/shaft wear

1. Higher initial cost
4. Very good reliability
2. Easily installed but may require
some disassembly of pump
5. Can handle higher pressures and
(couplings and so on)

6. Easily applied to, toxic, flammable,

or radioactive liquids
7. Low power loss
Single Acting Piston Pump
Double Acting Piston pump
Diaphragm Pump
Air Operated Diaphragm Pump
External Gear Pump
External Gear Pump
External Gear Pump
External Gear Pump
Internal Gear Pump
External Gear Pump
Screw Pump
Radial Piston pump
Vane Pump
Parallel Cylinder Piston Pump
Swash Plate Pump
Finger Pump
Peristaltic Pump
Jet Pump
In your car there are three types of
1. Water pump for cooling.
2. Oil pump for lubrication.
3. Fuel pump for engine combustion.

a- What are these types?

b- Compare these types according to
function of each .
Pumping Stations
Pumping Stations
Pumping Stations
Sewage Pumping Station
Water Treatment Plants
Water Treatment Plants
Wastewater Treatment Plants
Fire Fighting systems
Hydraulic Turbines

Turbine is a hydraulic
machine used to convert
hydraulic power into
mechanical power
( Hyd. Energy )
T ( Mech. Energy )
Dams and Reservoirs
A picture for A hydro-power plant
Water Turbines
Francis Turbine
Spiral casing


Draft tube
Types of Hydraulic Turbine Runners
Wind Tunnels
Sports machines require the understanding of F.M.

Water sports Cycling Offshore racing

Auto racing Surfing

Airplanes & Rockets
Wind Energy