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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Groundwater Fundamentals

Module 9.1

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Groundwater

2 Source: Wisler & Brater, 1949, Hydrology


FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Groundwater Flow

Produces
Baseflow
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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Groundwater as a slow reservoir

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Groundwater Terminology

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Confined and Unconfined Aquifers

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Artesian Well

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

More on Aquifer Types

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Hydraulic Head

Pressure:
P gh p
Where:
= density of water (kg m-3)
g = gravitational acceleration (m s-2)
hp = pressure head
hp
a ht
Total hydraulic head (ht):
ht z h p
z

datum
Where:
z = elevation
hp = pressure head

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Darcys Law

Darcys Law defines groundwater flow:

dht
Q kv A
dx
where:
Q is discharge (L3 T-1)
kv is the hydraulic conductivity (L T-1)
A is area of flow (L2), and
dht/dx is the gradient of pressure, or head

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Hydraulic Conductivity (kv)

11 Hornberger, 1998
FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Example

800 m 85 m
2m

kh=5 m day-1
Fine sand 25 m

Q kv A
dht
m 2.0 m
5 day 25 m 85 m 26.6 day
m3
dx 800 m

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Groundwater Development

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Groundwater/Surface Water Connections

Gaining Stream
In systems with high degree of
groundwater/surface water connectivity
(highly transmissive sediments)

Pumping Well

Cone of
Groundwater Depression

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Subsidence

Causes:
Fluid withdrawal
Sinkholes
Drainage of
Organic soils
Mining
From USGS Professional Paper
1401-A, "Ground water in the
Central Valley, California- A
summary report"
Photo by Dick Ireland, USGS,
1977

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Recharge Zone Protection Example

Unconfined
Aquifer

Recharge Zone
Confined Aquifer
landfill

Municipal well field

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Groundwater Development

Multiple pumping wells can cause


interference between cones of depression
Extraction should not exceed recharge
Water mining
Extraction may cause subsidence
Recharge zones should be protected
Ensure adequate water flow
Ensure quality
Extraction may affect surface water
Many watershed management actions are
taken to protect quality
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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Gaining and Losing Streams

Gaining stream Losing stream


Effluent stream Influent stream

Perched losing stream Flow-through stream

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Hyporheic Zone

Zone where water is


exchanged between
surface and
groundwater
Controlled by
geomorphology
(upwelling and
downwelling)
Biochemical
processing: water
quality & habitat
issues
Temperature

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FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

2nd-Order / Unconstrained reach of WS03, HJA

Floodplain

Bedrock

Equipotential lines

Scale (m)

0 25 50
20 Kasahara & Wondzell (2003) Water Resour. Res.
FOR462: Watershed Science & Management

Proposed C & D Landfill Example

Modeled
Creek Zone exceeding
MCLs for drinking contaminant
water plumes
Old
Constituents of Concern Gravel
Increased, but Pit
Sulfate
MCLs for drinking
Arsenic Water not exceeded
Chromium
Iron
1,2-DCA
Total Dissolved Solids

Glacial Outwash
Domestic Wells

Flow Direction

Municipal Wells
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