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TOTAL QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
SHEENA DC. DORIA
BEC 102
CHAPTER 1: TQM EVOLUTION
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Customer oriented management philosophy and strategy
Total implies that ALL members of the organization make consistent
efforts to achieve the objective of customer delight through systematic
efforts for the improvement of the organization
Started in Japan after World War II
Came from Edwards Deming, an American quality expert
CHAPTER 1: TQM EVOLUTION
Why in Japan?
His idea was ignored by American industry due to lack of competition
But, in 1980s, they were forced to look for new ways to survive in an
environment of: deregulation, growing trade deficit, low productivity,
recession, downsizing and increased consumer awakening
Example: Xerox Corporation
Definition of Quality

Joseph Juran: Fitness for use (suitability for use of customers)

ISO 9000 Definition:


The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service,
that bear on its ability to satisfy a given or implied need.
Improve Quality
Costs decrease due to fewer defects,
lesser rework, fewer delays and better
use of Men, Machine, and Materials

Improved Productivity Japanese


Capture market with better Chain
quality and lower prices
Reaction
Stay in business

Provide more jobs


Dimensions of Product Quality
Functionality
Should perform its intended function
Reliability
Should not breakdown often
Usability
Easy to use without the use of experts
Dimensions of Product Quality
Maintainability
Easy to maintain; Should be repairable at the lowest possible cost &
earliest possible time
Efficiency
Doing more with less
Portability
Easy to carry, easy to transfer
Dimensions of Service Quality

Quality of Customer Service


Quality of Service Design
Quality of Service Delivery
Dimensions for Product & Service Quality
Timeliness
Aesthetics
Regulatory Requirements
Requirements of Society
Conformance to Standards
EVOLUTION OF QUALITY
QUALITY GURUS:

1. Dr. Walter Shewhart


Father of SQC
AQL
PDCA (Plan Do Check Act)
EVOLUTION OF QUALITY
QUALITY GURUS:

2. Deming W. Edwards (Edwards Deming)


PDSA (Plan Do Study Act)
Advocated extensive use of statistics and control charts and focused on
product improvement and service conformance by reducing variations
EVOLUTION OF QUALITY
QUALITY GURUS:

3. Joseph M. Juran
Jurans fitness of Quality
Quality of Design
Quality of Conformance
Availability
Full Service
EVOLUTION OF QUALITY
QUALITY GURUS:
4. Philip B. Crosby
3. The performance standard must be zero
Crosbys 4 absolutes of quality
defects and not something close to it.
1. Quality is conformance to requirements, 4. The measurement of quality is the price of
nothing more or nothing less and certainly non-conformance i.e. how much the defects
in design, manufacture, installation and
not goodness or elegance.
service cost the company. It is not indexes,
2. Quality has to be achieved by prevention and
grade one or grade two.
not by appraisal.
EVOLUTION OF QUALITY
QUALITY GURUS:

5. Armand V. Feigenbaum

Quality in its essence a way of managing of an


organization.
EVOLUTION OF QUALITY
QUALITY GURUS:

6. Kaoru Ishikawa
- Ishikawa diagram
- fishbone diagram
- cause-and-effect diagram
Quality Control (QC)
The operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the
requirements for quality.

Juran gives 3 steps of QC


1. Evaluate actual operating performance
2. Compare actual performance to goals
3. Act on the difference
Quality Assurance

All the planned and systematic activities implemented within the


quality system, and demonstrated as needed, to provide adequate
confidence that an entity will fulfill the requirements for quality.
Quality Planning

In order to meet customer requirements, the quality of


4Ms namely:
(1)Man (2) Machine (3) Material (4) Methods
Quality Improvement

This process aims at attaining unprecedented levels


of performance, which are significantly better than
the past level.
Quality Management

According to ISO 9000 standards, Quality management comprises of

All activities of the overall management function that determine the quality
policy, objectives and responsibilities and implement them by means such as
quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement
within the quality system.
Inspection

Pre-World War II

QC

QA Post-World War II

QM

TQM
JIT (Just-In-Time)
Originally from Toyota
This means that no stage of manufacturing, nobody or nothing waits for
anything.
This is to ensure that there is no wastage of machinery, materials and
manpower.
It focuses on right scheduling so as to keep inventory as low as possible
Thus, this requires perfect partnership between supplier and customer.