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Cooling Towers

Syed Ahsan Bukhari


Trainee Mechanical Engineer (Utilities)
Scheme of Presentation
Cooling Tower ?

Types

Basic Terminologies

Cooling Tower Components

Mechanical Drive Arrangement

Drive Shaft

Gearbox

Fan

Troubleshooting
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Cooling Tower
Cooling towers are heat removal
devices used to transfer process
waste heat to the atmosphere.

Cooling towers use evaporation of


water to remove process heat and
cool the working fluid to near
the wet-bulb air temperature .

Divided into two major categories:

Natural Draft
Mechanical Draft

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Natural Draft
They use the buoyancy of the
exhaust air rising in a tall chimney
to provide the draft.

Characteristics:

Very expensive to construct.


Low maintenance cost.
Effected and largely dependent on
atmospheric conditions.

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Mechanical Draft
Use either single or multiple fans to
provide flow of a known and
controllable volume of air.

Characterized by lesser
dependence on atmospheric
conditions and allowance for
controlled cooling.

Divided into two major types:

Forced Draft
Induced Draft

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Forced Draft
Fan is located in the ambient air
stream entering the tower.

Characteristics:

High air entrance & low exit


velocities
Prone to re-circulation hence less
efficient.
In cooler environment fans can get
ice accumulation creating
imbalance.

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Induced Draft
Fan is located in the exiting air
stream drawing air through tower.

Characteristics:

High air discharge & low entrance


velocities.
Warm air at exit denies ice
accumulation on fan blades.

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Cooling Tower Terminologies
Approach: is the difference between the temperature of water leaving the
tower and the Wet Bulb Temperature of air entering the tower.

Range: is the difference between the temperatures of water entering and


leaving the tower.

Drift: is the evaporated water carried out of the tower with the air.

Bleed off: is the amount of water purposely drained from the circulating
water to dilute it with fresh water.

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Cooling Tower Components

Drift Eliminators: are assembly of


baffles used to catch and condense
the tower water into the basin
which would otherwise be carried
away as drift.

Fill (Packing): is used to distribute


circulating water over a large
surface area for effective heat
transfer.

Louvers: are blade or passage


type assemblies installed at air inlet
phase of C.T. to reduce sunlight
striking water inside and to direct
air on to the Fill.

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Cooling Tower Components
Cowl (Fan Cylinder): used to
allow smooth flow for discharging
air.FRP is usually the preferred
material due to its formability,
strength, light weight and
resistance to water & weathering.

Nozzle: used for controlled


distribution of water in a spray
pattern either by pressure or
gravity.

Fan Pitch: angle which fan blades


make with the plane of rotation.

Cooling Tower Basin: acts as


reservoir for cold water and towers
primary foundation.
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Cooling Tower Specifications

Cooling Tower
Design Water Flow (m3/h) 11000
Design Inlet Water Temp (oC) 43.6
Design Outlet Water Temp (oC) 32
Design Inlet Air Wet Bulb Temp (oC) 28.39
Leaving Air Temp (oC) 41.1
No. of Distribution Headers 5
Distribution Nozzles/ Cell 156
Louvers Material Timber
Internal Framework Material Redwood
Fan Deck Material Redwood
Fill Material PVC
Drift Eliminator (DE) Material UPVC
Distribution Header Material PVC / GRP Wrapped
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Mechanical Drive General Arrangement

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Driveshaft Assembly

Driveshaft Assembly
Manufacturer Twiflex Limited
Model 70p Type 6-6
Nominal Tube Diameter
180
(mm)
Tube Material Carbon Fiber
Coupling Material Stainless Steel
Flexible Components Rubber Trunnion
Retaining Hoop
Galv. Mild Steel
Material

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Drive Shaft
Transmits power from motor to the
input shaft of gearbox.

Characterized by being able to


absorb shock loads, reduce noise,
operate in hostile environments
and being able to accept high level
of misalignment.

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Gearbox

Gearbox
Manufacturer David Brown

Model # VB2-280CT
Type Bevel/Helical
Gear Ratio 10.22 : 1
Lubrication Splash / Forced

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Setting Input Shaft End Float

Shaft is pushed and pulled to check


for end float reading on Dial
Indicator.

At desired end float reading,


locknut is secured.

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Setting Intermediate/ Output Shaft End Float
Setting
Assemble shaft, partially tighten side covers and rotate shaft to check ensure
bearing rollers are correctly seated followed by top cover installation.
Measure gap between side covers and case and add that to shafts minimum
recommended End Float.
Divide the sum by 2.
Add shims as thick as found value between side cover and the case.

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Setting Backlash
Measured by placing dial indicator at
the heel of input shaft bevel gear.

Backlash can be adjusted by moving


in or out input shaft or intermediate
shaft bevel gear.

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Setting Tooth Contact Pattern
OEM recommends tooth contact pattern to extend over 50-60% of
face width (Central Toe Contact).

Minor adjustments may need to be made, while keeping each shafts


end float within recommended limits.

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Cooling Tower Fan
Manufacturer Howden Fans

Model 26ENF6 EP

Diameter (m)
7.924
No. of Blades / Fan
6
Fan Speed (rpm)
145
Fan Tip Clearance (mm)
39.6
Air Delivery / Fan (m3/sec)
441.5
Rotation
Clockwise
Blade Material
20
GRP
20
Model #

26 ENF6 EP

26 Fan diameter in feet


ENF Type of impeller
6 No. of Blades
EP Leading Edge protection coating

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Fan Exploded View

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Fan Blades Installation
U-bolts should be tight enough to
allow blade to be turned.

Use inclinometer at about 50mm


from blade profile end.

Set the desired angle by turning the


blade on each side.

Use inclinometer at the same


50mm distance on each blade for
the same angle.

Finally tighten each U-bolt to a


torque of 650 Nm.

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Blade Tip Clearance

Tip Clearance (s) is the distance


between blade tip and the cowl (
fan cylinder).

Recommended to be in the range


of 0.25-0.5% of fan diameter.

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Troubleshooting
Problem Possible Cause Solution
Static pressure higher than
specified.
Airflow too high. Decrease blade angle.
Power absorption high.
Blade angle too large.
Reducer malfunctioning. Check or replace Reducer.
Lack of stiffness in support Reinforce support
structure. structure.
Drive alignment incorrect. Realign.
High Vibration
Driver bearing damage. Repair or replace
Fan Blade drainage holes are
Open the drainage holes.
blocked.
Airflow higher than specified.
High Noise Decrease blade angle.
Static pressure too high.
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