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BIOMEDICAL WASTE

MANAGEMENT

GROUP-1
Team Members
Jaison
Ricky
Anson
Merin
Ann George
Nandana
Outline
Sources

Types

Impact

Management

Conclusion
What is waste?

Any substance solid , liquid or gaseous


that is no longer safe for use or serves
any purpose is discarded and is termed as
a waste.
Types of waste
Domestic waste
Industrial waste
Municipal waste
Agricultural waste
Biomedical waste
Radioactive waste
E-waste
BIO-MEDICAL WASTE
Sources
Clinics
Hospitals
Pathological laboratories
Types
Pathological - organs , tissues,
blood and urine

Radioactive - anything contaminated with


radioactive substances

Infectious - needles , syringes and articles such as


buds , linens , dressings , etc. contaminated with
disease causing virus and bacteria

Medicines - outdated drugs and chemicals


IMPACT
Impact
Landscape degeneration

Pollution of air , water and soil

Health problems

Loss of terrestrial and aquatic life


Landscape Degeneration
Solid waste are usually carried to nearby
dumps on the outskirts of settlements.
In addition they become habitats for
microorganisms and foster diseases.
Due to unending dumping , these areas
emanate foul smells and also spoil the
visual appeal of the place.
Many wetlands have got choked because
of algae formation due to the
contamination from nitrate fertilizers.

Depletion of oxygen in water happens


when these algae are dead and get
decomposed.

The death of the aquatic ecosystem is due


to eutrophication.
Types
Air Pollution

Water Pollution

Hazardous Waste Pollution

Radioactive Waste Pollution


Air Pollution
Air Pollution

Air pollution is caused when biomedical


waste are burned.
The following gases are released into air
on burning :
Carbon dioxide ,
Carbon monoxide
Sulphur dioxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Hydrogen sulphide
Methane
Ozone
Water Pollution
Pollutants
Anthropogenic
Sewage
Chemicals
Heavy metals mercury , lead , arsenic ,
copper
Water Pollution-Municipal
Principal contributor is the municipal
sewage.

Leads to many water borne diseases like


cholera , typhoid , dysentery , etc..
Ground Water Pollution -
Sources
Leaching of pollutants (nitrates ,
insecticides)

Leaching of pollutants from garbage


dumps
Hazardous Waste Pollution
Hazardous Waste Pollution
These substances are the chemicals that
we often use to boost food production ,
protect our health or make our life easier.

Mostly these substances are toxic in


nature.
Sources
Heavy metals lead , mercury

Acids HCl , H2SO4

Biological substances bacteria

Radioactive materials for cancer


treatment
Hazardous Waste Pollution

Hazardous wastes represent potential risk


to human health and environment when
dumped in the oceans , rivers or buried in
the land.
Hazardous Waste Pollution
Soil which is contaminated is also
rendered useless for agriculture.

Fishermen in coastal areas are often


greatly affected due to the contamination
of sea water from waste water.
Radioactive Waste Pollution
Radioactive Waste Pollution
Radioactive wastes are known as
hazardous wastes since they contain
radioactive material.

Usually there are generated during the


process of cancer treatment
(radiotherapy)
Impact
Irresponsibility on the part of radioactive materials
owner be it hospital , university or military and
lack of regulation of radioactive waste handling
are reasons for such exposure.

Since radioactive wastes remain active for a long


time , therefore it can enter human body through
food , fish and water , which are already affected.

These radioactive accumulation further damages


tissues , blood cells and cause cancer.
April 2010 Radiological accident
In Mayapuri , a scrap market in west Delhi ,
radiation leaked from scrap in April 2010 and
caused some people serious illness .
Radioactive Cobalt 60 source from a gamma
cell was auctioned by Delhi University
Chemical Department to a scrap dealer leading
to radiation leak.

Cobalt 60 radiation affects the bone marrow.


Health Problems
Due to Air Pollution
Depletion of ozone Skin cancer , cataract

Sulphur dioxide harm respiratory functions

Lead affects child brain

Nitric oxide breathing problem , pneumonia ,


lung cancer

SPM asthma , bronchitis


Due to Water Pollution
Cholera
Dysentery
Typhoid
Gastroenteritis
Leptospirosis
Brucellosis
Poliomyelitis
Hepatitis
Pollution Diseases

Pesticides Cancer , blindness , retarded mental growth

Mercury Minamata

Lead Mental retardation , damage of liver and kidney

Any other Cholera , dysentry , typhoid , gastroenteritis ,


water pollution leptospirosis , jaundice

Radioactive Leukemia , congenital defect , poor fertility ,


pollution defective limbs
Pollution Diseases

Carbon monoxide Asphyxiation , weakness

SO2 Breathing problem , redness of


eye

Ozone Pulmonary edema or


hemorrhage

NO2 Pulmonary hemorrhage

Hydrocarbons Lung cancer , bronchitis

Air Pollution Pulmonary diseases


Due to Radioactivity
Leukemia

Congenital defects

Radiations from medical X-rays , color TV


sets or X-ray fluoroscopes are also risky.
Need for Waste Management
Proper disposal of waste can be executed in two
ways:
1)Proper disposal of waste This involves
collecting , segregating and transporting waste
materials.

2)Treatment of waste This involves some


kind of processing to reduce the harmful impact
of wastes.
Method of Safe Disposal and
Treatment of Waste
Solid waste
Segregation of waste

Disposal and treatment of solid waste


Incineration
Disinfection and Shredding
Incineration
Burning of waste
Infectious hospital waste like organs ,
blood swabs , infected cotton and gauge.
By burning the volume is reduced to 20
30 per cent .
Easy and inexpensive method
Plastic materials should not be incinerated
ANY DOUBTS???
THANK
YOU..