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ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

By
Mrs. Vaibhavi Apte
Definition of Pollution
When Harmful Substances Contaminate the
environment it is Called Pollution.
It can be defined as any undesirable change in
the physical, chemical, biological characteristics
of any component of the environment which can
cause harm to life and property.
Types of Pollution

Air
Water

Marine

Thermal
Pollution
Soil

Noise

Nuclear
Air pollution
What is Atmosphere?
Atmosphere is the life blanket of Earth.
Air....
Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for
our bodies to live.
Air is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, water
vapor, carbon dioxide and inert gases.
Human activities can release substances into the
air, some of which can cause problems to
humans, plants, and animals.
Natural Composition of Gases
Definition
Air pollution : An atmospheric condition in
which certain substances (including normal
constituents in excess) are present in
concentrations which can cause undesirable
effects on man and his environment.
They are in the form of gases (Nox, Sox,
CO,VOC); Particulate matter(dust, smoke, fumes,
etc) & Radioactive (rado-222, Iodine-131, etc)
Sources of Air Pollution

Sources

Natural Anthropogenic

Volcanic Eruptions, Forest Thermal Power


Fires, Sea Salt Sprays, Plants,
Biological Decay, Pollen Vehicular Emissions,
Grains, Marshes,
Photochemical Oxidation Industrial Units
of Terpenes
Classification of Air Pollutants
Air pollutants may be particulate or gaseous.

On the basis of origin they are divided as


Primary pollutants ---- Are emitted directly
from the point source. e.g. : CO, NO2, SO2
Secondary pollutants ---- formed by interaction
of primary pollutants
e.g. : PAN, Smog, Ozone etc
Criteria of Pollutants
Name of the gas Characteristics Source
Nitrogen dioxide (N2 in air is Brownish gas irritates the Burning fuels including
oxidized); Nox sum of NO, NO2, respiratory system originates petrol, diesel, and coal
other oxides of N from combustion

Ground level O3 (primary Reaction of VOC + nox in Vehicles and industries are
constituent of smog) presence of heat +sun light the major source
Carbon monoxide Reduces bloods ability to carry Produced by the incomplete
O2 burning of carbon-based fuels
& natural and synthetic
products such as cigarettes
Carbon dioxide Principle greenhouse gas. Emitted as a result of human
activities such as the burning
of coal, oil, and natural gases
Sulphur dioxide Precursor to acid rain along Formed when fuel (coal, oil)
with Nox containing S is burned and
metal smelting

Chorofluoro carbon (CFC) Ozone depletion Released from air-


conditioning systems and
refrigeration.
Lead Cause learning disabilities in Present in petrol, diesel, lead
children , toxic to liver, batteries, paints, hair dye
kidney, blood forming organs products, etc
Particulate matter (PM 10 & 2.5)
Indoor air pollution
Many people spend large portion of time indoors -
as much as 80-90% of their lives.
We work, study, eat, drink and sleep in enclosed
environments where air circulation may be
restricted
Children, women more exposed to risk
Radon gas
Burning of dung cakes for fuel, wood, kerosene
Incomplete combustion produces CO
Cigarette smoke.
Effects of Air Pollution
Air Pollution affects???

Human health
Animals
Plants
Materials
Environment
Effect on Human health

Main problems are related to Respiratory Track - Asthma, hay


fever, and other allergic diseases.
Irritation of the eye, nose and throat. In severe cases there may
be headaches, nausea, and loss of coordination.
Prolonged exposure can cause damage to the nervous system,
digestive problems, and in some cases cause Lung cancer.
It lowers our resistance to colds and pneumonia.
CO has affinity towards Hb which cause disturbance in
transportation of Oxygen, impairing our concentration, slow our
reflexes, and make us confused and sleepy.
SO2 in the air leads to diseases of the lung and other lung
disorders such as wheezing and shortness of breath.
Chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and
even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys.
Effects of Arsenic, Asbestos, Mercury , Benzene etc.
Effect on Plants
Pollutants enter through stomata
Destroy chlorophyll and Affect
photosynthesis
Cuticle( Wax Layer on Leaves) is lost
Necrosis Damage to Leaf Structure
Chlorosis - Loss/ reduction of Chlorophyll
Abscission - Dropping of leaf
Epinasty Downward curling of Leaf
DEATH
Effect on Animals and materials

Corrosion of metal surfaces, fading


SO2 & water form H2S corrosion as well
as disfigurement of statues made up of
limestone or Marble
Air pollutants mix with rain water and
increase acidity (Acid Rain) of water body
and kill fish.
Ozone causes crackling of rubber
Effect on Environment
Visibility
Pollutants in the presence of sunlight
produce photochemical Smog
Emission of Green House Gases tend to
Global Warming
CFCs cause Ozone Depletion
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
Sr Pollutant and time- Industrial Residential Sensitive
No weighted average area area area
1 Sulphur dioxide
80.00 60.00 15.00
Annual average
120.00 g/m3 80.00 g/m3 30.00 g/m3
24 hours
2 Nitrogen oxides Annual
80.00 60.00 15.00
average
120.00 80.00 30.00
24 hours
3 RSPM (less than 10 gm)
Annual average 20.00 60.00 50.00
24 hours 150.00 100.00 75.00

4 SPM
360.00 140.00 70.00
Annual average
500.00 200.00 100.00
24 hours
5 LEAD
1.00 0.75 0.500
Annual average
1.50 1.00 0 .750
24 hours
6 CO
5.00 2.00 1.00
Annual average
10.00 4.00 2.00
24 hours
Annual Average : Annual Arithmetic Mean of minimum 104
measurements in a year taken twice a week 24-hourly at
uniform interval
24 Hours Average : 24-hourly/8-hourly values should be met
98% of the time in a year. However 2% of the time, it may
exceeded but not two consecutive days.
1. The levels of air quality necessary with an adequate
margin of safety, to protect the public health, vegetation and
property.
2. Whenever and wherever two consecutives values exceeds
the limit specified above for the respective category, it shall
be considered adequate, reason to institute regular /
continuous monitoring and further investigations.
HIGH VOLUME SAMPLER, GASEOUS SAMPLERS
Control Of Air Pollution
Proper air pollution control devices in industries
Using low sulphur coal
Regular engine tune up, replacement of old more
polluting vehicles
Using mass transport system, bicycles etc
Shifting to less polluting fuels
Planting more trees
No to FIRE CRACKERS in Diwali and other
occasions
Pollution Control Devices

Cyclone Separator Bag House Filter


NATIONAL AIR QUALITY MONITORING
PROGRAMME (NAMP)
Central Pollution Control Board is executing a nation-wide
programme of ambient air quality monitoring known as
National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP).
The network consists of three hundred and forty two (342)
operating stations covering one hundred and twenty seven
(127) cities/towns in twenty six (26) states and four (4) Union
Territories of the country.
Under N.A.M.P., four air pollutants viz ., Sulphur Dioxide (SO2),
Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2, Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and
Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM / PM10) have been
identified for regular monitoring at all the locations.
The monitoring of meteorological parameters such as wind speed and
wind direction, relative humidity (RH) and temperature were also
integrated with the monitoring of air quality.
Water Pollution
The Contamination of water with
undesirable substances which make it
unfit for usage is termed water Pollution.
Pollution Sources

Point sources are direct discharges to a single point;


examples include discharges from sewage treatment
plants, injection wells and some industrial sources.
Non-point sources are diffused across a broad area and
their contamination cannot be traced to a single
discharge point.
Examples include runoff of excess fertilizers,
herbicides, and insecticides from agricultural lands
and residential areas; oil, grease, and toxic chemicals
from urban runoff and energy production; and
sediment from improperly managed construction sites,
crop and forest lands, and eroding stream banks.
Surface Water Pollution
Sewage
Industrial effluents
Synthetic detergents
Agrochemicals
Oil
Waste heat
Domestic Sewage
Refers to waste water that is discarded from
households. Also referred to as sanitary
sewage, such water contains a wide variety of
dissolved and suspended impurities.
It is large by volume and contains impurities
such as organic materials and plant nutrients
that tend to rot.
The main organic materials are food and
vegetable waste, plant nutrient come from
chemical soaps, washing powders, etc.
Domestic sewage is also very likely to contain
disease-causing microbes.
Industrial Effluents
Waste water from manufacturing or chemical
processes in industries
Industrial waste water usually contains specific and
readily identifiable chemical compounds.
Mainly in the form of toxic wastes and organic
pollutants.
Chromium, mercury, lead, copper, cadmium etc
Synthetic Detergents And Oils
Added because of washing clothes, cleaning
utensils.
In industries for washing
Add surfactants and soaps to water
Toxic to fish, aquatic life.
Oceans are polluted by oil on a daily basis from
oil spills, routine shipping, run-offs and dumping.
Oil spills make up about 12% of the oil that
enters the ocean. The rest come from
shipping travel, drains and dumping.
Agricultural Run Off
Routine applications of fertilizers and pesticides
for agriculture and uncontrolled run off in water
bodies.
Adds Nitrogen and Phosphorus to water
Causes Eutrophication and algal blooms.
Nitrate concentration is above the permissible
level of 45 ppm in 11 states, covering 95
districts and 2 blocks of Delhi.
Ground Water Pollution
Is less comparatively as soil acts as a filter
Still...
Septic tanks
Mining
Deep well injection
Presence of heavy metals in groundwater is
found in 40 districts from 13 states, viz., Andhra
Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal
Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa,
Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh,
West Bengal, and five blocks of Delhi.
Arsenic , Nitrate, Fluoride
Fluoride Poisoning
The incidence of fluoride above permissible levels of
1.5ppm occur in 14 Indian states, namely:
Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana,
Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,
Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar
Pradesh and West Bengal affecting a total of
69districts, according to some estimates.
Some other estimates find that 65 per cent of Indias
villages are exposed to fluoride risk.
Fluoride Poisoning

A recent survey by the International Water Management


Institute (IWMI) in north Gujarat showed 42 per cent of
the people covered in the sample survey (28,425) were
affected; while 25.7 per cent were affected by dental
fluorosis, 6.2 per cent were affected by muscular skeletal
fluorosis and 10 per cent by both.
Fluoride had been reported to cause depressions in DNA
and RNA synthesis in cultured cells.
Another study on the effects of fluorides in mice showed
significant reductions in DNA and RNA levels.
Conditions including ageing, cancer, and arteriosclerosis
are associated with DNA damage and its disrepair.
Arsenic Poisoning
High levels of arsenic above the permissible levels
of 50 parts per billion (ppb) are found in the
alluvial plains of Ganges covering six districts of
West Bengal.
Arsenic contamination of drinking water causes a
disease called arsenicosis, for which there is no
effective treatment.
Arsenic contamination is by far the biggest mass
poisoning case in the world putting 20 million
people from West Bengal and Bangladesh at risk
though some other estimates put the figure at 36
million people.
Effects
Depletion of dissolved oxygen
Eutrophication
Pathogen.spreading diseases
Bio-magnification
Genetic deformities

Blue baby Syndrome


Minamata disease
Itai-Itai
DEPLETION OF OXYGEN
Low DO and High
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

Biodegradable and organic waste leads to


Oxygen depletion
DO levels less than 4 mg / l disastrous.
Polluted waters have 0 DO
Pathogen Spread
Stagnant water and other untreated
water provide a habitat for the
mosquito and a host of other parasites
and insects that cause a large number
of diseases especially in the tropical
regions.
Among these, malaria is undoubtedly
the most widely distributed and causes
most damage to human health.
Biomagnification
Pesticides. The organophosphates and the carbonates present in
pesticides affect and damage the nervous system and can cause
cancer.
Some of the pesticides contain carcinogens that exceed
recommended levels. They contain chlorides that cause reproductive
and endocrinal damage.
Lead. Lead is hazardous to health as it accumulates in the body and
affects the central nervous system. Children and pregnant women are
most at risk.
Petrochemicals. Benzene and other petrochemicals can cause cancer
even at low exposure levels.
Chlorinated solvents. These are linked to reproduction disorders and
to some cancers.
Other heavy metals. Heavy metals cause damage to the nervous
system and the kidney, and other metabolic disruptions.
Case Study of Vultures
Veterinary use of the drug diclofenac
used in the treatment of livestockhas
been linked to the collapse of vulture
populations throughout South Asia.
Vultures are keystone species that
perform a vital ecosystem service by
disposing of carrion and their decline has
had dramatic ecological and socio-
economic consequences.
Vultures feeding on the carcasses of animals
recently treated with the drug suffer renal
failure and die.
Blue Baby Syndrome
Blue Baby Syndrome or Methemoglobinemia is caused by
decreased ability of blood to carry oxygen, resulting in
oxygen deficiency in different body parts.
Infants are more susceptible than adults.
The disease can be caused by intake of water and
vegetables high in nitrate, exposure to chemicals
containing nitrate, or can even be hereditary.
As different parts of the body get deprived of oxygen,
clinical symptoms of oxygen starvation start to appear,
the main being cyanosis (derived from cyano, meaning
dark blue; from Greek, kyanos).
The lips or even the skin start to take on a blue
colouration, hence the common name, the blue baby
syndrome/ disease.
Minamata Disease
First detected in 1956
In Minamata, Japan, mercury was used in
the industrial production of acetaldehyde.
Discharged into the nearby bay and was
ingested by organisms.
Fish and other creatures in the sea were
soon contaminated and eventually
residents of this area who consumed the
fish suffered from MeHg (methyl mercury)
intoxication
ITAI-ITAI
Itai-itai disease ("ouch ouch sickness"),
Was the documented case of mass cadmium
poisoning in Toyama Prefecture, Japan,
starting around 1912.
The cadmium poisoning caused softening of the
bones and kidney failure. The disease is named for
the severe pains (Japanese: itai) caused in the
joints and spine.
The cadmium was released into rivers by mining
companies. This Cadmium contaminated water
was used to irrigate rice fields.
Control of Water Pollution
Treatment of water before leaving in water
bodies.
Restoration of polluted water bodies.
Ganga Action Plan
River Water Monitoring
Marine Pollution
Marine Pollution is caused due to Sewage
Sludge, Indutrial Effluents, Detergents, solid
waste, plastic, etc.
Sources :
River- Bring pollutants from drainage basins
Catchment Area- Human Settlements
Oil Drilling & Shipment
Effects :
Fishes show mortality
Oil disrupts the insulating capacity of feathers
Due to loss of Buoyancy and subsequent
drowning of Birds cause Deaths
Control measures
Effluents should not be discharged
Treatment before discharge
Strict law enforcement- regarding drilling in
Ecosensitive zones, dumping of toxic &
Hazardous wastes
Minimum developmental activities on shore
CRZs: Coastal regulation Zones
Global Environmental Monitoring Stations/ Monitoring of Indian
National Aquatic Resource
CPCB in collaboration with concerned SPCBs/PCCs established a
nationwide network of water quality monitoring comprising 2500
stations in 28 States and 6 Union Territories.
The monitoring is done on monthly or quarterly basis in surface waters
and on half yearly basis in case of ground water.
The monitoring network covers 445 Rivers, 154 Lakes, 12 Tanks, 78
Ponds, 41 Creeks/Seawater, 25 Canals, 45 Drains, 10 Water Treatment
Plant (Raw Water) and 807 Wells.
Among the 2500 stations, 1275 are on rivers, 190 on lakes, 45 on
drains, 41 on canals, 12 on tanks, 41 on creeks/seawater, 79 on ponds,
10 Water Treatment Plant (Raw Water) and 807 are groundwater
stations
Water samples are being analysed for 28 parameters consisting of 9 core
parameters, 19 other physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters
apart from the field observations. Besides this, 9 trace metals and 15
pesticides are also analysed in selected samples.
Biomonitoring is also carried out on specific locations.
Thermal Pollution

Definition : Presence of waste heat in the water


which can cause undesirable changes in natural
environment.
Causes:
Heat producing Industries
Power plants utilize only 1/3rd energy produced
by fossil fuel rest is wasted as heat
Cold water is taken from water body for cooling
.used and left in the water body.back with
increase of 10-15 Deg.
Effects?
Oxygen penetration decreases, dissolved
oxygen also reduces as the solubility is
decreased
Heat kills fishes and other aquatic life.
Toxicity of pesticides & chemicals increase
with increase in temperature
Metabolic Activities increase at high temp.
requiring more oxygen.
Spawning is disturbed
Fish migration is affected
Composition of flora & fauna changes-
Temp. tolerant spp. Start developing
Control of Thermal pollution
Cooling ponds, cooling towers and spray
ponds
Noise pollution
Unwanted and unbearable sound is Noise
Sound travels in form of pressure waves
through air, liquid or soild
Measured on DECIBEL SCALE.
Maximum during Diwali,
Ganpati and other festivals
Higher in Industrial area.
80 to 120 dB
Crackers: 125 dB
Construction: 100 dB
Sources and effects
Transportation
Heavy Machinery
Construction activities
Celebrations and household
appliances

Physiological and psychological


changes
Interferes communication
Hearing damage
Sleep disturbance
Noise standards
Night 10 p.m. to morning 6 a.m.- loud noise banned.
Declaration of Zones
Control
Reduction at the source
Proper maintenance of
machineries
Machineries should be covered
Use of sound absorbing silencers
Through law
Planting more trees of broad
leaves
Nuclear Or Radioactive Hazard
Natural radioactive decay
Give out fast moving particles, high
energy radiations.
Alpha and beta particles

Nuclear accidents, test laboratories


radioactive fallout

Fukushima in Japan
Pripyat in Ukraine
Effects and control
Genetic damage : DNA alterations, gene
damage, chromosome damage
Somatic damage: Burns, miscarriages,
eye cataract, cancers of skin, bones,
breast.

Proper siting.
Proper disposal.
Soil pollution
Soil is upper layer of earth crust, contains organic
matter, fertile
Dumping of wastes causes soil pollution
Garbage
Rubbish like glass, plastics, metallic cans, papers,
cloth rags, containers
Discharge of Industrial wastes.
Fly ash from Thermal power plants
Fertilizers and pesticides: DDT, endrin, Lindane.
Sewage sludge and radioactive wastes
Effects and control
Reduce soil productivity
Affects soil flora and fauna
Sludge contains worms, bacteria and
pathogens.
Radioactive wastes enter food chain:
Strontium 90 mimics calcium.

Treatment before discharge


Convert waste to biogas, fuel etc.
Recover from soil.
SOLID WASTE AND ITS MANAGEMENT
Higher standards of livinggenerate more
waste
Quantities are enormous
Management is very important

Sources of solid waste include: Waste from


homes, hospitals, industries, parks, gardens,
shops, construction and demolition waste
In each and every action of
humans, Solid waste is generated
Two types of Waste:
BIODEGRADABLE NON-
Vegetable waste BIODEGRADABLE
Food waste Polythene bags
Tea leaves Glass bottles
Egg shells Scrap metal
Dry leaves Tins, cans etc etc
Electronic waste
EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE
Waste heap up on roads
Litter surroundings
Foul smells
Vector breeding
BURNING produces toxic gases
Management
Following methods in use:
Composting
Sanitary landfill
Incineration

Segregation of waste

Current trends of 3- Rs
Reduce Reuse Recycle
Incineration
Composting
Major pollution episodes
Love canal tragedy
Bhopal gas tragedy
Chernobyl disaster
Exxon Valdez leak episode
..many more
Certain initiatives
Laws have been made and are followed
Pollution level Standards: established and
compulsory to maintain.
Pollution control boards: State and Central
(SPCBs- like MPCB (Maharashtra Pollution Control Board) and
CPCB)
NGOs
Research and development of better technologies
Awareness in schools and colleges, offices.
Awards
Role of an Individual in Pollution prevention
Think globally act locally
Use eco-friendly products
Use rechargeable batteries
No to excess pesticides, chemicals, paints,
solvents
Use less or only required quantity of resource
PLANT MORE TREES(local species)
Best from Waste
3 RS- Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Thank you