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Intake or Control Gates

These are the gates built on the inside of the dam. The
water from reservoir is released and controlled through
these gates. These are called inlet gates because water
enters the power generation unit through these gates. When
the control gates are opened the water flows due to gravity
through the penstock and towards the turbines. The water
flowing through the gates possesses potential as well as
kinetic energy.
HYDRAULICS OF HYDROPOWER INTAKES

Good intake

Minimum hydraulic losses

Prevent formation of air


entraining vortices

Minimize sediment entry

Prevent ice and floating


material from entering the
conduit
Types and Choice of Intakes
Run-of-the-River Type Intakes

(i) Intake adjacent to diversion dams and barrage Fig. 1

An intake for tunnel is placed u/s of the diversion dam or barrage.

(ii) Canal/River power houses Figs. 2 & 3

Short intakes as a part of powerhouse structure located across large


canals or rivers

(iii) Forebay intakes Fig. 4a, Fig4b

Intake for penstock is provided in forebay in open canal development

(iv) Drop type intake (trench type) Fig. 5a, Fig.5b, Fig.5c, Fig.5d

Constructed across hilly streams


Tunnel

Fig.1 Intake at Barrage


Fig.2 Canal/River Power House Intakes (Kaplan Turbines)
Fig.3 Canal/River Power House Intakes (Tubular Turbines)
Fig.4a Layout of Forebay Intake (PLAN)
Fig.4b Layout of Forebay Intake (SECTION)
TRENCH (DROP) WEIR

Boulder stream

Bottom racks

Intake Chamber

Power Channel
Bottom racks
Fig.5a Drop Type Intake (PLAN)
Fig.5b Drop Type Intake (SECTION)
(B) Reservoir Type Intakes

(i) Intake in concrete or masonry dams Fig. 6


Powerhouse located at the toe of dam.
Water passage to the turbine is through embedded penstock.
Intake is semi-circular.

(ii) Intake in earthen dam Fig. 7 & Fig. 8


Conduit is laid below the dam and intake may be a sloping (Fig.7) or
tower type (Fig.8)

(iii) Re-entrant type of intake Fig. 9

Provided at the u/s face of dam or in open channels with flat bottom; and
where width of dam is inadequate to accommodate the intake.

(iv) Intakes in reservoir independent of type of dams Fig. 10

Intake is located at a distance from the dam (any type of dam). Intake
may be semi-circular, tower type or inclined.
High head installation

Fig.6 Semicircular Type Intake


Fig.7 Sloping Intake for an Earth Dam
Medium Head Installation
(Vertical Shaft Intake)

tunnel

Fig.8 Tower Type Intake


Fig.9 Penstock Intake Re-entrant Type
Fig.10 Intake in Reservoir Independent of Dams
Typical Layout of Intakes Structure

Main components of an intake structure are :

(a) Bell mouth entrance and transition from rectangular to circular


opening

(b) Trash rack supporting structure

(c) Gate slot enclosures with air vents

(d) Anti-vortex devices


The main type of layouts are as follows:

(A) Semicircular type of Intake Structure (Fig. 6)

(i) Bell mouth entrance to conduit

(ii) Semicircular trash rack at 1.1428 be from the face of opening

(iii) Gate slot enclosure with air vent

(iv) Anti-vortex devices

Adopted :

When a reservoir is formed by a high concrete or masonry dam and


penstock conduit in the body of the dam
When the topography and geology permit to have almost vertical face to
penstock
When the minimum depth of water above the centerline is more than
0.8he
(B) Straight type of Intake Structure (Fig. 11)

- Medium head installation, Cc = 0.70

- Rack supporting structure is straight with a vertical or incline face

- Rack shall be kept inclined at an angle of at least 15o to the vertical

Consists of

(i) Bell mouth transition

(ii) Vertical or inclined trash rack at the face of transition or away from the face

(iii) Gate slot with air vent

(iv) Anti-vortex devices

Adopted :

(a) When the reservoir is formed by earthen dam and conduit is laid below it;
and

(b) When the intake is subjected to low head variations like in-ROR scheme

(c) For medium head


Fig.11 Straight Type Intake
(C) Tower type of Intake Structure (Fig. 8)
(a) Circular tower type rack supporting structure

(b) Circular bell mouth to shaft

(c) Vertical shaft below tower type rack supporting structure; and

(d) Bend from shaft to tunnel with optional accelerating elbow and flare
depending or model studies

(e) Use Cc = 0.6 and actual shape of jet profile of circular orifice

Adopted:

(i) When the intake is located at a distance from u/s face of the dam.

(ii) When the reservoir is formed by earthen dam and penstock tunnel is laid
below it; and

(iii) When the intake is subjected to large head variations, resulting in complete
submergence of structure
(D) Re-entrant Type Intake (Fig. 8b)

Adopted :

(i) On the u/s face of dam

(ii) In open channel with flat bottom; and

(iii) Where the width of dam is inadequate to accommodate the intake


INTAKE WITH OBLIQUE APPROACH CHANNEL Contraction
suppressed at bottom

Conditions under which this type of intake is used:

1. The centerline of the intake is at on angle to the centering of the


approach channel.

2. The minimum depth of head water above the centerline of the


transition at intake is more than the entrance height.

3. The apron of a normal intake would require excessive excavation.

See Fig. 12
Features:

Vertical trash rack at face of the transition. Cleaning would be


accomplished by the use of compressed air.

Gate in slot located within dam and transition is flush.

Apron is flush with floor of intake.

The width between pier noses at the racks (be) will be 142.857 percent
of (b) with the racks resting against the flattened nose of the pier.

The water approaching the intake shall not be required to turn more
than 60o when entering the rack. Losses increase rapidly when angle
is more than 30o the loss at 60o being over 4 times that at 30o.
Rounding of the upstream edge of the bars will reduce the loss
approximately 45%.

The pier shall have a minimum width of 42.8% of b.


INTAKE WITH OBLIQUE APPROACH CHANNEL Contraction suppressed at bottom

Medium head installation

Fig. 12
HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF BELLMOUTH OPENING

Entrances are designed to produce an acceleration similar to a jet issuing from


a sharp-edged orifice.

Penstock diameter = vena contracta diameter

H > 0.8 he (in case of oblique flow H > 1.5 he)

ha > 0.3 he

h
R0 e ha
2
> 0.8 he

1
V 2
0.345 h e
Va

VA = Approach velocity =Q/area of hemisphere, i.e, 2R20 about 0.6 to 0.9 m/s

V = Velocity in the penstock at best turbine efficiency


The rack structures should not fall within 0.8 he or be from the centre
point of the intake

For a semicircular intake structure the racks shall be located on a


semicircle plan whose minimum radius is 1.1428 be (see: Fig. 6). For
shaft intakes the rack shall be located at 0.8 he from the centre of the
bell mouth. (See : Fig. 8)

Side walls shall not expand at a rate > 5o (see : Fig. 6)

The surfaces of penstock are formed to the natural contraction curve


of the jet.

The profile of contraction is approximately elliptical for all conditions


where the flow is symmetrical about the centre of gravity of jet.
INTAKE TRANSITION FOR HIGH HEAD INSTALLATION

Penstock area
1. Opening Area =
Cc cos
x1
Cc = 0.6 for high head
= 0.7 for low head

2. Floor and roof profile

Based on profile of circular


jet of twice the penstock
diameter

x2 y2
1
1.1D 0.291D
2 2

and radius at the bottom edge


b o2
R 0.077D
ao
3. Opening height and width

1
1
h1 D 1.21tan2 0.0847 2
1.1 tan
2 cos
0.791
h2 D 0.077 tan
cos

he = h1 + h2

Width, be = Opening Area / he

The total divergence angle side


walls, i.e, should not be more
than 10o.
4. Typical Gate-Slot and Trashrack Outlines

The u/s edge of the gate slot


should be at least 0.40be from
the nose.

The racks are located on a


semi-circle in plan whose
minimum radius is 1.1428be
Locating Centreline of Transition

Calculate h1 and h2 for known value of inclination of penstock and


diameter of the penstock.
Draw the centreline of the Penstock. Mark h1 and h2 on the face of the
dam then draw upper profile of the transition and Penstock.
Calculate horizontal distance of end of transition from the u/s face of
the dam, i.e,
x1 = 0.077D+(1.1D-0.077D)Cos+(D/2+0.291D)Sin
Draw the lower profile and R = 0.077D
The centerline of transition is the locus of centers of circles that are
each tangent to both the floor and roof. Thus by trial, draw circles which
just touch the upper and lower profiles. Join the centers of these circles
to get the centerline of the transition.
The centerline is divided into equal parts of not more than 1 m (usually
10 sections) and the plane of each transition section is taken as
perpendicular to the tangents of the centerline.
Computation of flow area at different sections along the
centerline of the transition

Flow area at any distance along the centreline of the transition is taken
proportional to the area of free jet issuing from a sharp-edge circular
orifice.
Variation of radius of jet in percent of penstock diameter and area of jet
in percent of penstock area with distance from face of entrance along
the centreline in percent of penstock diameter for Cc =0.6 and 0.7 are
shown below after USBR Design Manual No. 6.
Profiles and areas of free jet from sharp-edge circular orifice
If the length of centerline of transition from entrance to the end of
transition is 0.55D for Cc = 0.6 or 0.5D for Cc=0.7, the area of jet may
be read from the above figure.
However if the length of the centerline of transition is not equal to 0.55
D for Cc = 0.6 or 0.5D for Cc =0.7, the area of the jet may calculated by
considering semi-major axis of the ellipse equal to the length of
centerline of transition.
Say for example length of transition is 2D. Thus semi-major axis of the
ellipse is 2D and semi-minor axis 0.1455D. Taking this profile of jet, one
can calculate area of jet at different distances along the centreline.
Such computation is made for Cc =0.6 and profile and area of jet are
shown below.
The computed flow area of section based on the free jet of sharp-edge
circular orifice is adjusted for the angle that section makes with the
centreline of the penstock.
Thus, opening area = 1.667*penstock area/cos

Section area at the end of transition = penstock area/cos =0


=penstock area
PROFILE OF CIRCULAR JET FOR Cc = 0.60
Radius of jet in percent of Penstock diameter
65

60

55

50
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200
Distance from face of entrance along centreline in percent of penstock diameter
AREA CURVE OF FREE JET FOR Cc = 0.60

170
Area in percent of Penstock area

160

150

140

130

120

110

100
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200
Distance from face of entrance along centreline in percent of penstock diameter
Elliptical Fillets
bn
x 2 y2
1
a o2 b o2

hn

ao

br bo

Each section is normal to the flow at the centre of mass of the


streams
The section is rectangular of size hebe at the entrance, i.e., b0=0
At the end of the transition, section is true circular of diameter D, i.e,
br=0; bo=D/2; bn=hn=D

Shape of the sections between entrance and exist is consisted of


rectangle of size brhn plus two halves of an ellipse.

Flow area at any distance from entrance along the centerline of


transition is obtained from the area of free jet from sharp-edge
circular orifice.

Flow area, A = brhn + aobo = brhn + (hn/2)(bn-br)/2

As bn, A, hn are known, the value of br may be obtained

Fillet area = bnhn-A


AIR ENTRAINMENT AT INTAKES

Additional energy loss


Low turbine efficiency
Decrease in discharge
Air-pockets cause water hammer, vibrations & corrosion
Hydraulic Design of Intakes

Vortex Classification
CLOSEUP OF FREE-SURFACE VORTEX AT NIMBUS DAM
Air-entraining vortex

Air-entraining vortex (Durai & Ahmad 2007)


Submergence Depth

For symmetrical approach

S
0.3
V D

For lateral approach

S
0.4
V D
S (m); D(m); V(m/s)

USBR DESIGN STANDARD NO. 6

H > 0.8 he
Submergence Depth
IS 9761:1985

For large size intake (Fr 1/3) h/D = 1 to 1.5


For medium and small intakes (Fr > 1/3) h/D = 0.5 + 2Fr

V
Fr
gD

h
D h
D
Submergence Depth

Bell mouth vertical pipe intake (Jain et al., 1978)

1.724
d
0.42
S 5.6
c Q
F
0.5

SC = critical submergence; d = intake pipe diameter; Q = discharge;


= circulation; V 2 Rc

0.314
k 30.06 N v for N V 5 10 4

and k=1 for NV < 5 104

NV = g0.5d1.5/ (g= acceleration due to gravity; = kinematic viscosity of fluid.

The above equation is applicable up to Froude number 1.1.


Submergence Depth

Bell mouth vertical pipe intake (Durai et al. 2007)

Sc
0.44 F0.53
d

In the presence of circulation

0.44 F0.53 1 0.028 R 0.69 C0.88


Sc
d

V Vd
C , F , R
Vd gd
Submergence Depth (Continued)

Predictor for SC/di for c = 0 (Ahmad et al. 2008)

0.80 0.90
U
Sc i U
0.36
d gd gd
i i i

Predictor for SC/di for c = di/2

Sc Ui
0.29
d
i U
Anti Vortex Device (Parallel Fins) at the Reservoir Intake
Dinorwic Type anti Vortex
Device at Power Intake
Anti Vortex Device (Perforated Breast-Wall) at the Reservoir Intake
Sump Design for Single Pump Dry Well Sump

Side wall clearance B=D/3 to D/2 Bottom clearance C =D/2


Back clearance X =D/4 to D/3 Width W = 2D
No Sharp corners
Sump Design for Single Pump Wet Well Sump
Length of Approach Channel
Basic Sump Designs for Multiple Pumps Wet Well Arrangement

Velocity in the approach channel,


conveying water to sump < 1.2 m/s

Velocity at entry of bell mouth < 1.3


m/s
Approaches to the Open Sump
Design Problem

Design an intake structure (including trash rack) for a hydro power using
the following data:

Upstream face of dam vertical


Diameter of penstock 6m
Angle of penstock with horizontal 00
Elevation of centerline of penstock at intake 1243.50 m
Maximum reservoir level 1270.00 m
Lowest reservoir level 1233.30 m
Maximum flow through penstock 90 m3/s
Plot the section of transition at every 1 m from the face of the dam.