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Experiment

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-Approach

1

What is model?

Models are set of variables and their

interrelationships designed to represent

some real system in part or whole.

A body of information about a system

gathered for the purpose of studying the

system.

Research plays a major role in model

building and decision making process.

Example of a model

Where

Y = dependent variable,

A,B,C,D,&E =Independent variables

are computed through experimentation

Objectives of model formulation

Prediction of future

effectiveness

Theoretical Approach

Physics (Force Balance, Momentum

Balance, Energy Balance, Mass

Balance)

Form Mathematical

model of process

Verify

Experimentally

5

Experimental Approach

Vary all the INPUTS, of the process over a

widest possible range

process OUTPUTS .

and the outputs of the process by analyzing

the data.

Optimize established

relations.

6

STEPS IN EXPERIMENTATL APPROACH

IDENTIFICATION OF PROCESS VARIABLES

DATA PURIFICATION

FORMULATION OF MODEL 7

Dimensional Analysis

Used primarily as experimental tool to combine

many experimental variables into one in the

fluid mechanics and heat transfer.

pedagogical device.

shorter without the loss of control.

8

Dimensions /Quantities

1. Fundamental Dimensions(Primary Quantities)

Mass (M)

Length (L)

Time (T)

Temperature ()

fundamental dimensions.

9

Types of the derived quantities

S.N Category Distinguishing feature Example

variables no physical value Power

s variables dimensions nor fixed strain angle

value

3 Dimensional Have fixed dimensions Grav.constant,

constants and fixed value Plancks Const.

s constants but have fixed values

10

Dimensional formulae of the derived quantities

Sr. Physical Relation with other Dimensional SI

No. Quantity physical quantities Formula Unit

[L]x[L]=[L2]

1 Area Length x Breadth m2

Length x Breadth x [L]x[L]x[L]=[L3]

2 Volume m3

Height

[M]/[L3]=ML-3T0]

3 Density Mass/Volume kg m-3

[M0LT-

5 Acceleration Velocity/Time 1]/[T]=[M0LT-2] ms-2

[M]x[MILT-2] =

6 Force Mass x Acceleration N

[MLT-2]

[M]x[M0LT-1] = kg m

7 Momentum Mass x Velocity

[MLT-1] s-1

[MLT-2]x[L] =

8 Work Force x Distance Nm

[ML2T-2] 11

9 Power Work/Time [ML2T- W

2]/[T]=[ML2T-3]

2]/[L2]=[ML-1T2]

Kinetic

11 x Mass x [M]x[M0LT -1]2 Nm

energy

(Velocity)2 =ML2T-2

Potential

12 [M]X[M0LT- Nm

energy Mass x g x Distance 2]x[L]=ML2T-2

13 Impulse [MLT-2]x[T]=[ Ns

Force x time

MLT-1]

14 Torque [MLT- Nm

Force x Distance 2]x[L]=ML2T-2

Force/Area 2]/[L2]=[ML-1T-2]

Num

16 Strain Ext. in length [L]/[L]=[M0L0T0

ber

/Original length ]

[ML-1T-2]

17 Elasticity Nm-2

Stress/Strain M0L0T0]

Surface = [ML-1T-2]

18 [MLT- Nm-1

tension Force/Length 2]/[L]=[ML0T-2]

12

Dimensional Equation

v=u+at

Where,

u = initial velocity of the body

a = acceleration

t = the time taken to attain the final velocity v

Writing the formula in the dimensional equation form,

[M0 L T-1] =[M0 L T-1 ] +[M0 L T-2] [M0 L0 T]

According to Principle of homogeneity of dimensions , a physical

relation is dimensionally correct if the dimensions of the fundamental

quantities are same in each and every term on either side of the equation.

This can be seen that all the terms of this equation are having the

dimensions [M0 L T-1].

13

Uses of dimensional equations

To check the correctness of a dim.

Equation.

To recapitulate a forgotten formula.

physical quantities.

To find dimensions of constants in a given

eqn.

14

Dimensional Analysis applied to Experimentation

After identifying the physical quantities

encountered in the process by study of related

literature or by knowing the governing equation

dimensional analysis can be applied . It helps in

(i) Confirming the correct account of the

physical quantities involved in the process

(ii) Grouping various physical quantities to

make the experimentation compact, economical,

less time taking.

(iii) Proper selection of group of physical

quantities to take care of instrument inaccuracies.

15

Types of Variables

(1) Independent / Fundamental Variables: Variable

that influences the test and can be changed

independently.

(2) Extraneous Variables: Variables that influences

the process but cannot be changed at our will viz.

effect of humidity, human effects.

(3) Controlled Variables: Fundamental variables but

not altered due to practical reasons e.g. acceleration

due to gravity.

(4) Dependent variables / Response variables :

which change due to the change in the values of the

independent variables.

16

Rayleighs Method

Let X be an independent variable, which depends

on x1, x2, x3 etc. Then according to Rayleigh's

method, X is a function of x1 , x2 ,x3 - etc. and

mathematically it can be written as

X = f (x1, x2, x3) or

X = k xa1 , xb2 ,xc3

where k is a constant and a, b and c are indices

the powers of the fundamental dimension on both

sides.

17

Example:

The drag D experienced by a ship having a

characteristic length l and moving with a speed v

depends upon the fluid mass density ; viscosity

and acceleration due to gravity g, obtain an

expression for drag in terms of dimensionless

parameters.

Solution: The functional relationship between the

dependent and independent variables can be

expressed as

D=f(L,v,,,g) = K (l)a(v)b()cdge ----- (1)

D=pl2v2f[Re,Fr] 18

( MLT 2 ) ( L) a ( LT 1 )b ( ML3 )c ( ML1T 1 ) d ( LT 2 )e

MLT 2 M c d La b3cd eT bd 2e

Equating the powers on both sides and solving in terms of d & e

M : c d 1 c 1 d - (2)

L : a b 3c d e 1 - (3)

T : b d 2e 2 b 2 d 2e - (4)

From..equation..(3)

a (2 d 2e) 3(1 d )( d )( d ) e 1

a 2 d 2e 3 3d (d ) e 1

a 1 d e 1

a 2ed - (5)

Substituting.. value of a,.b,. & .c.in. terms of d & e in EQ .(1)

D k (l ) a (v)b ( )c ( g )e k (l) 2ed (v) 2d 2e ( )l d d g e

e

d

d

2 e

2 2 lg 2 2 vl

v

k (l v ) k (l v )

lv 2

v lg

19

Buckingham pi () Theorem Method

If there are m primary dimensions involved in the n

variables controlling a physical phenomenon, then the

phenomenon can be described by ( n-m ) independent

dimensionless groups.

that one variable contain geometric property, other

variable contain flow property and third variable contain

fluid property.

fundamental dimensions (M, L, T) then Buckingham's Pi

theorem becomes less laborious than Rayleigh's method.

20

Example: The testing force F of a supersonic plane

during flight can be considered as dependent upon the

length of the aircraft l, velocity v, air viscosity, air

density, and bulk modulus of air K. Express the

functional relationship between these variables

Solution:

F f (l , v, , , k )orf ( F , l , v, , , k ) 0 -(1)

n=6, m= 3, n-m=3 dimensionless pi terms will be formed.

Selecting l (geometric property), v( motion property), and

(fluid property) as repeating variables in each of the

dimensionless group i. e. pi term.

21

1 la1v b1 c1F

( L) a ( LT 1 )b ( ML3 ) c ( MLT 2) )

V LT 1

ML3

2

F MLT

M 0 L0T 0 M c1b13c11T b12

22

For M c1+1=0 c1= -1

2 2 1 F

1 l v F - (2)

l v

2 2

2 l v

a2 b2 c2

c2 1 a2b2 3 c 21 b 21

M LT M

0 0 0

L T

23

Similarly equating the powers of L, M, & T In the above we get

l v

2 1 1 1

- (3)

lv

3 l v k a3 b3 c3

( L) a3 2 1 b3

( LT ) ( ML ) ( ML T 3 c3 1 2

)

M LT M c3 1 b 3 2

0 0 0 a 3 2 b3 2 3 c 2 1

L T

For M c3+1=0 c3= -1

For L a3+b3-3c3-1=0 a3= 0

For T -b3-2=0 b3=-2

24

K

3 - (4)

v2

Thus the functional relationship will be

F k

f [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] 0 f 2 2 , , 2 0

l v vl v

k

F l v

2 2

, 2

v l v

25

Test Planning

1 Determination of the test envelope

26

1. Determination of Test Envelope

Ideally from - to +

Wider range Higher cost, Unmanageable data

More chances of error, Limitation of Test App.

27

2. Determination of Test points

* More spacing of test points inaccuracy

3

Criteria for selection Test points

a) The relative accuracy of data in different regions of

test envelope.

Many tests show unequal precision over entire test envelope.

If for achieving a precision of P the number of the readings

required are x, then for precision of n times p the number of

readings required are n2 p.

If the precision is doubtful more than normal points may be taken

in this area. If precision is better two times in one region, then

twice the number of observation in that area should be taken for

region with less precision.

28

b) The nature of experimental function (for approx.known exptl. Fn)

Let Pressure drop P = [ K V2] /2g ,

Where = Density V= Velocity of flow &

we want to establish the value of k.

(i) For equal spacing of V at V

The spacing is deficient because at high velocity, the points are

insufficient while at low velocity points are overloaded.

29

ii) For equal spacing of P

We get more points for larger values of P i.e. larger values of

velocity while precision is not good for lower values of velocity.

30

(iii) For uniform & constant precision

We should have points spaced along equal distances or arc length of

experimental curve.

31

3. Test sequence

Basically all test are irreversible for which sequential plan

is adopted. Test are irreversible due to effects of hysterisis

in iron-core, Metallurgical changes in specimen. But

wherever possible in engineering experimentation

randomized plans are used partially or completely.

Random plans are preferred because the observation of

sequential plans shows certain trends due to following

reasons.

i.Natural effects may show a general trend during a test

series.

e.g. effect of humidity & temp on barometric pressure.

ii.Human activities may show a trend during test series

due to increasing skill or increasing boredom.

iii. Mechanical defects may produce a trend with regular 32

variation.

Sequential plans are preferred when

a. Length, cost or difficulties in performing the

experimentation do not permit use of randomized plan.

shown only by taking data at some regular sequence. 33

Graeco Latin square

For a machining operation,

Extraneous variables are skill of machinist, his

physical strength, shift of working etc.,

Speeds available are 1,2,3, & 4,

Machines available are w, x, y, & z.

Men operating the machines are A, B, C, & D

Graeco Latin square suggests best randomized

plan to get the optimized results.

34

Every man should work on every machine and on every day. Every

machine should be operated every day and on every cutting speed.

Speeds available are 1,2,3, & 4,

Machines available are w, x, y, & z.

Men operating the machines are A, B, C, & D

1w 2x 3y 4z

A

3x 4w 1z 2y

B

2z 1y 4x 3w

C

4y 3z 2w 1x

D

35

The concept of randomized block can be used to decide the

optimum m/c speed for a new cutting tool.

R=f(X). R = Production rate,

X = m/c speed

Rejection percentage not to be exceeded

Extraneous variables, machinist, shift day, machine

M T W TH

A 1 2 3 4

B 1 2 3 4

C 1 2 3 4

D 1 2 3 4

36

Enthusiasm, interest, or dismay generated by a new tool on

first day may gradually fall. Leaving may occur and

production may go-up.

Thus extraneous variable shift day is established

Randomize the shift day

One solution of randomizing the shift day but not correct

is given below

Man Shift Day

M T W TH

A 4 2 1 3

B 2 3 1 4

C 3 2 1 4

D 1 3 4 2

37

Decrease in interest at the end of test might suggest a

peaking in the middle speed range. Which is not actually a

speed dependent effect

Correct solution for randomizing the machinist shift day

is given below.

Man Shift Day

M T W TH

A 1 2 3 4

B 3 4 1 2

C 2 1 4 3

D 4 3 2 1

38

Conditions for proper randomization

1. Each speed must appear every day 2. No man will

execute one speed . Correct solution for randomizing the

machinist shift day

Man Shift Day

M T W TH

A 1W 2X 3Z 4Y

B 3X 4W 1Y 2Z

C 2Y 1Z 4X 3W

D 4Z 3Y 2W 1X

balance tent 4 m/c W, X, Y, Z

Condition each m/c to be used by each operator for each speed &

39

every day.

Case study of Seat design

Productivity

Human energy

Electrical energy

Anthropometric features/variables of operator.

Environmental variables.

Other variables.

40

41

Dimensional analysis

1 Pi-term relating to anthropometric dimensions of the user

a. e. b. d

h. g. f. c

1

2 Pi-terms relating to geometric variables

H T . L D . W T. l w

a

: a

H .L .W L W

H B . H C . R v. H .L .W.

H A. W b . R h h f . l f . wf

3 Pi-term relating to environmental variable

6 =

42

4Pi terms relating to dependent variables

Applying the Buckinghams pi theorem we get,

EE

7 = vi. (Dbt)j. (Heat)k. Wim . EE

V . Wi

equation we get,

HE P . Heat

Heat V . Wi

43

2 Test planning

This comprises of deciding test envelope, test points,

test sequence and experimental plan for the deduced set

of dimensional equations.

limiting values of numerator and denominator terms.

44

2 Determination of test points

. In this test like majority of engineering

experiments partial randomized sequence

is proposed.

4 Determination of plan of experimentation

45

Experimental plan

1 A1 G1 E1morning

2 A1 G1 E1 noon

3 A1 G1 E1 afternoon

4 A1 G2 E1morning

5 A1 G2 E1 noon

6 A1 G2 E1 afternoon

7 A1 G3 E1morning

8 A1 G3 E1 noon

9 A1 G3 E1 afternoon

10 A1 G4 E1morning

11 A1 G4 E1 noon

12 A1 G4 E1 afternoon

46

47

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