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ANOVA

SPSS Basic Tutorial

Repeated Measures ANOVA

the participants are the same in each group.

to see changes to an intervention;

condition/trial and the response to each of these

conditions wants to be compared.

Repeated Measures ANOVA:

Example 1

Dependent variable

cigaretteconsumption amongst heavy

smokers after a hypnotherapy programme

(e.g., with three time points: cigarette

consumption immediately before, 1 month

after, and 6 months after the hypnotherapy

programme).

time Independent variable with three

related groups, where each of the three

time points is considered a "related group"

Repeated Measures ANOVA:

Example 2

Dependent variable

different coloured tints of windscreen

(e.g., breaking speed under four

conditions: no tint, low tint, medium tint

and dark tint)

condition Independent variable - i.e., with four

related groups, where each of the four conditions is

considered a "related group").

Repeated Measures ANOVA:

Assumptions

measured at the continuous level (i.e., they

are interval or ratio variables).

consist of at least two categorical, "related

groups" or "matched pairs".

Repeated Measures ANOVA:

Assumptions

outliers in the related groups.

variable in the two or more related groups should

be approximately normally distributed.

Repeated Measures ANOVA:

Assumptions

variances of the differences between all

combinations of related groups must be equal.

ASSUMPTION #1

revision time (measured in hours);

intelligence (measured using IQ score);

exam performance (measured from 0 to

100);

weight (measured in kg), and so forth.

ASSUMPTION #2

subjects are present in both groups. The

reason that it is possible to have the same

subjects in each group is because each

subject has been measured on two

occasions on the same dependent variable.

ASSUMPTION #3

Outliers are simply single data points within your

data that do not follow the usual pattern. The

problem with outliers is that they can have a

negative effect on the repeated measures

ANOVA, distorting the differences between the

related groups (whether increasing or

decreasing the scores on the dependent

variable), and can reduce the accuracy of your

results.

ASSUMPTION #4

only requiring approximately normal data

because it is quite "robust" to violations of

normality, meaning that the assumption can be

a little violated and still provide valid results. You

can test for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test

of normality, which is easily tested for using SPSS

Statistics.

ASSUMPTION #5

are particularly susceptible to violating the

assumption of sphericity, which causes the test

to become too liberal (i.e., leads to an

increase in the Type I error rate; that is, the

likelihood of detecting a statistically significant

result when there isn't one).

SAMPLE PROBLEM

Researchers want to test a new anti-anxiety

medication. They measure the anxiety of 7

participants three times: once before taking the

medication, once one week after taking the

medication, and once two weeks after taking the

medication. Anxiety is rated on a scale of 1-10,

with 10 being high anxiety and 1 being low

anxiety. Are there any differences between the

conditions using alpha = 0.05?

SAMPLE PROBLEM

BEFORE WEEK 1 WEEK 2

9 7 4

8 6 3

7 6 2

8 7 3

8 8 4

9 7 3

8 6 2

Repeated Measures ANOVA:

STEPS

1. Define Null and alternative Hypotheses

2. State Alpha

3. Calculate Degrees of Freedom

4. State Decision Rule

5. Calculate Test Statistic

6. State Results

7. State Conclusion

DEFINE NULL AND ALTERNATIVE

HYPOTHESES

: = 1 = 2

1 : 1 2

STATE ALPHA

= .

CALCULATE DEGREES OF FREEDOM

BEFORE WEEK 1 WEEK 2

9 7 4

8 6 3

7 6 2

8 7 3

8 8 4

9 7 3

8 6 2

= 21 s=7

CALCULATE DEGREES OF FREEDOM

BEFORE WEEK 1 WEEK 2 = 21 s=7

9 7 4

8 6 3

= 1 = 3 1 = 2

7 6 2

8 7 3

= = 21 3 = 18

8 8 4

9 7 3

8 6 2 = 1 = 7 1 = 6

= = 18 6 = 12

= 1 = 20

STATE THE DECISION RULE

different degrees of freedom.

= 1 = 3 1 = 2

= = 18 6 = 12

F is greater than 3.8853, we reject the null

hypothesis.

CALCULATE TEST STATISTIC

BEFORE WEEK 1 WEEK 2 SS df MS F

9 7 4

Between 98.67 12 49.34

8 6 3

7 6 2 Within 10.29 18

8 8 4

Error 2.67 12 0.22

9 7 3

8 6 2 Toatal 108.96 20

hypothesis.

REPEATED MEASURES

ANOVA IN SPSS

Step 1: Input the variables.

Step 2: Input the data.

Step 3: Analyze the data.

Click ANALYZE on top of the Menu bar > Choose GENERAL LINEAR MODEL

> Click REPEATED MEASURES

Step 3: Analyze the data.

Define Factor(s) dialog box,

Type the factor and number

of levels. In this case, input

TIME then 3 in the number

of levels. Then click define

to progress.

Step 3: Analyze the data.

In the Repeated Measures

Define Factor(s) dialog box,

Type the factor and number

of levels. In this case, input

TIME then 3 in the number

of levels. Then click add and

define to progress.

Step 3: Analyze the data.

Measures dialog box will

appear. Select the 3

variables that

represents the repeated

measure variable (ONLY

ONE AT A TIME). Then

click on the arrow to

move them within-

subjects variables box.

Step 3: Analyze the data.

Step 3: Analyze the data.

Then the Repeated

Measures: Options

dialog box will appear.

the arrow button to

move in Display Means

for:

Step 3: Analyze the data.

Click the small boxes of

Descriptive Statistics

Estimates of Effect size

Observed power

Then set the Significance

level to 0.05.

Then, you go back to

the Repeated

Measures dialog box

> Click OK.

STEP 4: Results and Conclusion.

STEP 4: Results and Conclusion.

STEP 4: Results and Conclusion.

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