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Repeated Measures

ANOVA
SPSS Basic Tutorial
Repeated Measures ANOVA

used to compare three or more group means where


the participants are the same in each group.

(1) when participants are measured multiple times


to see changes to an intervention;

(2) when participants are subjected to more than one


condition/trial and the response to each of these
conditions wants to be compared.
Repeated Measures ANOVA:
Example 1
Dependent variable
cigaretteconsumption amongst heavy
smokers after a hypnotherapy programme
(e.g., with three time points: cigarette
consumption immediately before, 1 month
after, and 6 months after the hypnotherapy
programme).
time Independent variable with three
related groups, where each of the three
time points is considered a "related group"
Repeated Measures ANOVA:
Example 2
Dependent variable

breaking speed in a car based on three


different coloured tints of windscreen
(e.g., breaking speed under four
conditions: no tint, low tint, medium tint
and dark tint)
condition Independent variable - i.e., with four
related groups, where each of the four conditions is
considered a "related group").
Repeated Measures ANOVA:
Assumptions

Assumption #1:Your dependent variable should be


measured at the continuous level (i.e., they
are interval or ratio variables).

Assumption #2: Your independent variable should


consist of at least two categorical, "related
groups" or "matched pairs".
Repeated Measures ANOVA:
Assumptions

Assumption #3: There should be no significant


outliers in the related groups.

Assumption #4: The distribution of the dependent


variable in the two or more related groups should
be approximately normally distributed.
Repeated Measures ANOVA:
Assumptions

Assumption #5: Known as sphericity, the


variances of the differences between all
combinations of related groups must be equal.
ASSUMPTION #1

Examples of continuous variables include:


revision time (measured in hours);
intelligence (measured using IQ score);
exam performance (measured from 0 to
100);
weight (measured in kg), and so forth.
ASSUMPTION #2

"Relatedgroups" indicates that the same


subjects are present in both groups. The
reason that it is possible to have the same
subjects in each group is because each
subject has been measured on two
occasions on the same dependent variable.
ASSUMPTION #3
Outliers are simply single data points within your
data that do not follow the usual pattern. The
problem with outliers is that they can have a
negative effect on the repeated measures
ANOVA, distorting the differences between the
related groups (whether increasing or
decreasing the scores on the dependent
variable), and can reduce the accuracy of your
results.
ASSUMPTION #4

We talk about the repeated measures ANOVA


only requiring approximately normal data
because it is quite "robust" to violations of
normality, meaning that the assumption can be
a little violated and still provide valid results. You
can test for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test
of normality, which is easily tested for using SPSS
Statistics.
ASSUMPTION #5

Unfortunately, repeated measures ANOVAs


are particularly susceptible to violating the
assumption of sphericity, which causes the test
to become too liberal (i.e., leads to an
increase in the Type I error rate; that is, the
likelihood of detecting a statistically significant
result when there isn't one).
SAMPLE PROBLEM
Researchers want to test a new anti-anxiety
medication. They measure the anxiety of 7
participants three times: once before taking the
medication, once one week after taking the
medication, and once two weeks after taking the
medication. Anxiety is rated on a scale of 1-10,
with 10 being high anxiety and 1 being low
anxiety. Are there any differences between the
conditions using alpha = 0.05?
SAMPLE PROBLEM
BEFORE WEEK 1 WEEK 2
9 7 4
8 6 3
7 6 2
8 7 3
8 8 4
9 7 3
8 6 2
Repeated Measures ANOVA:
STEPS
1. Define Null and alternative Hypotheses
2. State Alpha
3. Calculate Degrees of Freedom
4. State Decision Rule
5. Calculate Test Statistic
6. State Results
7. State Conclusion
DEFINE NULL AND ALTERNATIVE
HYPOTHESES

: = 1 = 2

1 : 1 2
STATE ALPHA

= .
CALCULATE DEGREES OF FREEDOM
BEFORE WEEK 1 WEEK 2
9 7 4
8 6 3
7 6 2
8 7 3
8 8 4
9 7 3
8 6 2

= 21 s=7
CALCULATE DEGREES OF FREEDOM
BEFORE WEEK 1 WEEK 2 = 21 s=7
9 7 4
8 6 3
= 1 = 3 1 = 2
7 6 2
8 7 3
= = 21 3 = 18
8 8 4
9 7 3
8 6 2 = 1 = 7 1 = 6

= = 18 6 = 12

= 1 = 20
STATE THE DECISION RULE

To look up the critical value, we need to use two


different degrees of freedom.

= 1 = 3 1 = 2
= = 18 6 = 12

Then using the f table we have 3.8853 that means if


F is greater than 3.8853, we reject the null
hypothesis.
CALCULATE TEST STATISTIC
BEFORE WEEK 1 WEEK 2 SS df MS F
9 7 4
Between 98.67 12 49.34
8 6 3
7 6 2 Within 10.29 18

8 7 3 Subjects 7.62 6 224.27


8 8 4
Error 2.67 12 0.22
9 7 3
8 6 2 Toatal 108.96 20

Since F=224.27 and is greater than 3.8835, we reject the null


hypothesis.
REPEATED MEASURES
ANOVA IN SPSS
Step 1: Input the variables.
Step 2: Input the data.
Step 3: Analyze the data.
Click ANALYZE on top of the Menu bar > Choose GENERAL LINEAR MODEL
> Click REPEATED MEASURES
Step 3: Analyze the data.

In the Repeated Measures


Define Factor(s) dialog box,
Type the factor and number
of levels. In this case, input
TIME then 3 in the number
of levels. Then click define
to progress.
Step 3: Analyze the data.
In the Repeated Measures
Define Factor(s) dialog box,
Type the factor and number
of levels. In this case, input
TIME then 3 in the number
of levels. Then click add and
define to progress.
Step 3: Analyze the data.

Then the Repeated


Measures dialog box will
appear. Select the 3
variables that
represents the repeated
measure variable (ONLY
ONE AT A TIME). Then
click on the arrow to
move them within-
subjects variables box.
Step 3: Analyze the data.

Then click options.


Step 3: Analyze the data.
Then the Repeated
Measures: Options
dialog box will appear.

Click TIME then click


the arrow button to
move in Display Means
for:
Step 3: Analyze the data.
Click the small boxes of
Descriptive Statistics
Estimates of Effect size
Observed power
Then set the Significance
level to 0.05.

Click continue to progress.


Then, you go back to
the Repeated
Measures dialog box
> Click OK.
STEP 4: Results and Conclusion.
STEP 4: Results and Conclusion.
STEP 4: Results and Conclusion.