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Strut and tie

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TIE MODELS FOR SIMPLY

SUPPORTED BEAMS

USING MINIMUM

STRAIN ENERGY

Qinang Hu, M. Tyler Ley, and Bruce W. Russell

KSHITIZ SHRESTHA

1

INTRODUCTION

• Strut-and-tie modeling is a powerful design

technique for concrete members with any

geometry.

• Strut-and-tie modeling is especially useful

when members do not meet the assumptions

in a sectional analysis or where beam theory

does not apply.

• The strut-and-tie modeling method uses a

lower bound plasticity theorem i.e. the

capacity of a strut-and-tie model (STM) is

always conservative

2

INTRODUCTION

• In traditional beam designs, sections must be

designed separately for bending, shear,

torsion, and for combinations of loading.

• STMs, any stable model chosen will account

for all forces and their interactions.

• In strut-and-tie modeling, there are three

types of members:

1) struts represent concrete compression members

2) ties represent steel tension members; and

3) nodes form the joints of the “truss model.” The

nodes transfer forces from one member to

another.

3

RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE

• STM can be flexible to the extreme, there is

little guidance in choosing a rational model.

• Flexibility has made it challenging to widely

implement strut-and-tie modeling as the

design forces within the model and, hence,

the results will vary with the STM that is

chosen.

• AIM: provide quantitative methods to choose

an STM.

4

MINIMUM STRAIN ENERGY

• The elastic strain energy of a truss member

can be defined by:

𝑛

𝑈 = 𝐹𝑖 𝑙𝑖 𝜀𝑖

𝑖

where , Fi = Force in member i

li = Member length

εi = Member strain

In STMs, the strain values in concrete struts are small compared to

the yield strains in the steel ties; therefore, the contributions of

strain energy from the compression members can be excluded

from the strain energy calculation. So, n here is number of tension

members.

5

MINIMUM STRAIN ENERGY

𝐹𝑖

𝜀𝑖 =

𝐴𝑖 𝐸

𝐹𝑖

𝑓𝑦 =

𝐴𝑖

𝑛 2

𝐴𝑖 𝑙𝑖 𝑓𝑦

𝑈=

𝐸

𝑖

Where, fy = Yield stress of steel bar.

E = Young’s Modulus of Steel.

6

MINIMUM STRAIN ENERGY

• One common application of STM is design of

deep beam.

• Deep beams are defined by ACI as members

with load on one side (for example, top) and

support on other side (for example, bottom),

and with clear span equal to or less than four

times member height; or with concentrated

loads within twice height distance from the

support (ACI Committee 318 2011)

7

METHODS

• A simply supported beam with point load at

center is considered.

Where,

P = Force applied at the center of

beam

a = Shear span or one-half of

span length

d = Distance between top and

bottom chord.

8

DIFFERENT STM’s MODEL

• Five STM’s model’s were investigated, one-,

three-, five-, seven-, nine-panel trusses.

In three-panel truss, In one-panel truss,

• 3 fixed nodes for center load Truss is defined by 3 nodes.

point and support reaction 2 nodes are defined by the

points. supports and third node by the

• On each side, there are two load point

variable nodes, Nodes 1 and 2

• For Node 2, the y-location (or

vertical location) is forced to the

bottom chord. However, Node

1 can be located anywhere

within the beam.

Fig: One-panel Truss Fig: Three-panel Truss

9

DIFFERENT STM’s MODEL

NUMERICAL ALGORITHM

• The beam regions were discretized by

creating a grid with equally spaced nodes at

1% of the span, or 0.01L

• First, a/d is chosen for investigation.

• All possible geometries for the variable nodes

are investigated by varying the node

locations to find the minimum strain energy.

11

NUMERICAL ALGORITHM

• Iteration process are as follows:

1. Set Node 1 to a unique location. Note that both x- and

y-coordinates for Node 1 (A1 and D1) are variables.

2. Node 2 is varied along the bottom chord to all possible

geometries. Note that only the x-coordinate is variable

(A2), as the y-coordinate is constrained to the bottom

chord.

3. For each new location for Node 2, internal forces within

the truss are solved and the corresponding strain energy

value for the truss is found. Strain energy is computed for

each possible location for Node 2, and the results are

recorded.

4. After Node 2 is moved from the support to the center of

beam, move Node 1 to next location, and the procedure

from Steps 1 to 3 is repeated.

12

NUMERICAL ALGORITHM

5. When the procedures from Steps 1 to 4 are repeated for all

possible locations for Node 1 and 2, then strain energy has

been computed for a large number of geometries. Strain

energies are compared and the geometry that produced the

least strain energy is identified. That geometry becomes the

least-energy Solution for that particular a/d.

6. Repeat Steps 1 through 5 for each successive a/d.

variables:

1) the x-coordinate for Node 2

(referred to as A2 in this paper);

2) the x-coordinate for Node 1 (A1);

and

3) the y-coordinate for Node 1 (D1).

13

RESULT THREE-PANEL TRUSS

For an a/d of 0.6, the three-panel truss requires approximately 2% less strain

energy than the one-panel truss.

Table 1: minimum strain energy geometry for three-panel truss for a/d from 0.6 to 3.0 14

OTHER RESULTS

15

OTHER RESULTS

• Results for truss types with minimum strain

energy for a/d up to 10.0

• The three-panel STM exhibited the least minimum strain

energy for a/d from 0.6 to 2.0

• A five-panel STM requires less strain energy than the three-

panel STM for a/d from 2.0 to 3.8

• a seven-panel STM requires less strain energy than a five-

panel STM for a/d from 3.8 to 7.1

• For few nine-panel STM configurations investigated, found

to provide solutions at less energy than the seven-panel

truss at a/d greater than 7.1

16

OTHER RESULTS

Fig: Line diagram for selection of truss geometry on basis of a/d ratio. 17

DISCUSSIONS

• Patterns in the controlling truss models:

• Figure and above table shows that the angles

of the two compression diagonals (θ1and θ3)

are approximately the same.

• In every case shown in Table 1, angles θ1 and

θ3 are approximately the same.

• This suggests that where the STM geometry is

configured to produce minimum strain energy,

the two compression diagonals are parallel to

one another.

• Figure shows that the angle formed between

the compression struts and the tension ties are

orthogonal, at least for the three-panel trusses.

So, for the most efficient STM compression

struts and tension ties that are joined by

orthogonal angles.

DISCUSSIONS

For the

• As a result of this observation, controlling

the solution togeometry for the

the least-energy

truss becomes a solution five-, seven-,

with only oneand nine-panel

variable for anytruss,

three-

panel STM, instead of there three was a repeated

variables. geometry

This most-energy-

pattern

efficient truss is defined by in the of

the angle central portionofofthe

inclination thefirst

model. to

compression strut with respect This

thegeometry

bottom has a parallel

chord with ties

normal to these members. top and bottom chords with

inclination angles approximately

equal to 45 degrees of its members

and a spacing between the nodes on

the top chord equal to 2d

CONCLUSIONS

• In three-panel STMs with a/d equal to and

lower than 1.7, the location of Node 1 is

located below the mid height of the

member and near the end of the beam. The

significance of this phenomenon seems to

suggest that tension reinforcement

distributed through the depth of the beam

would be beneficial to performance. This

matches common detailing practice

• Beams that had an a/d larger than 2.9 were

shown to have repeating geometries with

parallel top chords and inclination angles of

45 degrees for one or more repeated panels

20

EXAMPLE PROBLEM

• A simply supported beam is shown in Fig.

with a span length of 22m (72.18ft), d of 5m

(16.4ft), and a point load of 17m (55.77ft)

from the left support.

21

EXAMPLE PROBLEM

• The span between the point load and right

support has an a/d of 1.0

• The left side has a1/d = 3.4, which is larger

than 2.9, thus, one repeated geometry

should be used.

22

EXAMPLE PROBLEM

• the a/d of the remaining length becomes

a1′/d = 1.4

• this is less than 2.9, a unique geometry

should be used.

• From Table 1, A1 = 0.211d, D1 = 0.352d, and

A2 = 0.803d. These dimensions become 1.05,

1.76, and 4m.

• For the right span, because the a2/d = 1

and is less than 2.9, there is no repeated

geometry and only a unique geometry.

23

EXAMPLE PROBLEM

Fig: Final efficient STM model for the problem, all dimensions in m

24

AUTHOR BIOS

• ACI member Qinang Hu is a PhD Student at Oklahoma State

University, Stillwater, OK. He received his BS from China University of

Mining and Technology, Beijing, China, and his MS from Oklahoma

State University. His research interests include concrete materials,

image analysis, computational analysis, and concrete structures.

• ACI member M. Tyler Ley is an Associate Professor at Oklahoma State

University and is a member of ACI Committees 201, Durability of

Concrete; 211, Proportioning Concrete Mixtures; 236, Material

Science of Concrete; ACI Subcommittee 130-A, Materials

(Sustainability of Concrete); and the Scholarship Council. He research

interests include concrete materials and concrete structures.

• Bruce W. Russell, FACI, is an Associate Professor of civil and

environmental engineering at Oklahoma State University and is a

member and former Chair of Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 423,

Prestressed Concrete. He is also a member of ACI Subcommittee 318-

G, Precast and Prestressed Concrete (Structural Concrete Building

Code). He has served as a member and as Chair of the ACI

Publications Committee. His research interests include prestressed

concrete structures and concrete materials.

25

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