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Management

Information Systems,
10/e
Raymond McLeod Jr. and George P. Schell

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Chapter 4
System Users and Developers

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Learning Objectives
► Know that the organizational content for systems
development and use is changing from a physical
to a virtual structure.
► Know who the information specialists are and how
they can be integrated into an information services
organization.
► Be alert to new directions that the information
services organization may take.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Learning Objectives (Cont’d)
► Understand what is meant by “end-user
computing” and why it came about.
► Appreciate that users, especially those with
an end-user computing capability, are a
valuable information resource.
► Know the benefits and risks of end-user
computing.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Learning Objectives (Cont’d)
► Be aware of the types of knowledge and skill that
are important to systems development.
► Appreciate the value of managing the knowledge
held by information specialists and users.
► Recognize the benefits and risks of the virtual
office and the virtual organization.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 4.1 Information Systems Are
Developed to Support Organizational
Levels and Areas

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Information Services (IS)
Organization
► Information resources
► Information specialists
 System analysts
 Database administrators
 Webmasters
 Network specialists
 Programmers
 Operators

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
The Informational Services
Organizational Structure
► Trend from centralized to decentralized
structure.
 Divisional information officer (DIO)
► Innovative
 Partner model
 Platform model
 Scalable model

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Figure 4.3 A Network Model of
Information Services Organization

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Network Model (Cont’d)
► Visioning network enables the CIO to
work with top management in strategic
planning for information resources.
► Innovation network is used by the CIO to
interface with business areas so that
innovations can be developed.
► Sourcing network is utilized to interface
with vendor for acquiring information
resources.
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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
End-user Computing
► End-user computing (EUC) is the
development by users of all or parts of their
information systems.
► EUC has 4 main influences:
 The impact of computer education.
 The information services backlog.
 Low-cost hardware.
 Prewritten software.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Benefits of EUC
► Matchcapabilities and challenges.
► Reduce the communication gap.

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Risks of EUC
► Poorly targeted systems.
► Poorly designed and documented systems.
► Inefficient use of information resources.
► Loss of data integrity.
► Loss of security.
► Loss of control.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Education Criteria, Knowledge, and Skills
Needed for Careers in Information
Systems
► Systems development knowledge
 Computer literacy
 Information literacy
 Business fundamentals
 Systems theory
 Systems development process
 Systems life cycle (SLC) and Systems development life
cycle (SDLC)
 Systems modeling

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
Table 4.1 Knowledge Requirements

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Education Criteria, …(Cont’d)
► Systems development skills
 Communications skills
 Analytical ability
 Creativity
 Leadership

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Table 4.2 Skill Requirements

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Managing the Knowledge Represented
by the Firm’s Information Resources
► Office automation includes all of the
formal and informal electronic systems
primarily concerned with the communication
of information to and from persons both
inside and outside the firm.
► Shift from clerical to managerial problem
solving.

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The Virtual Office
► Telecommuting describes how employees
could electronically “commute” to work.
► Hoteling is when the firm provides a
central facility that can be shared by
employees as the need for office space and
support arises.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
The Virtual Office (Cont’d)
► Advantages
 Reduced facility cost.
 Reduced equipment cost.
 Reduced work stoppages.
 Social contribution.
► Disadvantages
 Low morale.
 Fear of security risks.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
The Virtual Organization
► Three I Economy is those industries that
are most attracted to the concept of the
virtual office and the virtual organization
and those that add value in the form of
information, ideas, and intelligence.

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell
The Human Element
► Most important ingredient in the
development and use of information
systems.
► Main players
 Users
 Information specialists

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Raymond McLeod and George Schell