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MASONRY

THE TERM MASONRY APPLIES TO ANYTHING


CONSTRUCTED OF CONCRETE, BRICK, TILE,
CONCRETE BLOCK AND RELATED MATERIALS.
MASONRY IS THE PRIME BUILDING MATERIAL FOR
THE HEAVIEST CONSTRUCTION AND WORKERS
MUST HAVE ADVANCED TECHNICAL SKILLS TO
WORK IN THIS KIND OF JOB.
KINDS OF MASONRY MATERIALS:

• 1. PLAIN CONCRETE – contains no reinforcement and poured on the site


KINDS OF MASONRY MATERIALS:

• 2.REINFORCED CONCRETE – in which steel bars, wire, or fabric (metal mesh) is placed in
the concrete to increase its strength.
KINDS OF MASONRY MATERIALS:

• 3.PRECAST CONCRETE – in which the building element was formed away from the site.
KINDS OF MASONRY MATERIALS:

• 4.PRESTRESSED CONCRETE – in which concrete members are made by first stretching steel
wires in a form and then pouring the concrete over wire.
• 5.CONCRETE BLOCK – precast material commonly used in residential construction.
KINDS OF MASONRY MATERIALS:

• 6. BRICKS – are masonry units made primarily from clay or a clay mixture that is molded
into blocks.

• 7. TILES - are similar to bricks except that they are hollow units.
STONES:

• NATURAL STONES – are obtained by quarrying the river


banks or mountains.
• ARTIFICIAL STONES – are manufactured product made
of natural and synthetic material.
CONCRETE, CEMENT, AND AGGREGATES

• CONCRETE - consists of cement and fine particles of stone, sand and pebbles -
known as aggregate.

• CEMENT - is a fine, gray powder usually sold in bags through the builders outlet.

• SAND - unwashed or beach sand and volcanic debris (lahar) contain impurities
that could affect the quality of the concrete.
CONCRETE, CEMENT, AND AGGREGATES

• COARSE AGGREGATE - is gravel or crushed stone composed of particles large enough


(about 3/4 inch) for normal use

• PIGMENTS AND WATER - pecial pigments can be added to concrete but there is no
guarantee on even color from one batch of concrete to another.

• MIXING CONCRETE - measure the materials accurately. Concrete can be mixed by hand or
by using a machine.
ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING

• ARCHITECTURAL OR CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS - are main source of information


for skilled workers and mason responsible for the job.
• LINES - show the shape of the construction and include many details of its
fabrication.
• DIMENSIONS - are numbers that tell the sizes of a part as well as overall sizes
• SYMBOLS - are used to represent parts that would be impractical to show by
drawing such as doors, window, construction materials, electrical circuits and
plumbing materials.
VIEWS IN CONSTRUCTION DRAWING

• PLAN – is a top view, a projection, or a horizontal plane. There are several types of
plan.
a. Site plan – also known as plot plan, shows the building site with boundaries, contours,
existing roads, utilities, and other physical details (trees, buildings)
b. Foundation plan – is a top view of the footing (point of the foundation) or foundation
walls.
c. Floor plan – commonly referred to as plan views, are cross-section views of a building. It
shows the outside shape of the home and the arrangement, size, and shape of its rooms.
ELEVATIONS – Show the front, rear, and sides of a house. Elevation also shows
the exterior material used such as brick, stone, or other masonry and also the
height of windows, doors, and rooms.

SECTIONAL VIEWS – Provide information about height, dimension materials,


methods of fastening material support system and concealed features.

DETAILS – Are large-scale drawing, showing the builders of a structure how its
various parts are to be connected and placed.
BUILDING

• BUILDING PERMITS – generally required for new construction, and remodeling


projects. It is necessary to file complete set of drawings of the project along with
detailed specifications.
• BUILDING CODES – are comprehensive guidelines intended to set standards for
construction practices and materials specifications.
• ZONING RESTRICTIONS – zoning rules address the needs and conditions of the
community as a whole by regulating the development of the community.
ASSESSING THE HOUSE

• THE HALLWAY – The entrance hall must be large enough to receive visitors and
wide enough to allow large pieces of furniture to be carried inside the house.
• STAIRWAY – The staircase must have enough headroom of 7 feet above to
allow you to carry a wardrobe to the next floor.
• LIVING ROOM – The living room must be large enough to accommodate chairs
and other furniture.
ASSESSING THE HOUSE

• DINING ROOM AND KITCHEN – The dining room should be positioned


conveniently close to the kitchen so that meals are still warm when they get to
the table.
• BEDROOM – The bedroom must be large enough for the family. Sometimes one or
two extra rooms are needed for privacy and some guests.
• BATHROOM TOILET – For bigger families, there should be a separate toilet and
bathroom. The bathroom must be wide enough to accommodate a water
container in case there is not enough water in the shower.