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CHAPTER 8

1. Understanding the abiotic and biotic


components of the environment
1. Identify the abiotic and biotic components
of an ecosystem
2. Classify biotic components into trophic
levels
3. Explain the interactions between biotic
components in relation to feeding
4. Explain the interaction between biotic
components in relation to competition
 An ecosystem is a system formed by the
interaction of living organisms with one
another & with their environment.
 Ecology = the scientific study of the
interactions of living organisms with other
living organisms & with the physical
environment.
 Our environment consist of:
1. Living organisms - biotic components
2. Non-living organisms – abiotic components

 In any ecosystem, abiotic components


determine the population size and
distribution of the biotic components
1.
pH value

6. 2.
microclimate Light
intensity

Abiotic
components
5.
3.
Topography
temperature

4.
Humidity
 Most organisms can survive well in a neutral
or nearly neutral environment
 Aquatic organisms are sensitive to the
effects of the pH of water
 Certain plants prefer acidic soil- pineapple
 Certain plants prefer alkaline soil – coconut
plants
 The varying intensities of sunlight in a forest
result in the growth of different types of
plants
 Tall trees-exposed to high intensity of
sunlight
 Ferns & vines- survive under the cover of
shady trees
 Mosses,earthworm,ant –low light intensity of
sunlight
 Most living organisms can only tolerate a
narrow range of temperature ( 0-45 °C)
 Termophilic bacteria can survive in hot
spring-extreme temperature
 The humidity of air affects the rate of water
loss by plants & animals
 Humidity low-water evaporates from the
moist surfaces at a faster rate
 Humidity higher at night, lower during the
day
 Snakes, frogs,mosses-prefer humid area
 Is the physical features of the land which
concern the altitude, gradient & aspect of a
region.
 It influences the humidity, temperature &
light intensity of an ecosystem
 Altitude-higher altitude is associated with
lower atmospheric pressure & temperature .
So,differents plants grow at differents
altitudes.
 Gradient-steep slopes result in rapid
drainage & run-off. So, the soil layer is thinner
& drier- not a suitable habitat for organisms
 Aspect-the slopes of mountains facing the
direction of wind receive more rain than the
slopes shaded from the wind.
 Includes the humidity, temperature, light
intensity & atmospheric conditions in which
the organism lives
• Green plants
Producer • Use light energy to synthesis organic substance ( food )

Primary • Herbivores
• Obtain their energy by consuming producers
consumers
Secondary • Carnivores
• Obtain their energy by eating primary consumers
consumers
Tertiary • Carnivores
• Eating secondary consumers
comsumers
• Bacteria & fungi
Decompose • Microorganism that break down waste products & dead bodies of
other organisms into simpler substances to be used again by plants
r
 A sequence of organisms through which
energy is transferred
 Starts with a producers & ends with a top
consumers
 Each organism is the food of the next
organism in the chain
 Each stage in a food chain is known as a
trophic level

Grass Grasshopper Frogs Snakes


1.
Symbiosis
-commensalism
-mutualism
- parasitism

interaction

4. 3.
2.
Competition Pey- Saprophytism
predator
 A close relationship between 2 or more
different species which live closely together &
interact with each other
 Can be classified into 3 categories:
a) Commensalism
b) Mutualism
c) Parasitism
 One species (comensal)
benefits while the other (
the host) neither drives
any benefits nor is harmed
 Example: clown fish & sea
anemones, epiphytes
(pigeon orchids),staghon
fern,bird’s nest
fern,Pleurococcus
sp.,money plant, remora
fish & shark, Protozoa &
Cyclops sp., barnacles &
crabs/snail.
 Relationship between
2 species of organisms
in which both benefit
 Example: lichen (alga n
fungus), hermit crabs
& sea anemones,
Rhizobium sp. Bacteria
& legume plant.
 Relationship between
2 organism in which
one organism(the
parasites) benefits and
other ( the host ) is
harmed.
 Example: ectoparasites
(fleas,lice,barnacles,ap
hids) & endoparasites
(tapeworm,Rafflesia
sp.)
 Living organisms
obtain food from the
dead & decaying
matter
 Example: saprophytic
bacteria & fungi
( Mucor sp.),
mushrooms,bracket
fungus
 Relationship where an
organsim which is
smaller, called prey, is
hunted & eaten by a
stronger animal, the
predator
 Predator usually has
long canine teeth &
sharp claws to hold
&kill its prey
 Competition=interaction between organisms
living together in a habitat & competing for
the same resources that are in limited supply
 1 species is more successful than the other
 Species which are stronger & have better
adaptation are successful species
 Species which are weak will either migrate to
other areas or die
Intraspecific competition Interspecific competition
 Competition between  Competition between
individuals of the individuals of different
species
same species
 Example: Paramecium
 Example: Brophyllum sp. aurelia & Paramecium
caudatum