You are on page 1of 63

Georgia History Jan.

12, 2018
 SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that
occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918.
 a. Evaluate the impact the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton
Exposition, Tom Watson and the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the
Leo Frank Case, and the county unit system had on Georgia during this period.
 b. Analyze how rights were denied to African-Americans through Jim Crow laws, Plessy v.
Ferguson, disenfranchisement, and racial violence.
 c. Explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, John and Lugenia Burns
Hope, and Alonzo Herndon.
 d. Give reasons for World War I and describe Georgia’s contributions.
 Rubric for test corrections: Unit 4 corrections rubric: Test Correction
rubric: A) 90 -100= 1 B) 80-89=2 C) 70-79=3 D) 69-below=4
 STUDENTS COMPLETE: 1) FINALIZE UNIT 4 TEST
CORRECTIONS 2) TURN IN TODAY/LOOKING AHEAD
QUESTIONS ON PAGE PG. 316 (1-3), 328 (1-5), 3) “WHAT I
KNOW THUS FAR” 1-135
THE BOURBON TRIUMVIRATE
All three men had something in common: conservative Democrat governors who embraced the New
South movement by wanting to transform Georgia from an economy based on King Cotton agriculture
to a more modern industrialized economy that traded with the northern states. At the same time
these three conservative Democrats wanted to keep the old traditions of white supremacy in the South
during the “Redemption Period”, a period of regaining political power from the Radical Republicans
and restoring the type of government that once ruled before the Civil War… The Lost Cause.
The Bourbons Triumvirate: 1) Joseph E. Brown 2) John B. Gordon 3)
Alfred H. Colquitt

 Conservative Democrats who had the same


beliefs
 Wanted to transform the south from
agriculture to an industrial economy.
 Wanted to keep the old traditions of the
south of white supremacy
The Bourbons Triumvirate: 1) Joseph E. Brown 2) John B. Gordon 3)
Alfred H. Colquitt

 Conservative________ who had


the______ beliefs
 Wanted to_______ the south
from_______ to an
industrial______.
 Wanted to keep the____ traditions
of the_______ of white_________
The Bourbons Triumvirate: 1) Joseph E. Brown 2) John B. Gordon 3)
Alfred H. Colquitt

 Conservative Democrats who had the same


beliefs
 Wanted to transform the south from
agriculture to an industrial economy.
 Wanted to keep the old traditions of the
south of white supremacy
So What:___________________________________________
Circle Map

pic Brown,Colquit, and pic


Gordon(The Bourbon
Triuvirate)

So Why?_______________________________________________
HENRY W. GRADY
Spokesman for the New South
movement. Henry Grady used
persuasive articles in the Atlanta
Constitution newspaper to convince
citizens that Georgia needed to become
more industrialized and modern. As an
orator (public speaker) he traveled to
New York and gave speeches to wealthy
northern businessmen. Grady
persuaded northerners to invest money
in southern businesses who wanted to
become more industrialized. This
changed and improved the Georgia
economy that relied mostly on
agriculture to one that started to have
more manufacturing. As a result, the
city of Atlanta became one of the largest
cities in the South.
Henry Grady

 Spokesman for the New South movement.


 Used the Atlanta Journal Constitution to
persuade Georgians to become more of an
industrial economy.
 As an orator (public speaker) he traveled to
New York and gave speeches to wealthy
northern businessmen in hopes they would
invest money for factories in the south.
 As a result, the city of Atlanta became one
of the largest cities in the South.
Henry Grady

 Spokesman for the______ South movement.


 Used the Atlanta Journal________ to
persuade________ to become more of an
industrial_________.
 As an_______ (public speaker) he traveled
to New York and gave_______ to wealthy
northern_______ in hopes they
would______ ______ for factories in the
south.
 As a result, the city of_____ became one of
the_____ cities in the ______.
Cause Effect

So What?_______________
_______________________.

pic

Cause and Effect

HENRY W. GRADY

pic

So Why?_________________
_________________________

pic
Henry Grady Henry Grady
statue in 1891 statue in 1951

Henry Grady
statue in 2008
Directions for multiflow map
activity:
INTERNATIONAL COTTON EXPOSITION
The city of Atlanta became a place for Georgia farmers and factory owners to showcase
what Georgia had to offer (especially cotton). Over 800,000 visitors came to Atlanta and
viewed over 6,000 exhibits that demonstrated how cotton and new machinery could be used
to make new products. This attracted northern investment dollars which helped industrialize
the South and transform the state of Georgia and its cities into industrial centers. Booker T.
Washington gave his famous Atlanta Compromise speech at the Cotton Exposition in 1895.
pc

INTERNATIONAL COTTON EXPOSITION

So what?________________.

So Why?_______________.
International Cotton Exposition
 Atlanta became a place for Georgia farmers and factory owners to
showcase what Georgia had to offer (especially cotton).
 Over 800,000 visitors came to Atlanta and viewed over 6,000 exhibits that
demonstrated how cotton and new machinery could be used to make new
products.
 This attracted northern investment dollars which helped industrialize the
South and transform the state of Georgia and its cities into industrial
centers.
 . Booker T. Washington gave his famous Atlanta Compromise speech at
the Cotton Exposition in 1895.
International Cotton Exposition

 Atlanta became a place for Georgia farmers


and_______ owners to_________ what Georgia had to
offer (especially cotton).
 Over________ visitors came to_______ and viewed
over _________ exhibits that________ how cotton and
new_______ could be used to make_____ products.
 This attracted_______ investment dollars which helped
industrialize the South and_________ the state
of_______ and its cities into________ centers.
 . Booker T.________ gave his______ Atlanta_______
speech at the Cotton Exposition in ____.
So What?_____________
___________________ PIC

INTERNATIONAL
COTTON PIC
PIC EXPOSITION

PIC
So Why?__________
__________________
Tom Watson
 Politics: 1) In 1882, Watson was elected to the Georgia House of
Representatives. 2) Work on behalf of distressed farmers (Farmers
Alliance). 3) joined the Populous party 4) Launched the Rural Free
Delivery Bill: Mail delivered to our homes.
 News Paper: 1) launched publication of an Atlanta weekly 2) Used
the paper to fuel race riots

 Racism: 1) 1896 Watson urged both white and black farmers to


unite behind him for Vice President bid but lost. 2) By 1905, he
openly called for black disfranchisement and even expressed
support for lynching. 3)Catholics and Jews also received his
disdain
Tom Watson
 Politics: 1) In_______, Watson was elected to the
Georgia House of___________. 2) Work on behalf of
distressed_______ (Farmers_______). 3) joined the
Populous party 4) Launched the______ Free Delivery
Bill:____ delivered to our______.
 News Paper: 1) launched_____ of an Atlanta______ 2)
Used the_____ to fuel race riots

 Racism: 1)_____ Watson urged both white and_____


farmers to unite behind him for____ President bid but
lost. 2) By____, he openly called for black_________
and even expressed_____ for lynching.3)______ and
Jews also received his______
TOM WATSON and the POPULISTS
In 1882, Watson was elected to the Georgia House of
Representatives. In 1890, based on his support of the
Farmers' Alliance, he was elected to Congress, where
he continued trying to work on behalf of distressed
farmers. His main accomplishment in Congress was
helping to launch a trial program in rural free delivery of
mail. In his 1892 reelection campaign, Watson urged
both white and black farmers to unite behind him.
Losing that bid, he ran as the Populist Party's 1896 vice
presidential candidate. After losing that election, Watson
temporarily retired from politics, returning to the practice
of law. In 1904 and 1908, he agreed to run as the
Populist candidate for president under the People's
Party banner. By the early 1900s, however, the Populist
movement was waning and Watson's presidential run
only attracted marginal voter interest. Despite his earlier
efforts to court black voters, Watson’s racial views had
evolved. Now, he openly called for black
disfranchisement and even expressed support for
lynching. Catholics and Jews also received his disdain.
- GeorgiaInfo.galileo
Georgia History Jan. 23, 2018

 SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that
occurred in Georgia between 1877 and 1918.
 a. Evaluate the impact the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton
Exposition, Tom Watson and the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the
Leo Frank Case, and the county unit system had on Georgia during this period.
 b. Analyze how rights were denied to African-Americans through Jim Crow laws, Plessy v.
Ferguson, disenfranchisement, and racial violence.
 c. Explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, John and Lugenia Burns
Hope, and Alonzo Herndon.
 d. Give reasons for World War I and describe Georgia’s contributions.
 Learning Target: Today, I will can how key people and events impacted Georgia during the New
South movement.
 Mile Stone Review
 Checking: Thinking maps day two notes
 Day 3 notes: Rebecca L. Felton/1906 Race Riot
 Students complete: 1) 5 point inspection reflection on day one notes 2) All
thinking maps 3) Vocab.1-6 4) What I know Thus far 1-133


REBECCA LATIMER FELTON
She is best known as a supporter of
women’s suffrage (the right to vote)
and she also was in favor of
prohibition -the banning of alcohol.
While her husband was a politician,
Rebecca Felton used his political
power to oppose the Bourbon
Triumvirate’s New South movement
because she supported small farmers
in rural areas instead. As a writer for
a newspaper, she openly expressed
her views of white supremacy. She
became the first female US Senator,
but it was only for a day and under
suspect circumstances.
REBECCA LATIMER FELTON
 She is best known as a supporter of women’s
suffrage (the right to vote)
 she also was in favor of prohibition -the banning
of alcohol
 Felton used her political power to oppose the
Bourbon Triumvirate’s New South movement
because she supported small farmers in rural
areas instead industry
 she openly expressed her views of white
supremacy.
 first female US Senator, but it was only for a
day
REBECCA LATIMER FELTON
 She is best known as a______ of
women’s_______ (the right to_____)
 she also was in favor of_______ -the banning
of_______
 Felton used her political_______ to oppose
the________ Triumvirate’s New South
movement because she_______ small farmers
in_____areas instead_______
 She_______ expressed her views of
white_______.
 first female US______, but it was only for a day
So What:_______________________________________________.

pic
pic
Rebecca L. Felton

So Why (details):_____________________________________________.
1906 ATLANTA RACE RIOT
Atlanta had gained a
reputation as a southern city
that prospered under white
and black entrepreneurship as
evident by the success of
Alonzo Herndon and Booker
T. Washington. However,
political candidates like Tom
Watson and Hoke Smith used
the newspaper to spread
racial fears and rumors of
black men attacking white
women. An angry mob of
racist whites killed 26 innocent
black men and wounded 100s
of others. Military troops had
to restore order to the city.
Atlanta was no longer the
same.
1906 ATLANTA RACE RIOT
 Atlanta had gained a reputation as a southern
city that prospered under white and black
entrepreneurship
 Tom Watson and Hoke Smith used the
newspaper to spread racial fears and rumors of
black men attacking white women.
 As a result. An angry mob of racist whites killed
26 innocent black men and wounded 100s of
others.
 Military troops had to restore order to the city.
1906 ATLANTA RACE RIOT
 Atlanta had gained a_______ as a_______ city
that_______ under white and black_________
 Tom_____ and______ Smith used the_______
to spread racial fears and rumors of black men
attacking______ women.
 As a result. An______ mob of_____ whites
killed __ innocent_____ men and wounded
100s of others.
 Military______ had to______ order to the city.
So What:________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________

Pic

So Why (details):_________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
THE LEO FRANK CASE
In 1915, a Jewish man named Leo Frank
was lynched by an angry mob of racist
whites for a crime he did not commit. Leo
Frank had been falsely accused of killing a
young 14 yr old girl named Mary Phagan at
the Atlanta Pencil Factory. He was
sentenced to death in prison but Georgia
Gov. John Slaton changed his sentence to
life in prison even though the evidence
showed Leo Frank did not kill the girl. Tom
Watson called for people to take action and
Leo Frank was kidnapped from prison and
the mob hanged him from a tree near
Marietta Square. An Atlanta preacher
started the rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan by
burning a cross on top of Stone Mountain
because of the Leo Frank case.
THE LEO FRANK CASE

 In 1915, a Jewish man named Leo Frank was lynched


by an angry mob of racist whites for a crime he did not
commit.
 Frank had been falsely accused of killing a young 14 yr
old girl named Mary Phagan at the Atlanta Pencil
Factory.
 Sentenced to death in prison but Georgia Gov. John
Slaton changed his sentence to life in prison even
though the evidence showed Leo Frank did not kill the
girl.
 Leo Frank was kidnapped from prison and the mob
hanged him from a tree near Marietta Square.
THE COUNTY UNIT SYSTEM
Elections were decided by a unit vote and
not by a popular vote of the people. The
population in each county determined
how many unit votes a candidate would
receive. There were 8 Urban counties
that had the most population, but they
only received six unit votes each. There
were 30 Town counties that received four
unit votes each. Finally, there were 121
Rural counties that received 2 unit votes
each. This allowed small rural counties to
have a lot of power in politics, however,
the majority of the population of Georgia
resided in Urban and Town counties. This
system would later be declared
unconstitutional.
THE COUNTY UNIT SYSTEM

 The population in each county determined how many


unit votes a candidate would receive.
 This benefited county that had larger population and
hurt rural areas with less population.
 To help balance the votes, rural areas with less
population received two unit votes, and more populated
counties still only received one unit per county.
 This allowed small rural counties to have a lot of power
in politics
 This system would later be declared unconstitutional.
SS8H7b
Analyze how rights were denied
to African-Americans through
Jim Crow laws, Plessy v.
Ferguson, disenfranchisement,
and racial violence.
Concept:
Conflict and Change
Individuals and Groups
JIM CROW LAWS

After Reconstruction in 1877, conservative white


Democrats regained control of government through
the KKK and black codes that restricted freedmen’s
rights. In order to preserve white supremacy, state
and local governments began to create Jim Crow
laws that segregated (or separated) blacks from
whites in most public settings. Schools, military,
housing, transportation, restaurants, restrooms,
water fountains, and even cemeteries among other
public settings were segregated. Blacks received
inferior facilities and were punished for entering
places designated for whites only. Jim Crow laws
would not be repealed (ended) until the Civil Rights
movements of the 1950s and 1960s.
JIM CROW LAWS

 After Reconstruction in 1877, conservative white


Democrats regained control of government through the
KKK and black codes that restricted freedmen’s rights.
 Local governments began to create Jim Crow laws that
segregated (or separated) blacks from whites in most
public settings.
 . Blacks received inferior facilities and were punished
for entering places designated for whites only.
 Jim Crow laws would not be repealed (ended) until the
Civil Rights movements of the 1950s and 1960s.
PLESSY v. FERGUSON
Supreme Court case in 1896 that
made it constitutionally legal for
racial segregation, as long as
facilities were “separate but equal”.
Homer Plessy, a man with only 1/8th
black ancestry and 7/8 white
ancestry was arrested for riding in a
“whites only” railroad car. He tried to
sue claiming that his 14th
amendment rights had been violated,
however, 7 Supreme Court justices
ruled that is was not against the law
to keep the races segregated. This
ruling allowed racism to go
unpunished in the South.
PLESSY v. FERGUSON

 Supreme Court case in 1896 that made it constitutionally legal for


racial segregation, as long as facilities were “separate but equal”.
 Homer Plessy, a man with only 1/8th black ancestry and 7/8 white
ancestry was arrested for riding in a “whites only” railroad car.
 He tried to sue claiming that his 14th amendment rights had been
violated
 7 Supreme Court justices ruled that is was not against the law to
keep the races segregated.
 This ruling allowed racism to go unpunished in the South.
DISENFRANCHISEMENT
POLL TAX
The 15th amendment of the US Constitution
provided voting rights for African Americans. Angry LITERACY TEST
southern racist whites did not want to let go of their
power in state and local government. In order to
GRANDFATHER CLAUSE
preserve white supremacy, Georgia politicians
began passing laws to restrict or deny
(disenfranchise) the right of blacks to vote in WHITE PRIMARY
elections. Literacy tests and poll taxes were
targeted to keep blacks from voting that had been GERRYMANDERING
denied the right to an education and denied money
for their work because of slavery. However, this
RACIAL VIOLENCE
kept poor & uneducated whites from voting too.
The Grandfather clause gave back the right to vote
to poor whites if they were related to someone who
could vote before 1867, however, since blacks
could not vote prior to 1867 this excluded them
from being able to vote. Other unfair ways to
disenfranchise blacks were white primaries,
gerrymandering, and racial violence by KKK.
DISENFRANCHISEMENT
 The 15th amendment of the US Constitution provided voting rights for
African Americans.
 Angry southern racist whites did not want to let go of their power in state
and local government.
 , Georgia politicians began passing laws to restrict or deny
(disenfranchise) the right of blacks to vote in elections.
 . Literacy tests and poll taxes were targeted to keep blacks from voting
that had been denied the right to an education and denied money for their
work because of slavery.
 However, this kept poor & uneducated whites from voting too, as a result,
they were grandfathered in if they voted in the past and did not have to
take a literacy test nor pay a poll tax
 . Other unfair ways to disenfranchise blacks were white primaries,
gerrymandering, and racial violence by KKK.
RACIAL VIOLENCE
Riots, lynchings, mob attacks,
threats and intimidation were
ways whites were able to
enforce black codes and Jim
Crow laws. The legal system
did very little to protect the
rights of blacks in the South.
Hate groups like the KKK used
violence to keep blacks from
voting or exercising other rights
that were supposed to be
protected in the US
Constitution. Racial violence
also played a role in the Great
Migration of blacks moving to
northern cities.
RACIAL VIOLENCE

 Riots, lynching's, mob attacks, threats and


intimidation were ways whites were able to
enforce black codes and Jim Crow laws.
 The legal system did very little to protect the
rights of blacks in the South
 Racial violence also played a role in the Great
Migration of blacks moving to northern cities.
.
SS8H7b 40

How were the rights of African-Americans STEP 1: COPY THE


denied during the New South movement?
GRAPHIC
ORGANIZER
INFLUENTIAL AFRICAN-AMERICANS
SS8H7c

Explain the roles of Booker T.


Washington, W. E. B.
DuBois, John and Lugenia
Burns Hope, and Alonzo
Herndon.
Concept:
Individuals and Groups
Booker T. Washington

 Washington was born into slavery


 Graduated from Hampton University/helped create the
Tuskegee Institute
 In his Atlanta Compromise speech he argued that
the surest way for blacks to gain equal social rights was
to demonstrate "industry, thrift, intelligence and property
 Many black leaders argued against Washington saying
that he did not do enough for African Americans Civil
Rights
W.E.B. Dubois

 Professor at Atlanta University


 Founded The National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
 He disagreed with Booker T. Washington’s
speech on how African Americans should
achieve racial and social equality in that it
should happen “sooner” rather than “later”.
So what?___________________.

Booker
T. W.E.B.
WASHINGTON DUBOIS

So Why?___________________.
John AND Lugenia Hope

 This married duo were both educators and


dedicated their lives to to improving the quality
of life for African Americans
 John Hope was the first black president of
Moorehouse College.
 Both supported public education and health
care job opportunities and recreational facilities
 Both supported W.E.B. Dubois and the NAACP.
 Lugenia Hope also supported universal
suffrage
Alonzo Herndon

 Former slave and sharecropper


 Became a millionaire from his barber shop
business, rental properties, and insurance
company.
 Was also a founding member of the NAACP
SS8H7c 41

How were African-Americans influential STEP 1: COPY THE


during the New South movement?
GRAPHIC
ORGANIZER
SS8H7d

Explain reasons for


World War I and
describe Georgia’s
contributions.
Concept:
Conflict and Change
Individuals and Groups
WARM JANUARY 26
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
PAGE 42

SS8H7d
How did the US
and Georgia get
involved in World
War I?
REASONS FOR WORLD WAR I
Densely populated
European countries were
economic and political
rivals with one another.
Ethnic conflicts, militarism,
and the assassination of
Austrian-Hungary
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
were causes of World War
I. The US became
involved after German U-
boats sank the Lusitania
ship carrying 128
Americans. US also
feared Germany was trying
to help Mexico invade the
southern part of the United
States known as the
Zimmerman telegram.
REASONS FOR WORLD WAR I

 European countries were economic and


political rivals with one another.
 The US became involved after German U-boats
sank the Lusitania ship carrying 128
Americans.
 US also feared Germany was trying to help
Mexico invade the southern part of the United
States when we intercepted a telegraph called
the “Zimmerman Telegraph” asking Mexico to
go to war against the U.S.
SS8H7d 42

How did the United States and Georgia get STEP 1: COPY THE
involved in World War I?
GRAPHIC
ORGANIZER
Reasons for World Georgia’s
War I Contributions
GEORGIA’S CONTRIBUTIONS
Georgia helped win
WWI by providing over
100,000 soldiers and
many women
volunteers. Military
camps around the state
trained soldiers, pilots,
and doctors and later
became forts that are
still used today for
training. There was
also a prison camp that
housed captured
German soldiers.
Cotton grown in
Georgia made uniforms
and food was sent
overseas to the troops.
Citizens bought Liberty
Bonds and grew Victory
Gardens to help.
GEORGIA’S CONTRIBUTIONS

 Georgia helped win WWI by providing over


100,000 soldiers and many women volunteers.
 Military camps around the state trained
soldiers, pilots, and doctors and later became
forts that are still used today for training.
 Cotton grown in Georgia made uniforms and
food was sent overseas to the troops.
http://www.atlantatimemachine.com/downtown/gradystatue1.htm
http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2913
http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/tdgh-sep/sep05.htm
http://image2.findagrave.com/photos250/photos/2006/338/9300_116537146697.jpg
http://www.blackpast.org/files/blackpast_images/Atlanta_Race_Riot_.jpg
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/frank/paperfrank.jpg
http://georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu/gastudiesimages/County%20Unit%20System%20
2.jpg