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Electrical Wiring Residential

Unit 5
Switch Control
Receptacle Bonding
Conductor Identification
Conductor Identification

1) For alternating-current circuits, The NEC®


requires that the grounded (identified)
conductor have an outer finish that is either
continuous white or gray.
2) The grounded conductor is also called the
neutral conductor.
3) An ungrounded (hot) conductor must have an
outer finish that is a color other than green,
white, natural gray, or gray with three
continuous white stripes.
Unit 5 2
Grounded (Neutral) Conductor

1) For residential wiring, the 120/240 volt electrical


system is grounded by the electric utility at their
transformer, and again by the electrician at the
main service.

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Grounded (Neutral) Conductor
2) By definition a neutral conductor is:
• The conductor that carries only the
unbalanced current from the other
conductors, as in the case of a multi-wire
circuit of three or more conductors.
• The conductor where the voltage from every
other conductor to it is equal under normal
operating conditions.
• By these definitions, the white conductor in a
two-wire branch circuit is not truly a neutral
conductor

Unit 5 4
Color Coding (Cable Wiring)

1) The conductors in nonmetallic-sheathed cable


(Romex) are color coded as follows.
• Two-wire:
One black (“hot” Phase conductor)
One white (grounded “identified” conductor)
One bare (equipment grounding conductor)

Unit 5 5
Color Coding (Cable Wiring)

• Three-wire:
One black (“hot” Phase conductor)
One white (grounded “identified” conductor)
One red (“hot” Phase conductor)
One bare (equipment grounding conductor)

Unit 5 6
Color Coding (Cable Wiring)

Unit 5 7
Changing Colors When Conductors
Are in a Raceway

1) For cable wiring such as nonmetallic-sheathed


cable or armored cable, 200.7(C)(1) and (2)
permits the white conductor to be used for
single-pole, three-way, or four-way switch loops.
2) These code sections require that when used for a
switch loop, the conductor that is white is to be
used for the supply to the switch, and not as the
return conductor from the switch, to the
switched outlet.

Unit 5 8
Typical Colors for Residential Wiring

Unit 5 9
Push-in Terminations

1) Screwless push-in terminals on receptacles are


“listed” by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) for
use only with solid 14 AWG copper conductors.

Unit 5 10
Push-in Terminations

2) They are not to be used with:


• Aluminum or copper-clad aluminum
conductors.
• Stranded conductors
• 12 AWG conductors By design, the holes are
large enough to take only a 14 AWG solid
conductor.
3) Push-in terminals for 12 AWG solid copper
conductors are still permitted on snap switches.

Unit 5 11
Exploded
Receptacle
Diagram

Unit 5 12
Always
pigtail for
more than 2
conductors

Unit 5 13
Receptacle Configurations

15A 15A
125V 250V

20A 20A
125V 250V

Unit 5 14
Conductor Color Coding For Switch
Connections

1) Always connect a white wire to the white (silver)


terminal or to the white wire of a lampholder or
receptacle.
2) Always connect the black switch-leg conductor
(red in some cases) to the black wire (or dark
brassy terminal) of a lampholder or receptacle.

Unit 5 15
Conductor Color Coding For Switch
Connections
3) In cables, always re-identify white conductors
when they are used as ungrounded (hot)
conductors.
• This re-identification must be done wherever
the conductors are visible and accessible.
4) Never use a green colored insulation for a
grounded or ungrounded conductor. Green is
reserved for equipment grounding conductors

Unit 5 16
Connecting Switches, Receptacles, and
Lighting Outlets.
1) A conductor carrying an alternating current
produces a magnetic field (flux) around the
conductor.
2) The greater the current, the stronger the
magnetic field.

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Connecting Switches, Receptacles, and
Lighting Outlets.
3) In alternating current @ 60Hz., the current and
magnetic field reverses direction 120 times
each second.

4) If the conductor is run through a steel raceway,


steel jacketed cable, or a knockout in a steel
box, the alternating magnetic field will induce
heat into the steel.

Unit 5 18
Connecting Switches, Receptacles, and
Lighting Outlets.
5) When all the conductors of the same circuit are
run through the same raceway, the magnetic
fields around the conductors are equal and
opposite, thereby canceling one another out.

6) The NEC® 300.3(B) requires that “all conductors


of the same circuit and, where used, the
grounded conductor, all equipment grounding
conductors and bonding conductors shall be
contained within the same raceway, trench,
cable, or cord, unless otherwise permitted”
Unit 5 19
Connecting Switches, Receptacles,
and Lighting Outlets.

7) NEC® 404.2(A) requires that “three-way and


four-way switches shall be so wired that all
switching is done only in the ungrounded circuit
conductor”.

8) Switch loops do not require a grounded


conductor.

Unit 5 20
Proper Use
of
Conductors
in Romex
Cabling

Unit 5 21
Conductors
in
Trenches

Unit 5 22
Grounded Conductors at Switch
Locations
1) Are grounded (neutral) conductors needed at
switching locations?

• In most cases, the answer is no.

• However, a grounded conductor is required


when a true pilot light is connected at the
switch location.

• In the event that electronic dimming and/or


switching devices are to be used, a neutral
may be required at one or more of the switch
locations. Unit 5 23
Grounded
Conductors
at Switch
Locations

Unit 5 24
Using a
2-Wire
as a
Switch
Loop

Unit 5 25
Using a 3-Wire To Send a Feed
Through a Light

Unit 5 26
3-Way
Switch Line
Diagram
and Graphic

Unit 5 27
3-Way Fed
at Light,
Dead
Ended at
Both Ends

Unit 5 28
4-Way Switch Line Diagram &
Drawing

Unit 5 29
Bonding and Grounding at Receptacles
and Switches
1) A metal box is considered to be adequately
grounded when the wiring method is armored
cable, non-metallic sheathed cable with ground,
or a metal raceway such as EMT.

2) Grounding and bonding of the equipment


grounding conductor to a metal box, switch, or
receptacle is important.

3) Most metal boxes have a No. 10-32 tapped hole


for securing a green hexagon shaped equipment
grounding screw.
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Bonding and Grounding at Receptacles
and Switches
4) To ensure the continuity of the equipment
grounding conductor path, 250.148 requires
that where more than one equipment grounding
conductor enters a box, they shall be spliced
with devices “suitable for the use.”

5) Splices shall not depend on solder!

6) In existing locations where there is no


equipment grounding conductor in a switch box,
and where within reach of a conductive floor
(i.e. concrete, tile, etc), use non-metallic
faceplates.
Unit 5 31
Bonding and Grounding at Receptacles
and Switches

Unit 5 32
Bonding and Grounding at Receptacles
and Switches

Unit 5 33
Various
Listed
Means of
Grounding
and
Bonding

Unit 5 34
A “G-Clip”
is a Great
Way to
Attach a
Ground To
an Existing
Metal Box

Unit 5 35
Timers
1) Timers a unique on that they provide automatic
control of electrical loads.

2) Timers are used where a load is to be controlled


for specific “ON/OFF” times of the day or night.

3) Timers come in a wide variety of styles. Some


fit in switch-boxes, some have weatherproof
cases.

4) Timers can also be used with photocells to


provide even more flexibility for exterior
lighting.
Unit 5 36
Intermatic Timer

Unit 5 37
Photocells

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This Concludes Unit #5

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