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Sedimentary Structures

HANIF INDRA WICAKSANA


BAGUS RACHMAD IRWANSYAH
YAN BACHTIAR MUSLIH

SED. STRAT. 2015

LABORATORIUM SEDIMENTOLOGI DAN STRATIGRAFI


TEKNIK GEOLOGI
UNIVERSITAS DIPONEGORO
2015
Outlines

• Bedding and Lamination


• Basic Concept of Sedimentary Structure
• Hydrodynamics
• Syn-depositional Sedimentary Structures
• Erosional Sedimentary Structures
• Post-depositional Sedimentary Structures
• Biogenic Sedimentary Structures
Hierarcy of Depositional System
Bedding and Lamination
Basic Term in Fundamental Sedimentology

Bedding : thicker than 1 cm.


bounded by bedding planes or bounding planes
Lamination : thinner than 1 cm
common internal structure of beds
Layer : informal term refer to specific beds or lamina
Origin of Beds and Lamina

 Both lamina or beds are defined by changes in


grain size, composition and/or colour that may
be more or less distinct

 Represent changes in style of sedimentation


caused by :
(1) different processes
(2) sediment source, or
(3) depositional environment
Change of sedimentation style

Bedding Plane

Sandstone
Claystone
Important Features

• Bed Thickness
• Bed Geometry
• Bed Boundaries
• Lamination
Bed Thickness
Bed Geometry
Bed Geometry - 2

These types can occur at all different stratification thickness and


order
Bed Boundaries (Contact)

 Irregular (Erosional/Sharp contact)

 Regular (Distinct contact)

 Gradational (Indistinct Contact)


Sedimentary Structure

Sedimentary structures are large-scale features


of sedimentary rocks, that generated by a
variety of sedimentary process include :
Fluid flow
Sediment gravity flow
Soft sediment deformation
Biogenic activity
Sedimentary Structure

INTERACTION

Component Environmental
of Sediment aspects

Physical
Chemical
Biological
Basic of Hydrodynamics
Hydrodynamics : Sediment Transport

GRAVITY
TRACTION
FLOW
Traction : Current – Wave - Tidal
Gravity Flow : Slope
Turbidity Current and Debris Flow

Bird eye view

Cross Section
Syn-Depositional
Sedimentary Structure
Wavy – Lenticular - Flaser
Example
Cross Lamination/Bedding/Stratification
Relationship : Grain size and Velocity
Ripple
Paleocurrent Analysis
Interpretation from Paleocurrent
Analysis
 Paleoslope
 Direction and pattern of depositional system
 Location of highland
 Geometry of layer
 Depositional environment (?)
Post Depositional Deformation &
Dewatering Sedimentary Structure
Load, Flame & Pseudonodules
• Forms as a result of differential sinking of one
bed into another – typically sand into mud.
Slides & Slumps
• Mass displacement of unstable sediment due
to action of some external trigger (e.g.
earthquake, excess load ), common to all
slopes.
• Slides show little internal deformation over a
basal slip zone
• Slumps show internal folding (recumbent &
asymmetric) and associated thrusting .
Slumps
Convolute
• Results from flow induced shear and frictional
drag on incipient ripples-asymmetric and
overturned in flow direction.
Overturned Cross-lamination
• Formed over steepened ripple/dune foresets
collapse in a down flow direction, generally as
a result of over-rapid deposition from high
energy sediment charge flows.
Contorted lamination
• Formed as a result of water escape disrupting
the lamination.
Mudcrack
• Formed through drying up of
the surface layer of (muddy)
sediment on subaerial
exposure leading to
shrinkage, cracking and infill
– typically polygonal form,
cm to m scale.
Erosional Sedimentary Structure
Scour and Fill
• A crescent or horshoe shaped depression that
form around a larger stationary obstacle ( e.g.
pebble, wood/fossil fragment) on the bed
surface.
Flute Marks
• Similar to obstacles scours but form as an
result of fluid erosion without and obstacle.
Groove Mark
• Formed when objects being carried by
currents impact or scrape along the sediment
surface.
Riil Marks
• Form as a small-scale dendritic channel
network due to water run-off over sand or silt
mud slopes that are periodically exposed
subaerially.
Post-depositional and erosional
application of sedimentary structure
BIOGENIC
SEDIMENTARY
STRUCTURE
Indtroduction
• Ichnology involves the study of traces
produced by organisms (both animals and
plants) on or within a substrate, and
includes all issues related to bioturbation,
bioerosion, and biodeposition (Pemberton
et al., 1992a; Bromley, 1990, 1996).
Characteristics of trace fossils
• Trace fossils represent evidence of behavior
• The same organism may produce more than one ichnotaxon
• The same ichnotaxon may be produced by more than one organism
• Multiple architects may produce a single structure
• Producers are commonly soft-bodied animals that are rarely
preserved
• Trace fossils are commonly preserved in rock units that are
otherwise unfossiliferous
• The same biogenic structure may be differentially preserved in
various substrates
• Trace fossils commonly have long stratigraphic ranges
• Trace fossils are rarely transported
Preservation of Trace Fossils
Ethology of trace fossils
• Resting traces or cubichnia
• Locomotion traces or repichnia
• Grazing traces or pascichnia
• Dwelling traces or domichnia
• Feeding traces or fodinichnia
• Traps and farming traces or agrichnia
• Escape traces or fugichnia
• Equilibrium traces or equilibrichnia
Ichnofacies
Pemberton, 2001
Marine – Softground Ichnofacies
Marine – Softground Ichnofacies
Substrate-Controlled Ichnofacies
Trace Fossils and Paleoenvironment
• Hydrodynamic energy
Trace Fossils and Paleoenvironment
• Hydrodynamic energy
• Substrate
• Oxygenation
• Salinity
• Sedimentation rate
• Food Supply
• Bathymetry
• Water Turbidity
• Climate
• Water Table
Trace Fossils and Paleoenvironment
• Substrat
Trace Fossils and Paleoenvironment
• Oxygenation
Trace Fossils and Paleoenvironment

• Salinity
Trace Fossils and Paleoenvironment

• Sedimentation Rate
Trace Fossils and Paleoenvironment

• Food Supply
Wave-Dominated Shallow Marine
Ichnofacies Distribution
Trace Fossils of Deep-Marine Clastic
Environment
ChemOGENIC
SEDIMENTARY
STRUCTURE
Introduction
• From the point of deposition, through
progressive burial, and as a result of uplift and
exposure, the physico–chemical conditions
within a sedimentary succession lead to a
variety of chemogenic structures. These may
destroy, disrupt or even enhance primary
features, and in some cases mimic primary
structures. In all cases they yield information
about the physico–chemical changes that have
affected the sediment to date.
Chemogenic Sedimentary Structure
• Hardground
Chemogenic Sedimentary Structure
• Nodules or Concretion
Chemogenic Sedimentary Structure
• Geodes
Chemogenic Sedimentary Structure
• Cone-in-cone
Chemogenic Sedimentary Structure
• Dendrites
Chemogenic Sedimentary Structure
• Compaction, pressure dissolution, and cavity
structures
“Sesungguhnya
dalam penciptaan langit dan bumi,
dan pergantian malam dan siang
terdapat tanda-tanda (kebesaran Allah)
bagi orang yang berakal”
-Q.S. Ali Imran: 190-

Longshore Bar of
Modern Fluvial-Dominated Demak Delta
Cortesy by : AAPG UNDIP SC Database
Central Java - 13.08.15