You are on page 1of 15

BUILDNING MATERIALS :

AGGREGATES
AGGREGATES
 Sand and stone chips are collectively known as
aggregates.
AGGREGATES
TYPES OF AGGREGATES
Aggregates are classified as :
 Fine aggregates

 Coarse aggregates
FINE AGGREGATES
 The material which passes through I.S. Sieve of size 4.75
mm and retained on I.S. Sieve No. 5 (0.05 mm) is
considered as Fine aggregate
e.g. Natural sand, surkhi etc.

 The Fineness Modulus should be between 2 to 3.5 (an


empirical factor determined by finding the cumulative
percentage of material retained on the set of I.S. Sieves
and then dividing the sum by 100)
(Fineness Modulus Test).
COARSE AGGREGATES
 The material which passes through an 80 mm sieve and
retained on 4.75 mm sieve is considered as Coarse
aggregate.
e.g. Pebbles, gravel, crushed rock etc.

 If the size of aggregate is 4.75 to 30 mm it is called fine


gravel.
 If 30 to 80 mm it is called coarse gravel.

 The Fineness Modulus should be between 6 to 8.5 .


SIZES OF AGGREGATES

SIZE APPLICATIONS

200 to 75 mm Mass concrete, foundation Dams

50 to 75 mm Road work

24 to 40 mm Plain concrete work

15 to 20 mm R.C.C. work

10 to 12 mm Thin R.C.C. sections, curtain walls


USES OF AGGREGATES
USES OF AGGREGATES

 Aggregates are used in construction to provide


drainage, fill voids, protect pipes, and to provide hard
surfaces.

 They are also used in water filtration and sewage


treatment processes. Water will percolate through a
trench filled with aggregate more quickly than it will
through the surrounding soil, thus enabling an area to
be drained of surface water.

 This is frequently used alongside roads in order to


disperse water collected from the asphalt surfacing.
USES OF AGGREGATES

 They are used to make concrete aggregates,


 Aggregates can be used as a road base and coverings
and for road stabilization,
 To form asphaltic concrete aggregates and other
bituminous mixtures
 Aggregates can be used as construction fill
 They are useful in the manufacture og concrete
products such as blocks, bricks, pipes, etc.,
 They serve as a railroad ballast
LIGHT WEIGHT AGGREGATES
 A type of concrete which includes an expanding agent in that it
increases the volume of the mixture while giving additional qualities
such as nailability and lessened the dead weight.

 A lightweight inert material, such as foamed slag, vermiculite,


clinker, and perlite, used in unreinforced concrete for making
structures of low weight and high insulation are termed as Light
weight aggregates.

 It is lighter than the conventional concrete with a dry density of 300


kg/m3 up to 1840 kg/m3 ; 87 to 23% lighter.
LIGHT WEIGHT AGGREGATES
 Lightweight aggregates can be processed natural materials (for
example expanded clay or expanded shale), processed by-products
(for example foamed slag or sintered pulverized fuel ash) or
unprocessed materials (for example pumice).
TYPES OF LIGHT WEIGHT AGGREGATES
 ARTIFICIAL AGGREGATES

CINDERS - Cinders used as aggregates are residues from high-


temperature combustion of coal or coke in industrial furnaces. Cinders
from other sources are not considered suitable.

EXPANDED SLAG - Expanded slag aggregates are produced by treating


blast-furnace slag with water.

EXPANDED SHALE AND CLAY - All expanded shale and clay aggregates
are made by heating prepared materials to the fusion point where they
become soft and expand because of entrapped expanding gases.
TYPES OF LIGHT WEIGHT AGGREGATES
 NATURAL AGGREGATE

PUMICE - Pumice is the most widely used of the natural lightweight


aggregates. It is a porous, froth-like volcanic glass which is usually
white-gray to yellow in color, but may be red, brown, or even black.

SCORIA - Scoria is a vesicular glassy volcanic rock.

VERMICULITE - Vermiculite is an alteration product of biotite and


other micas.

PERLITE - Perlite is an amorphous rock formed by condensation of


volatile components, such as lava or magma, which flowed into a lake
on the ground surface, cooling it very rapidly. It usually has gray,
brown, and blue in color, and its major components are SiO2 and
Al2O3
APPLICATIONS OF LIGHT WEIGHT AGGREGATES

 Light weight aggregates can be used both for insulation


purposes and to reduce settlement and improve stability
of fills on soft subsoil.

 It has many and varied applications including multistory


building frames and floors, bridges, offshore oil platforms,
and prestressed or precast elements of all types