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Packed Bed

Column
Done by:
Amal Jamal Eddin 1050893
Sara Alhallaq 1051713
Zaina AlDhaheri 1046702
Saniha Aysha Ajith 1051470

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Introduction

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Absorption - Selected components are removed
from a gas mixture depending on their relative
solubility in a specific liquid.

Two types

Physical Chemical
Absorption Absorption

Examples: Absorption
Example: Removal of
of carbon dioxide using
ammonia, sulfur dioxide,
sodium carbonate
carbon dioxide or acetone
solution and Scrubbing
from a mixture with air
ammonia from gas
using water
stream using acid solution
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Packed bed columns
• Hollow columns filled with
small packing pieces
• Liquid stream is introduced
at the top and a gas stream
at the bottom
• Absorbed component
leaves at bottom while he
unabsorbed components
from top.

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• Packing inside the column: available in
different shapes and types of material
• Increase the surface area to provide better
transfer

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Theory

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Loading point – lowest gas flow where surface is wetted and gas
impedes the liquid.
Flooding point – Point where gas will force liquid out of top of
the column.

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𝐾𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠 𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛:
∆𝑃𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑜𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 0.115 𝐹𝑃0.7

𝐸𝑐𝑘𝑒𝑟𝑡 𝑃𝑙𝑜𝑡
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𝐺𝑦2 𝐹𝑝 𝜇0.1 F=
𝐺𝑥 𝜌𝑦
Capacity factor, ψ = 𝐺𝑦 𝜌𝑥 − 𝜌𝑦
𝜌𝑥 − 𝜌𝑦 𝜌𝑦

Plot of ψ against φ will yield a straight line through origin.


The slope is equal to pressure drop packing factor 𝐹𝑝

𝐺𝑦2 𝜇0.1
Transport property factor, φ =
(𝜌𝑥 − 𝜌𝑦 )𝜌𝑦

1 1
Zena Correlation: 𝑉 + 𝑄 = 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
3 2

Flooding gas rate Flooding liquid rate 9


Experimental Set-up

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Main constituents of a packed bed
column
• Glass Raschig rings
• A water storage tank
• A centrifugal pump
• A centrifugal air blower
• Sensors
Electronic flow meter
Temperature Sensors
Electronic air flow sensor
Electronic pressure sensors
• An electric console box.
(pressure drop ,flow rates and temperatures
readings)

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Procedure

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• Switch on the water pump and set it to a flow rate of 2 L/min.
1 • Let the water completely wet the column and stabilize.

•Open the valve to let the air flow start and set it to 20 L/min
2 •Note down P1 and P2 (pressure differential).

•Continue increasing the air flow rates in equal intervals of 10 L/min , note down
3 P1 and P2 , and record both loading and flooding points.

• Turn off the air line.


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•Repeat previous steps for the water flow of 5 L/min,6 L/min , 7 L/min, 8 L/min.
•For water floe rates of 7 and 8 L/min increase air flow rates in equal intervals of 5
5 L/min since loading and flooding points appear faster.

• Turn off the air line, decrease the water flow rate to 0 L/min, switch off the water
6 pump and finally close turn off the power supply.

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Safety
Considerations

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Wear appropriate PPEs including: Lab coats
Safety goggles
Hard covered shoes
Durable clothing and high-impact gloves.

Mechanical hazards: Explosion through the top of the packed bed column.
Solution: switch off the air supply into the column.

Physical hazards: The huge size of equipment Solution: It should be handled with
care.
Loud noise Solution: wear ear protection gear if necessary.

Electrical hazards: Using the electrical console and wiring with wet hands

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Data Collected

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Water flow rate of 2 (L/min)
Gas Flow Pressure
T1 T2 P1 P2
rate Differential P1+ Remarks
(L/min)
(oC) (oC) (mbar) (mbar)
P2 (mbar)
20.0 19.6 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
30.0 19.6 20.0 0.2 0.1 0.3
40.0 19.6 20.0 0.4 0.3 0.7
No loading or
50.0 19.5 20.0 0.6 0.5 1.1
flooding points
60.0 19.6 20.1 0.8 0.7 1.5
70.0 19.6 20.1 1.3 1.0 2.3

Water flow rate of 5 (L/min)


Gas Flow Pressure
T1 T2 P1 P2 Remarks
rate Differential
(oC) (oC) (mbar) (mbar)
(L/min) P1+ P2 (mbar)
20.0 19.8 20.8 0.2 0.2 0.4
30.0 19.8 20.6 0.7 0.6 1.3
40.0 19.8 20.5 1.1 1.5 2.6
50.0 19.8 20.4 1.8 2.7 4.5
60.0 19.9 20.5 3.0 4.3 7.3* Loading point

70.0 19.9 20.5 5.4 6.3 11.7 # Flooding point


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Water flow rate of 6 (L/min)
Pressure
Gas Flow
T1 T2 P1 P2 Differential
rate o
Remarks
( C) (oC) (mbar) (mbar) P1+ P2
(L/min)
(mbar)
20.0 20.0 20.5 0.3 0.4 0.7
30.0 20.0 20.4 1.0 1.5 2.5
40.0 20.0 20.4 2.2 3.8 6.0* Loading Point
50.0 20.0 20.5 4.1 5.9 10.0
60.0 20.1 20.7 12.1 9.6 21.7 # Flooding Point

Water flow rate of 7 (L/min)


Pressure
Gas Flow rate T1 T2 P1 P2
Differential
(L/min) (oC) (oC) (mbar) (mbar)
P1+ P2 (mbar)
20.0 20.2 20.4 0.3 1.1 1.4
25.0 20.5 20.3 1.7 3.3 5.0
30.0 20.5 20.3 4.0 4.9 8.9* Loading Point
35.0 20.5 20.4 5.7 5.7 12.0
40.0 20.5 20.4 7.8 7.8 16.0
45.0 20.5 20.5 16.4 16.4 27.3 # Flooding Point
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Water flow rate of 8 (L/min)
Gas Flow T1 T2 P1 P2 Pressure
rate o
( C) o
( C) (mbar) (mbar) Differential
(L/min) P1+ P2
(mbar)
20.0 20.3 20.4 1.1 3.6 4.7* Loading point
25.0 20.4 20.4 5.8 7.3 13.5
30.0 20.4 20.4 6.7 10.5 17.2
Flooding point
35.0 20.4 20.4 8.6 11.3 19.9 #

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Results

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Water Gy 𝑷𝟏 + 𝑷𝟐 log Gy 𝑷𝟏 + 𝑷𝟐
flow rate 𝒌𝒈 𝐥𝐨𝐠
𝑳 𝑳
[L/min] [ 𝟐 ]
𝒎 .𝒔 𝒎𝒃𝒂𝒓
[ ]
𝒎𝒊𝒏
2 0.08 0.00 -1.09
0.12 0.21 -0.91 -0.67
0.16 0.50 -0.79 -0.30
0.20 0.79 -0.69 -0.10
0.24 1.07 -0.61 0.03
0.28 1.64 -0.55 0.22
Water Gy 𝑷𝟏 + 𝑷𝟐 log Gy 𝑷𝟏 + 𝑷𝟐
flow rate 𝒌𝒈 𝐥𝐨 𝐠
[ 𝟐 ] 𝑳 𝑳
𝒎 .𝒔
[L/min] 𝒎𝒃𝒂𝒓
[ ]
𝒎𝒊𝒏
5 0.08 0.29 -1.09 -0.54
0.12 0.93 -0.91 -0.03
0.16 1.86 -0.79 0.27
0.20 3.21 -0.69 0.51
0.24 5.21 -0.61 0.72
0.28 8.36 -0.55 0.92

Water Gy 𝑷𝟏 + 𝑷𝟐 log Gy 𝑷𝟏 + 𝑷𝟐
flow 𝒍𝒐𝒈 ( )
𝒌𝒈 𝑳 𝑳
rate [ ]
𝒎𝟐 . 𝒔 𝒎𝒃𝒂𝒓
[L/min] [ ]
𝒎𝒊𝒏
6 0.08 0.50 -1.09 -0.30
0.12 1.79 -0.91 0.25
0.16 4.29 -0.79 0.63
0.20 7.14 -0.69 0.85
0.24 15.50 -0.61 1.19
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Water Gy 𝑷𝟏 + 𝑷𝟐 log Gy 𝑷𝟏 + 𝑷𝟐
flow rate 𝒌𝒈
𝒍𝒐𝒈 ( )
[ 𝟐 ] 𝑳 𝑳
𝒎 .𝒔
[L/min] 𝒎𝒃𝒂𝒓
[ ]
𝒎𝒊𝒏
7 0.08 1.00 -1.09 0.00
0.10 3.57 -0.99 0.55
0.12 6.36 -0.91 0.80
0.14 8.57 -0.85 0.93
0.16 11.43 -0.79 1.06
0.18 19.50 -0.74 1.29

Water Gy 𝑷𝟏 + 𝑷𝟐 log Gy 𝑷𝟏 + 𝑷𝟐
flow 𝒌𝒈
( ) 𝒍𝒐𝒈 ( )
[𝒎𝟐 .𝒔] 𝑳 𝑳
rate
[L/min]
8 0.08 3.36 -1.09 0.53

0.10 9.64 -0.99 0.98

0.12 12.29 -0.91 1.09


0.14 14.21 -0.85 1.15

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Log pressure losses gradient vs. log gas flow rate

2.00

1.50

Log (P1+P2)/L (mbar/m)


1.00

0.50

0.00
-2.00 -1.80 -1.60 -1.40 -1.20 -1.00 -0.80 -0.60 -0.40 -0.20 0.00

-0.50

-1.00

Log Gy (kg/m2.s)
Water Flow Rate 2(L/min) Water Flow Rate 5(L/min) Water Flow Rate 6(L/min)
Water Flow Rate 7(L/min) Water Flow Rate 8(L/min)
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Pressure drop packing factor, Fp, using experimental pressure drop at
flooding

Water flow 𝚫𝑷𝒇𝒍𝒐𝒐𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝚫𝑷𝒇𝒍𝒐𝒐𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒈 Fp Error


rate 𝒎𝒃𝒂𝒓 𝒊𝒏 𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝒊𝒏 𝒘𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓 [%]
[ ] [𝒇𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒑𝒂𝒄𝒌𝒊𝒏𝒈] [𝒇𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒑𝒂𝒄𝒌𝒊𝒏𝒈]
[L/min] 𝒎 𝒐𝒇 𝒑𝒂𝒄𝒌𝒊𝒏𝒈

5 8.36 1.02 22.72 96.66


6 15.50 1.90 54.91 91.92
7 19.50 2.39 76.22 88.78
8 14.21 1.74 48.52 92.86
Average 50.59 92.55

Fp from Eckert plot


Water Gx Gy Fp Capacity Fp Fp Error [%]
Flow [
𝒌𝒈
] [
𝒌𝒈
] factor [m-1] [ft-1]
𝒎𝟐 .𝒔 𝒎𝟐 .𝒔
[L/min] [Ψ]
5 16.58 0.28 2.04 0.02 483.72 147.44 78.29
6 19.89 0.24 2.86 0.01 403.67 123.04 81.88
7 23.21 0.18 4.45 0.01 369.71 112.69 83.41
8 26.52 0.14 6.53 0.00 366.69 111.77 83.54
Average 123.73 81.78 24
Plot of capacity factor, Ψ, versus transport factor property, 𝝋
Capacity Factor Vs. Transport Property Factor
0.00450

0.00400 y = 123.73x + 2E-18

0.00350

Capacity Factor (Ψ)


0.00300

0.00250

0.00200

0.00150

0.00100

0.00050

0.00000
0.00000 0.00001 0.00001 0.00002 0.00002 0.00003 0.00003 0.00004
Transport property factor (𝝋)

Slope of the plot = 123.73, which is equal to the pressure drop packing factor, Fp.
The error is equal to 81.78%.
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Experimental Eckert plot based on the experimental data:
Gx Capacity
Gy
Water Flow Air flow Flow factor factor
𝒌𝒈
[L/min] [ 𝟐 ] [L/min] 𝒌𝒈 [F]
𝒎 .𝒔 [ ]
𝒎𝟐 .𝒔 [Ψ]
20 0.08 2.86 0.0003
30 0.12 1.91 0.0007
40 0.16 1.43 0.0013
2 6.63
50 0.20 1.14 0.0021
60 0.24 0.95 0.0030
70 0.28 0.82 0.0040
20 0.08 7.15 0.0003
30 0.12 4.76 0.0007
40 0.16 3.57 0.0013
5 16.58
50 0.20 2.86 0.0021
60 0.24 2.38 0.0030
70 0.28 2.04 0.0040
20 0.08 8.58 0.0003
30 0.12 5.72 0.0007
6 19.89 40 0.16 4.29 0.0013
50 0.20 3.43 0.0021
60 0.24 2.86 0.0030
20 0.08 10.01 0.0003
25 0.10 8.00 0.0005
30 0.12 6.67 0.0007
7 23.21
35 0.14 5.72 0.0010
40 0.16 5.00 0.0013
45 0.18 4.45 0.0017
20 0.08 11.44 0.0003
25 0.10 9.15 0.0005 26
8 26.52
30 0.12 7.62 0.0007
Experimental Eckert Plot
0.0045

0.004

0.0035

Capacity Factor (Ψ)


0.003

0.0025

0.002

0.0015

0.001

0.0005

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Flow Factor (F)

Water Flow Rate 2(L/min) Water Flow Rate 5(L/min) Water Flow Rate 6(L/min)
Water Flow Rate 7(L/min) Water Flow Rate 8(L/min)

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Calculations of pressure drop packing factor from the
experimental Eckert plot

Water Flow Gx Flow Experiment Fp Fp Error


[L/min] [
𝒌𝒈
] factor al capacity [m-1] [ft-1] [%]
𝒎𝟐 .𝒔
[F] factor
[Ψexp]
5 0.28 2.04 0.0041 123.76 37.72 94.45
6 0.24 2.86 0.0030 123.53 37.65 94.46
7 0.18 4.45 0.0017 123.48 37.64 94.46
8 0.14 6.53 0.0010 123.45 37.63 94.46
Average 37.66 94.46

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Zena Correlation:

Gx Gy
V Q
𝒌𝒈 𝒌𝒈 V1/3 + Q1/2
[ 𝟐 ] [ 𝟐 ] [ft3/ft2.min] [Gal/ft2.min]
𝒎 .𝒔 𝒎 .𝒔
16.58 0.28 45.69 24.41 8.52
19.89 0.24 39.16 29.29 8.81
23.21 0.18 29.37 34.18 8.93
26.52 0.14 22.84 39.06 9.09
Average 8.84

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Sample Calculations

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EP
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Conclusion

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 Packed Bed Column experiment is important to
learn, observe and determine the flooding and
loading points.
 It was recognized that the pressure drop increases
as the gas flow rate increases.
 At higher water flow rates, the flooding and loading
points were observed faster.

 Kister’s  Eckert Plot  Ψ vs. 𝝋 Plot


Correlation
Δpavg = 123.73ft-1 Δpavg = 123.73ft-1
Δpavg = 50.59 ft-1
%Error = 81.78% %Error = 81.78%
%Error = 92.55%

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How to improve the experiment?

Repeat the experiment several times until


efficient results are established.
Take smaller intervals for the gas flow rate.
Install an automatic valve control.
Use the computer software to record the
results.

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Any Questions?

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• [1] E. Gomes and I. Zuburtikudis, Heat Exchanger Experiment. Abu Dhabi: Abu Dhabi
University, 2017.

• [2] "Experiment (5) Absorption with Chemical Reaction", 2017. [Online]. Available:
https://classes.engineering.wustl.edu/2009/fall/che473/handouts/PackedBed.pdf. [Accessed:
28- Oct- 2017].

• [3] "Plant Operations: Packings", Separationprocesses.com, 2017. [Online]. Available:


http://www.separationprocesses.com/Operations/POT_Chp02f.htm. [Accessed: 28- Oct-
2017].

• [4] "Application of Packed Bed Column Distillation in Industry | Distillation | Chemical


Process Engineering", Scribd, 2014. [Online]. Available:
https://www.scribd.com/doc/219202796/Application-of-Packed-Bed-Column-Distillation-in-
Industry. [Accessed: 29- Oct- 2017].

• [5] "Packed bed - encyclopedia article - Citizendium", En.citizendium.org, 2013. [Online].


Available: http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Packed_bed. [Accessed: 29- Oct- 2017].

• [6] Packed Bed Column. 2017.

• [7] Random vs. Stacked Packings. 2017.

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