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# Welcome You All

Beam
 If axial force be negligible compare to its capacity then the
member is call Beam.
The force will act perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the
beam.
The main governing forces of beam are shear force, bending
moment, torsion.
Objectives:
• To know about the flexural analysis of beam.
• To know how to design of Beam.
• To know about the various design parameters.
• Gain the concept of analysis of RC beam.
Classification of beam according to
reinforcement
 Singly reinforced beam.
 Doubly reinforced beam.
Classification of beam with respect to
support condition
 SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

 FIXED BEAM

 CANTILEVER BEAM

 CONTINUOUS BEAM

 OVERHANGING BEAM
Behavior of a beam under loads
Assumptions:
 Plane sections before bending remain plane and perpendicular to the N.A. after bending.
 Strain distribution is linear both in concrete & steel and is directly proportional to the distance from
N.A.
 Strain in the steel & surrounding concrete is the same before the cracking of concrete or yielding of
steel.
 Concrete in the tension zone is neglected in the flexural analysis & design computation.
 Concrete stress of 0.85f’c is uniformly distributed over an equivalent compressive zone.f’c = Specified
compressive strength of concrete in psi.
 Maximum allowable strain of 0.003 is adopted as safe limiting value in concrete.
 The tensile strain for the balanced section is fy/Es.
Design Conditions:
1) Stress elastic and sections uncracked:
 Tensile strength of concrete fct <Modulus of rupture fr
 Compressive stress of concrete fc << ½ f’c
 Tensile stress in steel fs < fy yield strength of steel

## 2) Stress elastic and section cracked:

 Tensile strength of concrete fct > Modulus of rupture fr
 Compressive stress of concrete fc < ½ f’c
 Tensile stress in steel fs < fy yield strength of steel
Singly Reinforced
Reinforcement is provided in tension zone only
Flexural Design Equations
Singly Reinforced Beam
Strain compatibility
Rectangular
beam
analysis Actual steel ratio Maximum steel ratio

## Over Yes No Under

reinforced reinforced
beam beam

## Ultimate moment Nominal moment

Calculating
1

No Yes
Calculating, 

Yes

No
No

Yes
design Maximum steel ratio
ultimate
moment
known
Singly Yes Doubly
No
reinforced reinforced
beam beam

Let
Doubly reinforced beam
 If concrete section cannot develop the required compressive force to resist the
compression.
Resisting Moment
Strain compatibility

## ACI recommended that f’s

be equal to twice this value
Doubly Concrete
reinforced Actual steel ratio Maximum steel ratio section, Area
of steel are
beam known
analysis
Yes No Doubly
rectangular
reinforced
beam
beam

## Compression bar No Yes Compression and

does not reach in tension bar reach
yielding in yielding

f’s
REFERENCES
1. Structural Concrete by M. Nadim Hassoun
2. Design of Concrete structure by Nilson (7th, 12th ,14th edi.)
3. Different Slides From SlideShare.net